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AMERICAN NATURALIST, 



AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



A. S. PACKARD, Jr., and EDWARD D. COPE. 



Prop. C. E. BESSEY, Department of 
Prof. C. V. RILEY, Department of E 
Prof. O. T. MASON, Department of i 
Prof. H. CARVILL LEWIS, Departme: 
ELLIS H. YARNALL, Dep. of Geograi 
Dr. R. H. WARD, Department of Mi< 



VOLUME XVI. 






CONTENTS. 



ineae, 584; Popul 



Contents. 






.ds of Pupation amon 




, CM 












Cynipi. 








,rm Eggs, prices and v 












Sntomological Notes, 




. Garni, 



■opology. 66 ; Anthropoloj 






few Phyllopod and PhyIlo( 






ang.uu->c 'mineral, 338 ; 
,338; Spiral figures in c 






Contents. 

2 S 8 ; Arctic Exploration, 259 ; Explorations in Equator 



838; African Exploration, 839; Deep-sea Explorations, 
ife,i 7 o;The Acme mior ,l pes, ,61 ; Ymen «. S ., 






AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xvi. — JANUARY, 1882. — No. 1. 
THE BLIND CAVE FISHES AND THEIR ALLIES. 



A N unusual interest attaches to everything relating to the blind 
•**- fishes of the caves, partly because of their peculiar depriva- 
tion and the compensation for it afforded by the development of 
special sensory structures more useful to them in their subterran- 
ean situation than eyes would be, and partly because the origin of 
their peculiarities has proved an inviting subject of speculation 
and discussion with reference to the doctrine of natural selection. 
In the careful papers of Mr. F. W. Putnam, 1 especially, we find 
accurate descriptions of the genera and species, and a clear state- 
ment of opposing views respecting the derivation of these little 
fishes. 

. A strict evolutionist passes, perhaps too easily, from the idea 
of the unbroken, rayless night in which the blind fishes live and 
seem to have lived for ages, to that of their atrophied eyes and 
highly developed epidermal organs of sense— connecting these at 
once as cause and effect on the strength of his general theory. In 
papers written, one nine and the other seven years ago, Mr. ^Put- 
nam presented, partly in criticism of previously published ex- 
planations of Mr. Cope,- facts and considerations which seemed to 
him to break the force of the argument based by evolutionists upon 
the peculiar adaptation of the blind fishes to their surroundings, 
and even to compel the conclusion that the darkness of their situ- 



2 The Blind Cave Fishes and their Allies. [January, 

ation did not bring about the atrophy of their eyes, the develop- 
ment of their special organs of sense, or the bleaching of their 
skins. 

The discussion seems not to have been carried further ; and I 
now revive the subject because the study of a new species closely 
allied to the blind fishes, which has recently been discovered in 
Illinois, enables me to contribute a few facts which throw addi- 
tional light upon it. 

In the papers cited, it is argued, in brief, that the conclusions 
as to adaptation based upon the absence of functional eyes and 
the extraordinary development of tactile organs in Amblyopsis 
and Typhlichthys are negatived by the fact that in Chologaster, an 
equally subterranean genus, tactile organs are wanting, and eyes 
are fully developed. If genera without eyes, and another genus 
with them, are found living under the same conditions, the infer- 
ence is obvious that the conditions cannot have caused this dif- 

The possible rejoinder that Chologaster may still retain its eyes 
because it has had a shorter subterranean history, and has not yet 
become so thoroughly adapted to cave life as its predecessors, is 
forestalled by the argument that we have no right to assume that 
Chologaster is a later inhabitant of underground retreats than the 
blind fishes, until at least one specimen of the former has been 
found in the outer waters in the vicinity of the caves. The same 
reasoning is applied to the difference of color — Amblyopsis being 
colorless and Chologaster brown. 

On page 232 of the Naturalist for March, 1881, I briefly 
described a single specimen of Chologaster obtained by Mr. F. 
S. Earie from a spring in Southern Illinois; but did not under- 
take to decide, from a single example, whether it belonged to a 
distinct species or not. Seven additional specimens obtained by 
the same gentleman from the same place, agree so closely with 
the one.previously found that it is evident that all belong to one 
species, and I have no longer any doubt that this is distinct from 
the two previously described. 1 

^Chologaster papilli/i-rus, n. s. The head is broad and flat, contained three and a-half 
in the length of the head, and is placed above and behind the tip of" the maxilla- 



1 882.] The Blind Cave Fishes and their Allies. 3 

The most important and interesting peculiarity of this species 
indicates a more advanced stage of adaptation to a subterranean 
life than that of its congeners. On all the surfaces of the head 
appear short rows of peculiar tubercles, relatively wider than the 
papillae of Amblyopsis, but also apparently shorter. They are 
much the largest about the anterior nostril and on the lower jaw, 
and are larger on the side of the head than on its upper surface. 
While the papillae of Amblyopsis are set on ridges of the skin, 
those of this Chologaster are somewhat sunken within it, and 
often placed in grooves ; and it is not until they are freed from 
the adjacent epidermis by dissection, that their full height is seen. 
When thus exposed they closely resemble the papillae of Ambly- 
opsis in form and size, and are similarly cupped at the tip. Aver- 



everywhere minutely mottled black and white. The fins are all nearly or quite 
oncolorous, except the caudal, which is minutely marked with rows of white specks 
'ii a dusky ground. These ;■ t ions of the fin rays. There 

- usually a dusky vertical bar at base of tail. The dorsal and anal fins are thick and 
leshy, their height about equal to their length, the former with six and the latter with 

On all surfaces of the head, peculiar tubercles or papilla: occur in short rows, 

unken in grooves of the skin. They are also larger on the side of the head than 



mg a little behind and within the eye. Then follow about eight short, irregularly 



■■;-■ ;/;■■■•-: ■ ^ " : - : .. ■■.'.:'■■ ■• 



4 The Blind Cave Fishes and their Allies. [January, 

age examples from the largest sub-maxillary row measured .01 
in height by half that width. I found no projecting filament, 
however, in any of the cups, such as is described and figured by 
Professor Wyman in the papers of Mr. Putnam already cited. 
The interior structure of the papillae also differs greatly from that 
of Amblyopsis, as the latter is represented by Professor Wyman. 
In Amblyopsis, according to that eminent anatomist, each papilla 
is supplied with a nerve fiber which terminates in a short, flexible 
filament springing from the middle of the concavity in the tip of 
the papilla. In the Chologaster each papilla is likewise pene- 
trated by a nerve fiber, which is very easily traced, even without 
the help of reagents, because of the black pigment in the neu- 
rilemma, but this nerve passes to an epidermal " end organ" pre- 
cisely similar in structure to those minute bodies found abun- 
dantly embedded in the skin of the head of young fishes, and 
belonging to the same general class as those sensory structures 
which occupy the lateral line. 

This "end organ," or " nerve button," which fills the interior 
of the distal third or half of the papilla, is a nearly globular mass 
of cells, partly various modifications of the columnar, and partly 
spindle-shaped or spherical, each of the latter with a filamentous 
prolongation at one or both ends. The nerve fiber of the papilla 
passes, without division, to the inner end of the cell-cluster, 
where its fibrils appear to continue into the filamentous processes 
of the cells. Having no fresh material for the osmic acid treat- 
ment, I could not positively demonstrate the terminations of the 
fibrils. These are evidently simple examples of that class of 
structures to which a supposed "sixth sense " of fishes and am- 
phibians has been assigned, and by which these animals are be- 
lieved to appreciate motions of the water and wave lengths lon- 
ger than those of sound. 

The importance of well developed structures of this character 
to fishes without the use of the sense of sight, is very manifest. 
The close general resemblance between these organs and those 
described for the blind fishes, taken in connection with their simi- 
lar situation,- arrangement and apparent use, is probably sufficient 
evidence that the two kinds are homologous. 1 

1 Is it not possible that the specimens of Amblyopsis studied by Professor Wyman 
were not perfectly preserved, and had lost more or less of their superficial epithel- 
ium, and with this the "nerve buttons" from the tips of their papilla;? Some color 



1 882.] The Blind Cave Fishes and their Allies. 5 

Recurring now to the argument of Mr. Putnam, we note that 
the discovery of a species of Chologaster which frequents exter- 
nal waters of an immediately subterranean origin, supplies all 
needed proof that the genus either has a shorter subterranean 
history than Amblyopsis, or, at any rate, has remained less closely 
confined to subterranean situations ; and that in either case the 
occurrence of eyes, partial absence of sensory papillae and per- 
sistence of color, are thus accounted for consistently with the 
doctrine of " descent with modification." 

The extraordinary development, in only a part of the genus, of 
a special sensory apparatus peculiarly useful to a fish unable, for 
any cause, to see, points the same way, and gives evidence of a 
progressing adaptation of these fishes to their unusual abode. 

The intermediate relation of the sensory tubercles of Cholo- 
gaster to the much smaller ones of young fishes and the perma- 
nent papillae of Amblyopsis, points out the evident origin of the 
last through the permanency and higher evolution of structures 
commonly evanescent in the young. 



especially the naked am 


\ nearly naked kinds, ar 


o usually covered with an ep 


idermis 


several layers deep, and 


by the further fact that 


the papillae of Chologaster wc 








; paper (except for the filam 




the former were denude 


d, as supposed. 












specimen of Amblyopsis 


with the epidermis intac 


■t over considerable areas of tr 


lehead. 






sse regions at once showed ! 




rectness of my surmise, t 


hat they are in Amblyopsis, as in the new Chologaste 


r, to be 








simply 


more highly developed 






young 


fishes. Each papilla he 






similar 




1 ; and I have little doi 


ibt that the figures of Prof. ' 








dentally lost their sensory cells. The 


"filaments" seen hy hi] 


n on two or three of th 


e papillae were probably remi 


iants of 


the cell clusters. Thee 


T-.i dermis of the head is not composed of a single 


layer of 


delicate cells, as described by him, but of at lea 








large spherical or oval 




t, and a 


superficial layer of thin, 1 


flat cells. The epiderm 


i> is. in fact, so thick that it 


almost 










A fuller account of th< 


:se structures will be gi 


yen in another article. 





A Singular Parasitic hopod Crustacean and [January, 



THE material for the present paper 2 was obtained from the 
common prawn of our shores, 3 Palczwonetes vulgaris Stimp- 
son, 4 about ten per cent, of which I found infested, in June, 1881, 
with a Bopyrus ( Bopyrus palcsinonelicola Packard 5 ), probably the 
same species which Professor Joseph Leidy mentioned as occur- 
ring near Atlantic city, N. J. 6 The female of our Bopyrus 
averages in size from 3.50 to 4.50 mm in length, and 3 to 4 mm in 
width. Its ventral side is invariably turned toward the carapace of 
the prawn and its marsupium or breeding cavity is usually filled 




with minute yellowish eggs of a nearly spherical form. From 
three hundred to three hundred and fifty eggs are contained in 
this cavity; the latter being formed by the prolonged lamellate 
margins of the thoracic segments. 

The body of the female is of a whitish color, and as in all 



xS^^fFJ 


eiNihnft fii 


r Median i 
(B.»|.ynis an 


md Naturw 

,1 Cryptoni- 


--I 




ten, Vol. 


» Read before 






























• note in Sci 












'Annals Lye 


eum Nat. H 




, Vol. x, p. 




871. 




5 Zoology foi 


• High Sch> 


doIs and Co 


lieges. By 


A. S. 


Packard, Jr. 


1881,3d ed. 














6 Proceedings 


Academy of Nat. Sciei 


ices, 1879. 


See 


also 


Report 


Isopoda of Net 


,v England. 


By Professor Oscar Hi 


lifer. 


P- 


312. 



1 882.] Some of its Developmental Stages. J 

members of this family, is somewhat distorted and unsymmetri- 
cal, one side having narrower segments than the other, and is 
therefore of a triangular shape. 

Degeneration as a result of parasitism is manifested in the 
absence of eyes as well as antennae proper, in the clumsy form of 
the feet and the much reduced mouth-parts. The head evidently 
consists of two unequal fleshy lobes. The dorsal cephalic lobe 
is triangular and somewhat unsymmetrically placed, the ventral 
lobe is of subquadrate shape, anterior angles produced, posterior 
angles rounded, with the middle of its posterior part prolonged 

Of the mouth parts I was unable to find more than one pair of 
maxillae inserted at the sides of the ventral cephalic lobe. They 
constitute a flat, roundish, terminal piece, the palpus, with nine 
marginal hyaline tentacles j 1 the basal joint is connate with and 
obliquely inserted into the median lobe. A number of muscle- 
nerves (muscle and nerve together) run to the tip of the basal 
maxillary joint, some of which enter the palpus, others (three) 
distribute themselves along the outer tip of the former, entering 
three longer and stouter marginal tentacles. A beautiful den- 
dritic arrangement of black pigment is found near the base of the 
palpus. 

From underneath the body of the ventral cephalic lobe arise 
a number of narrow, ligulate, gill-like appendages, which are, in 
the live animal, kept in constant rapid paddling motion. 2 Viewed 
under higher microscopic power, they exhibit a granular struc- 
ture with longitudinal, hyaline, evidently lacunary canals. If it 
was not for their abnormal position near the anterior part of the 
body and their structure, I should regard them as gills, but to be 
consistent, am obliged to see in them paddling organs for the 
purpose of aerating the eggs or embryos contained in the mar- 

The seven pair of feet are curved forward and downward, and 
terminate in an indistinct hook-like knob. The black pigment is 
very irregularly distributed in the feet, some are all yellowish, 
others but slightly pigmented, and again others are nearly all 
black. This I have observed in live specimens, and it seemed to 

1 Compare with C. Spence Bate and J. O. Westwood's History of the British ses- 
sile-eyed Crustacea, Vol. u, p. 218, fig. 9. 
J C. SpenceB.Ueand J. O. Westwood, op. citat. p. 220. * * * furnished with 



8 A Singular Parasitic Isopod Crustacean and [January, 

me that, when black, the pigment is centrally located in the legs. 
The thoracic segments have, as apparently in all Bopyridae, their 
margins prolonged into more or less lanceolate pigmented lamel- 
lae. To these lamellae the feet are attached. The lamellae attached 
to the first pair of feet is a small, beautifully pigmented oval lobe, 
and its entire margin is fringed with delicate tentacles. The sec- 
ond and third pair of feet have very broad lamellae, with forward 
directed sub-ovate tip, and with their anterior margins fringed. 
The fourth, fifth and sixth pair of foot-lamellae are short, broad 
and irregularly triangular pieces; seventh lamella very long, nar- 
row, lanceolate. 

The marsupium is an open, roundish cavity, surrounded by the 
above-mentioned lamellae, and covered by the carapace of the 

The abdomen is deeply segmented, and ventrally provided 
with roundish appendages overlapping each other in the median 
line. I have closely observed the live females, and doubt that 
those abdominal appendages functionate as gills. They consist 
of a larger thick fleshy lobe, and a smaller, still thicker roundish 
piece. They are the degenerate postabdominal legs, characteris- 
tic of the order of Isopoda. Usually four, but sometimes six 
pairs of the thoracic epimera are more or less black pigmented. 

The male averages about i m,n in length by 0.25 mm in width. 
Head with a pair of lateral pigment eyes. Head and seven 
thoracic segments black pigmented, the pigment exhibiting, beside 
the ordinary form, a pretty stellar arrangement. 

Anterior angles of thoracic segments oblique, abdominal seg- 
ments four, pale, their margins perfectly round, segments gradu- 
ally becoming narrower toward the terminal median piece, which 
is minute, and, on treating with acetic acid, is seen to consist of 

The last of the thoracic segments, not being as fully pigmented 
as all the preceding, exhibits dorsally a twisted, serpentiform 
(bretzel- shaped) marginal ornamentation. 1 Eight pairs of legs 
with powerful claws. Antennae apparently two-jointed, first joint 
club-shaped, with five minute bacilli on its tip, second joint much 
narrower, about one-quarter as long as the first, with six bacilli 
at its tip. 



1882.] 
The 



Some of its Developmental Stages. 



es were removed from under the lobes of the 
abdomens of the females (one male in each female, and always on 
the same spot) and placed on paper wetted with salt water, where 
they slowly walked about in a sideways direction. The females 
moved their legs to and fro, and contracted their abdomen only 
on touching the ventral appendages. They kept rapidly paddling 
with their gill-like cephalic appendages as mentioned above. I 
presume that the male and female get their necessary aeration 
through the motions of the gills of the prawn, and as the em- 
bryos are laterally covered by the marsupial lobes of the females, 
and exteriorly by the carapace of the prawn, the additional fan- 
ning of the female cephalic appendages is intended for aerating 
the eggs or the embryos only. The functions of the gills in the 
carapace of the prawn infected with the Bopyrus, are undoubtedly 
impaired through the presence of the latter, thus shortening the 
life of the former; the lessened aeration conditions but one brood 
of the Bopyrus; both adults of the latter gradually die off in ratio 
with the prawn. 2 The embryos after quitting their larval skin, 




FIG, 2.—Bo/>yrus pahtmoneiicola Pack. 


, much enlarged. 






view of male; D, male, side view; (*) c 


, eggs; in, male. 


1 This is also the case with Cymothoa, 


according to Pr< 


Annals Mag. Nat. History, Ser. v, Vol. 2, 






>f the family Cyr 


2 The suggestion that the Cpyrus and it 




ported by several experiments '>>' placing 


separately about 






stance the infected prawns died several hou 


irs before the non 



are, what Bate and Westwood have already hinted at, in their 
highest and most advanced stage ; the organs of sense and mo- 
tion being proportionately larger and better developed at that 
period of their existence than ever after. In this free stage the 
young get their aeration through the entire integument. I sup- 
pose that after the brood of larvae have left the marsupium of the 
female, they will actively swim about in the sea, attaching them- 
selves, if possible, to egg-clusters of female prawns; 1 with the 
young of the latter they simultaneously grow up, and enter 
their branchial cavity in pairs at an early period of life. 

In June, 1881, I found a few (out of several hundred) live 
females with males, the former with empty marsupia, which fact 
led me to believe that this Bopyrus may produce more than one 
brood, but the few cases may either be exceptions or, what is 
more likely, the broods had just left their marsupia, leaving the 
parents to their fate. 

The following observations were made on the eggs and em- 
bryos taken from the marsupium of live female specimens. The 
specimens were obtained during May, June and July this year 
(1881), and the number of more advanced developmental stages 
was not at all augmented in the latter month, nor was this the 
case with a lot received late in August. By far the greater num- 
ber of prawns, regardless of sex,' 2 exhibited through their trans- 
parent carapace the yellowish eggs of the female Bopyrus, nearly 
all, with but a few exceptions, showing under the microscope the 
peripheric blastoderm cells within which a larger or smaller, en- 
tire or subdivided yolk-mass could be distinguished (see PI. 1, 
fig. 1). The few exceptions just mentioned showed, when viewed 
from the side, the budding limbs and segments very indistinctly, the 
two body-ends however, head and tail (pleon) being more dis- 
tinct, exhibiting the form seen in PI. 1, fig. 3. Those prawns 
which showed through their swollen carapace a more grayish 
mass, contained the Bopyrus embryos invariably in their larval 
skin, a drawing of which is seen in PI. 1, fig. 2. 

These embryos contained a central undifferentiated yolk-mass, 
with a few yellow oil-globules and some larger orange-colored 

1 Bate and Westwood, p. 217. 



1 882.] Some of its Developmental Stages. II 

pigment masses, the latter being nearer the dorsal line. It must 
be understood that the embryo in Isopod crustaceans is bent 
backward, head and tail nearly touching each other, the limbs, on 
the other hand, being in the peripheric layer. In Fig. 4 an em- 
bryo is shown freed from the egg-skin or chorion,. thereby turned 
into its opposite direction, concave ventral and convex dorsal 
side. A pereiopod or thoracic leg ; the end of the abdomen (tel- 
son) with the last pair of legs (uropods), a pleopod, one of the 
second pair of antennae with dd— ? remnants of earlier embryonic 
bristles — are shown respectively in Figs. 4, 4a, 4 b, 4c, and ^d. 
By working with the dissecting needles, the embryo (in Fig. 4 
freed from the chorion, but still enclosed in its larval skin) with 
some difficulty could also be freed, limb after limb, from its lar- 
val skin (amnion), then appearing as in the much enlarged Fig. 5. 
This, as has already been said, is the highest and most advanced 
stage of the Bopyrus, which, under favorable circumstances, will en- 
ter the gill-cavity of the earlier developmental stages of the prawn, 
where it, as the prawn advances, will, when a female, lose its eyes, 
both antennas, the uropods, etc. ; while the pleopods will deform 
into the abdominal lobes and from the seventh free segment will 
bud a pair of legs. But if a male, where does the eighth pair of 
thoracic legs originate from? From the first pair of pleopods ? I 
should rather infer that the pair of uropods will yield the eighth 
pair of legs in the male. The fact that the male has no abdominal 
appendages (so-called gills of the female) gives strength to the 
assumption that the eighth pair of legs in the male are derived 
from one pair of the pleopods, since the former (female) have 
the same origin. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 
Flu. 1.— Egg after segmentation. 
a. Blastoderm-cells. 



A Singular Parasitic Isopod Crustacean, etc. [January, 



o. Twelfth to sixteenth segment (abdominal segments, pleopods concealed). 
t. Telson, uropods covered beneath the dorsal bent. 
Fig. 3. — Profile view of embryo; dorso-ventral. 
a. Head. 

Fig. 4.— Older embryo in larval skin. Lateral view. 

Fig. 4<z. — Telson or fourteenth segment with the uropods of Fig. 4 in larval si 

Highly magnified. Showing pigment. 
Fig. 4<J. — One of the pereiopo ■ larval skin. 



dd. Remnant, of eai 
Fig. 5.— Latest larval stage. 



per. The six pereiopods. 
/. s. Seventh free segment 
plpd. The five pleopods. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Fig. 6.— Stellar form of pigment of adult male; from dorsal 
Fig. 7. — Leg of adult male Bopyrus. 
Fig. 8. — Antenna of male B. magnified 500 X- 
FlG. 9. — One of the maxillae with palpus of the female. 
arthr. Original joint. 

/. Maxillary palpus with nine tentacles. 
/. Disconnected part (from the other half). 
ft. Anterior free lobe. 



Fig. II. — Outline of one of the abdominal appendages (gills) of female. 

/. Smaller, thicker lobe, put aside. 
Fjg. 12. — Schematic figure showing position of the two maxilhe underneath the 



1 882.] The Heterogony of Oxalis violacea. 1 3 

THE HETEROGONY OF OXALIS VIOLACEA. 

BY WILLIAM TRELEASE. 

IN May of the present year, after collecting specimens of the 
violet wood-sorrel about Madison, Wis., I noticed that I had 
succeeded in getting two well-marked forms of flowers, in one of 
which the pistils were considerably longer than the stamens, 
which were in two sets of slightly different length, while in the 
other the pistils were shorter than either set of stamens. On the 
supposition that these were respectively the long-styled and 
short-styled forms of a trimorphic species, careful search was 
made for the mid-styled form. In a class exercise in analysis, 
something over one hundred plants were studied, but only the 
two forms above mentioned were found, and in nearly equal num- 



o 



Fig. 1 .—Long-styled flower of Oxalis violacea. I 
the same species. Magnified eight diameters. 

bers. An examination, made by myself, of the flowers of about 
a hundred additional plants, from different localities within an 
area of a few miles, gave a similar result. 

Up to this time no accurate record of the number of plants of 
either form, or of the absolute lengths of stamens and pistils had 
been made, attention having been given only to the presence or 
absence of mid-styled flowers, and, in a general way, to the relative 
abundance of the two forms which were found. Alter this eighty- 
one flowers, gathered at random from as many plants, were care- 
fully examined, and it was found that in fifty-one the styles were 
nearly twice as long as the average of both sets of stamens, 
while the styles of the remaining thirty were shorter than either 



14 The Hcterogony of Oxalis violacca. [January, 

set of stamens, the latter being about equal to the pistils of the 
long-styled flowers. These forms are represented in Figs. I and 
2. The measurements of the flowers referred to, are given in the 
following tables: 



5 

7 

«3 

n.'.y..'. ... 

23".'.'.". ■...•■ '.'...'■'■'. 

47 

4* 



1882.] 



The Hetcr agony of Oxalis viol ace a. 
TABLE IT.— Oxalis violacf.a. 



Flower Numbers. 






Short Stamens. 




2.5 " 
2.5 •« 

3- ;; 


5- ;; 

5- '* 
5- " 

5-4 " 
5-4 " 
5- " 

51 ;; 

5- ;; 

5- " 

5- ;; 




















































;s 


U :: 












3-5 ;; 








|EE::::::::::::: 


3.8 « 










5:::::::::::::::::::::::: 


I ■■ 



Though both stamens and pistils vary in length, as might, in- 
deed, be expected from the fact that the flowers are by no means 
of uniform size, a glance at the tables and appended diagram 
shows that, as a rule, the styles of either form are intermediate in 
length between the two sets of stamens belonging to the other 
form ; while the difference between the stigmas and the nearest 
set of anthers is, in cither, greater than that between the stamens 
themselves, both differences being nearly constant for both long 
and short-styled flowers. 

This is slightly different from the usual arrangement of the 
parts in trimorphic species, as may be seen by comparing Figs. I 
and 2, representing the species under consideration, with Figs. 3, 
4 and 5, after Hildebrand, representing the trimorphic 0. gracilis. 
That the long stamens of the long-styled flowers, amfthe short 
stamens of the short- styled flowers stand at different heights— 
as may be most clearly seen by comparing the lines a and />' in 
the diagram— and not at the same height, is, it seems to me, oi 



The Helerogony of Oi 



some importance. In trimorphic plants too, the pollen grains 
from the two sets of stamens of a given flower commonly differ 




Measurements of Pollen from Long-styled Flowers 



44 " X 24 " ! 40 " X 24 ' 



1832.] 



The Heterogony of Oxalis violacea. 





TAJ 


li: t\ 


—Oxalis vi 


JLACEA. 




Men 


nremcn 


01 J\ 


lenfrom Shor 


t styled I'hnvers. 




Flower 


Vumbors. 


1 


Long Stamens. | Short St 


mens. 



3 1 S 2 " X 32 " I 48" X 28 " 

These grains were measured dry, immediately after removal 
from newly gathered flowers. It will be seen that those from 
both sets of stamens in any flower, are nearly equal in diameter ; 
while, as is usual in heterogenous plants, those from the short- 
styled flowers are larger than those from the long-styled. 




The facts indicated appear, so far as they go, to point to 
dimorphism rather than trimorphijsm in this species; although 
with truly trimorphic plants, one or even two of the forms may 
occasionally be absent from a given district. Concerning the 
local occurrence of but two forms of trimorphic plants, Mr. Dar- 
win 1 says : <( Fritz Muller formerly believed that a species of 
Oxalis, which is so abundant in St. Catharina that it borders the 
roads for miles, was dimorphic instead of trimorphic. Although 
the pistils and stamens vary greatly in length, as was evident in 
some specimens sent to me, yet the plants can be divided into 
two sets, according to the lengths of these organs. A large pro- 

1 Different Forms of Flowers on Flants of the same Species, p. 180. 



1 8 The Heterogony of Oxalis violacea. [January, 

portion of the anthers are of a white color and quite destitute of 
pollen ; others which are pale yellow contain many bad with 
some good grains ; and others again which are bright yellow 
have apparently sound pollen; but he has never succeeded in 
finding any fruit on this species. The stamens in some of the 
flowers are partially -converted into petals. Fritz Miiller after 
reading my description * * * of the illegitimate offspring 
of various heterostyled species, suspects that these plants of 
Oxalis may be the variable and sterile offspring of a single form 
of some trimorphic species, perhaps accidentally introduced into 
the district, which has since been 'propagated asexually." A case 
somewhat similar to that of Oxalis violacea about Madison, is 
afforded by a Brazilian species of Pontederia, of which Fritz 
Miiller 1 found only long and short-styled flowers. An important 
difference, however, is found in the measurements of the pollen 
from the different sets of stamens of a given flower; for "the 
pollen grains distended with water from the longer stamens of the 
short-styled form are to those from the shorter stamens of the 
same form as ioo to 87 in diameter, as deduced from ten meas- 
urements of each kind. * * * Moreover, the longer stamens 
of the long-styled # form of Pontederia, and the shorter ones of 
the short-styled form are placed in a proper position for fertilizing 
the stigma of a mid-styled form." 

" With respect to the absence of the mid-styled form in the case 
of the Pontederia which grows wild in Southern Brazil," Mr. Dar- 
win adds, " this would probably follow if only two forms had been 
originally introduced there; for, as we shall hereafter see from 
the observations of Hildebrand, Fritz Miiller and myself, when 
one form of Oxalis is fertilized exclusively by either of the other 
two forms, the offspring generally belong to the two parent- 

Whether in 0. violacea we are dealing with a case of this sort, 
or whether the species is dimorphic, can only be definitely decided 
by the examination of many specimens collected over as large a 
range of territory as possible, and it is to be hoped that those 
who have the opportunity will make observations of this sort. 
Meantime it seems not improbable that the plant is dimorphic ; 
and although dimorphic species are as yet unknown in this genus, 

1 Jenaische Zeitschr., VI, 1871, p. 74, fide Darwin. 1. c, p. 184. 



1 882.] Forests — their hi j u n 'fall. 19 



so far as I am aware, the occurrence of both homogone and tri- 
morphic species gives some reason for looking for still others 
which are dimorphic. In writing this I am perfectly aware that 
Hildebrand 1 has examined a few herbarium specimens of O^oio- 
lacea, finding eight long-styled, three short-styled, and one mid- 
styled plant in the -twelve specimens examined. The constant 
lack of correspondence in our specimens between the sets of 
stamens which should correspond, however, leads one to wonder 
if a mistake may not have been made, especially since a slight 
discrepancy exists between the numbers cited and the summary, 
in the paragraph cited. 

Both the long and short-styled flowers are visited by small bees in 
considerable numbers, the more common being Nomada bisignata, 
Ccratuia dupla, Augochlora pnra y an Osmia, and several species 
of Halictus. These insects are attracted by the nectar which is 
secreted, apparently, by the papillose bases of the petals, and 
which is protected from rain, &c, by pubescence on the styles in 
the long-styled flowers, and on the filaments in the other form. 
As a result of these visits, some flowers of both kinds produce 
capsules, which are by no means uncommon, although by far the 
greater number fall away without bearing any fruit. 



FORESTS— THEIR INFLUENCE UPON CLIMATE AND 
RAINFALL. 

BY J. M. ANDERS, M.D., PH.D. 

'THAT there exists some sort of relation betwixt forests and 
A conditions of climate, perhaps most observers would be ready 
to concede. Many attempts have been made to explain how forests 
affect atmospheric states, but there is great diversity of opinion 
on the subject, and, indeed, the question to-day remains some- 
what involved in obscurity. As every one knows, there was a 
time when forests were considered almost inexhaustible. It is 
also a well-known fact that the destructive hand of man began, 
centuries ago, to fell rapidly these abundant forests, and changes 
of climate and fertility of the soil have, in numerous regions, 
been attributed solely to this denudation of the land. On exam- 
ining the literature of the subject, it is found that the balance of 
^onatsber. Berlin Akad., June 21, 1866, p. 357. 



20 Forests — their Influence upon Climate and Rainfall. [January, 

argument and opinion is decidedly on the side of the baneful 
effects of the destruction of forest growth, the testimony of some 
of the best scientific minds of different ages being very strong on 
this point 

It is but fair to say, however, that not a few observers of note 
deny any effects of woods on the moisture and other conditions 
of the atmosphere; and even stranger still, it has been declared 
that the climate of the Western States has, if anything, been im- 
proved by the denudation of forests ; but this assertion rests, 
we think, on too slender evidence to be entitled to credence. It 
may be safely assumed that forests favorably affect the meteoro- 
logical conditions. Our subject presents many difficulties owing 
chiefly to the fact that numerous causative elements enter 
into the question, some of which are of a conflicting tendency, 
and though a question so confessedly intricate may perhaps never 
be susceptible of solution, nevertheless any new light on the sub- 
ject, however faint the ray, must be considered welcome. 

One of the ways in which forests are usually considered to 
exert an influence over the climate, is by obstructing the free 
passage of wind currents. This is an element of the question 
which is, perhaps, better established than, any other, but is of too 
great importance to be disposed of in a summary manner. It is 
evident that trees are well adapted to break the force of the wind ; 
the branches, and particularly the leaves, on account of their im- 
mense numbers and close proximity, serve as efficient barriers, 
and the trunk holds up the bushy top and defies the tempest, 
while roots in turn are continually extending their grip on mother 
earth in order to support the trunk. And it can be readily under- 
stood that the particles not checked by the first row of trees to 
the windward, would have their force diminished and be promptly 
checked by the trees to the rear. In this wise belts or clumps of 
trees afford shelter to the leeward of them from the chilly, or 
even frigid blasts, which are known in many localities to be very 
unfavorable to the maturation of fruit-crops and harvests. Of little 
less importance, perhaps, is their effect in protecting from the 
drying winds -of summer, which are frequently the cause of 
blighted crops and other mischief, due to their power to enhance 
evaporation from vegetation and from the soil during the dry sea- 
son. For this reason woods are also needed even on our coast. 
The sea breezes as they strike the land become warmed, their 



1 882.] Forests— their Influence upon Climate and Rainfall. 21 

capacity for moisture is .thereby increased, and naturally absorb 
with avidity the earth's moisture and produce a drying effect. It 
is plain to be seen then, that woods by intercepting cold currents 
and drying winds, mitigate extremes — rendering summer less sul- 
try and winter less severe, though they may not materially affect 
the mean temperature. In like manner they must tend to obviate 
the injurious consequences of cold spring and autumn winds, and 
thereby relatively lengthen the warm season or term of vegetable 
development. This is a highly important office, since some crops 
are slow in maturing. 

The experiment has been tried extensively in France of plant- 
ing trees in belts one hundred meters apart, and with marked 
benefit to the climate, and there are some good reasons for be- 

country, would prove equally advantageous. It has been observed 
many times that fruit grown in the city surpasses in quality and 
size that grown in the country, and this is ascribable to the more 
effectual shelter in the former place. 

The wind as it courses over an open country conveys with it a 
variable quantity of moisture, which, though usually invisible, is 
always present in the atmosphere, which is likewise arrested by 
the forest. Now what becomes of this moisture ? The air is 
forced up by the side of the woods to the tops of the trees just 
as in the case of a low mountainous elevation, and owing to the 
attraction between its particles and the constant vis a tergo caused 
by fresh currents from behind, the volume does not stop here but 
rises higher. When the temperature of the air above is lower 
than that in the forest, as is sometimes the case when storms pre- 
vail, then there would also be an upward current from the tree 
tops. It is usually considered that in this manner forests in- 
crease the aggregate general rainfall, viz., by causing ascending 
currents to sufficiently high regions for the moisture to be con- 
densed into clouds and rain, and this has been held by some to 
be the only way in which they influence precipitation. Meteoro- 
logical science has, however, established the fact that rain is gen- 
erally formed from one to two miles above the* surface of the 
earth, and it would scarce be possible that an obstruction no 
higher than an ordinary forest could, per se, be capable of raising 
the vapor-laden .air to this extent and could not actually increase 
the rainfall. On the other hand, when forests are situated on ele- 



22 Forests — their Influence upon fall. [January, 

vated ridges or mountains of moderate elevation, they may have 
the effect of extending the influence of the latter a step further in 
producing an upward current to the cooler regions, or condensing 
area, and in this manner greatly assist local precipitation. It is 
now a settled fact that high mountains augment the rainfall in them- 
selves or even to some little distance from their bases. The Alps 
of Switzerland are known to modify and greatly influence the 
course of storms. We repeat it then, that forests resemble high 
altitudes as regards their mechanical action in affecting the rainfall, 
but owing to their meagre height, can scarce be said to have any 
influence (mechanically) over this phenomenon except they are 
situated upon the latter, in which case their action may tell con- 
siderably. Forests do, however, affect local precipitation through 
certain vital functions, as will be seen by and by. 

No other influence which forests exert upon atmospheric con- 
ditions can claim so large a share of importance as that exercised 
on its humidity. The explanation of their effect on this meteor- 
ological element is to be found mainly in a study of some of the 
organic processes carried on by trees, but to a slight extent also 
to a mechanical action. The evaporation from the soil is inter- 
fered with by the vegetable canopy above, which prevents, in a 
great measure, the sun's rays from reaching the earth and heat- 
ing it so as to facilitate evaporation. Again, by forming a more 
or less perfect screen interposed between sky and earth, forests in 
a measure intercept the dew and lighter rains, allowing but a por- 
tion of this moisture to reach the earth. 7/ has been estimated 
that the evaporation from the soil of the forest is rather more than 
one-third as great as that from open soil, but this lessened surface 
evaporation is much more than compensated for by transpiration of 
the forest, as zvill be indicated by the remits of our investigations. 

The question of the influence of the organic functions of plants 
on the humidity of the air, is one of paramount importance and 
great philosophic interest. Whatever effect plants have through 
these processes must be due either to the exhalations of moisture 
from the leaves (transpiration) or to the absorption of moisture by 
the leaves. The latter idea, as formerly taught and until recently 
held by most authorities, is now most probably shown to be erro- 
neous. According to the researches of Unger 1 the theory of the 
absorption of the watery vapor by the leaves is untenable. 2 My 

^Vilhelm der Baden und der wald, p. 19, quoted by Marsh. 

-The writt-j u^'iet-, tint the det.uK uf th< ..■ .. :;,..„•. .kv n, t nrrpeciKU 



1 882.] Forests — their A ate and Rainfall. 23 

own -observations tend to confirm the conclusions of Unger. A 
growing pot plant (geranium) in a thrifty condition was experi- 
mented with. The whole of the pot was covered with a double 
layer of oiled silk, and the free portion accurately adjusted 
around the base of the stem, on which it was tied with elastic 
cord. Thus prepared, no evaporation could take place from the 
soil in the pot, and what is of more importance still, no moisture 
could be thus supplied to the roots excepting that which was 
contained in the soil in the pot. The plant was now placed under 
a glass case which was situated over a shallow box in which there 
was about four inches of soil which was kept saturated so that 
the evaporation from it kept the air of the glass chamber quite 
moist. The whole arrangement was placed near a window with 
a southern exposure, the plant catching the rays of the sun for 
about five hours of the day in clear weather. In this situation 
the plant remained quiescent or dormant so far as any visible 
growth or development was concerned, for about two weeks, 
when it began to look languid and the margins of the leaves be- 
gan to change in color and to show slight signs of foiling nutrition. 
The explanation of this apparently long state of hybernation in 
the plant is simple. The air in the case being too moist to allow 
of scarce any transpiration, the plant retained the moisture in the 
pot for purposes of nutrition only, and since the plant most prob- 
ably grew but little during that period, there was quite sufficient 
water in the pot for its uses for so long a time. At the end of the 
two weeks the plant was taken out of the glass case and placed 
in a sick chamber with the same exposure, in which three dozen 
other thrifty plants were situated. The oil silk was allowed to 
remain on and no water was supplied to the roots of the plant. 
The atmosphere of the chamber was noticeably moist to the 
senses, though agreeable. Here the sun's rays had an opportu- 
nity of exciting the plant to transpire actively, and, as a conse- 
quence, in a few days nutritive change became very decided, 
leaf after leaf drying until at the end of another fortnight only a 
couple much withered leaves were left on the plant. 

Now this experiment is not sufficiently conclusive to assure us 
that absorption of moisture by the leaves is impossible ; but it 
certainly must show to the satisfaction of every one that not 
sufficient water can be taken in through them to carry on the 
normal functions of the plant, and renders it extremely probable 
the only source of moisture to the plants is through the roots. 



24 Forests — their Influence upon Climate and Rainfall. [January, 

On the other hand actual observation has shown that transpi- 
ration is carried on with almost incredible activity — the rate at 
which aqueous vapor is given off by plants being- more than one 
and a quarter ounces per square foot of leaf surface for twelve diur- 
nal hours. 1 Let the reader reflect upon the vast expanse of leaf 
surface of a single tree giving off vapor at this rate, and then let 
him consider the number of trees in a forest of only a few acres, 
the number being variously estimated at from 150 to 600, and 
multiplying these two factors he will be able to form some ap- 
proximate idea of the enormous amount of aqueous vapor sup- 
plied to our atmosphere in the most acceptable form. 

During the past summer I have instituted a series of experi- 
ments with the view of determining the amount of water vapor- 
ized from known areas of leaf surface, land surface and water 
under similar circumstances, in order that a more nearly correct 
estimate of evaporation from these various sources might be 

A pot plant having one square foot of leaf surface was carefully 
prepared — in the manner previously described — so as to pre- 
vent any evaporation from the pot in which it was growing. 
Another glazed pot was filled with soil (a light clay loam) so as 
to expose a surface area of only twenty-four square inches, the 
pot being about the same size as that containing the plant, and 
the depths of the pot very nearly six inches. The plant was 
sufficiently watered to keep it in a thrifty condition, while the 
earth in the plantless pot was kept generally well saturated. 
Both were equally exposed to the outer air. The evaporation 
from earth and plant was now tested simultaneously by weighing 
the two pots at stated intervals, and it was found that the mean 
evaporation was, in fair weather, nearly equal for the two sources, 
with a slight preponderance on the side of the soil. For fourteen 
consecutive days of clear and partly cloudy weather, the mean 
transpiration from the plant was a little over one and a quarter 
ounces, and the evaporation from the soil one and a third ounces. 
This would place the rates of evaporation of equal areas of leaf 
and land surface, under like circumstances of exposure, at about 
six to one in favor of the soil, that is to say, one square foot of 
soil will evaporate six times as much as one square foot of leaf sur- 

!" Transpiration of Plants," American Naturalist for March, 1878, by the 
author. , 



1 882.] Forests— their I ■ . dfe and Rainfall. 2$ 

face. This will appear quite plain when it is remembered that 
the extent of the leaf surface was six times as great as that of the 
soil, and that the total diurnal evaporation was so nearly equal 
from the two sources. These experiments were several times 
repeated, and with about similar results. 

Now if it were known how many times greater the leaf surface 
of a great forest than the land on which it was situated, it might 
with ease be computed what is the relative evaporation from a forest 
and an equal area of open country. From personal observation 
and computation, we think it safe to assume that the leaf surface 
of a wood is at least twelve times greater than the ground on 
which it stands, so that at the above rate the transpiration from 
the forest would still be nearly twice as great as the evaporation 
from an equal area of free soil. It should be mentioned also that 
the evaporation from the earth in this case was under the most 
favorable circumstances, and the state of the ground as regards 
moisture was very like that of the open earth directly after a 
moderate rain. It was found by testing to be nearly equal to 
that given off by a similar area of water. 1 It would appear cer- 
tain, then, from these investigations, that more water is emitted to 
the atmosphere from a forest than from an equal body of water, 
and in this there is a confirmation of the experiments of Wil- 
liams who computed that the evaporation from a wood was one- 
third more than an equal space covered with water. 2 It is well 
known that at times, during the warm season more particularly, 
we have no rain for several weeks, so that the mean general sur- 
face evaporation is probably not by any means as great as would be 
indicated by these figures— for it was found that by allowing the 
soil in the pot to become even moderately dry, the amount evap- 
orated would fall far short of what it was when keeping the soil 
well watered. On the other hand we have good reasons for be- 
lieving that the true rate at which forests give out aqueous vapor 
is, at all events, not over estimated in these researches. In the 
first place the trees are at all times supplied with a more abundant 
supply of moisture for transpiration — owing partly to power 
which the roots have to attract moisture from every direction ; 
partly to the retention of the rainfall in their network to be in due 



26 Forests — their Itijluence upon Climate and Rainfall. [January, 

season absorbed by the myriad root hairs, and partly also to 
the circumstance that the vegetable mold usually carpeting the 
soil of the forest is well qualified to soak up water and prevent its 
running off too rapidly through superficial channels. 

The humbler specimens of vegetation also have an effect, as is 
conclusively shown by the following experiment : A pot with 
artificially prepared soil, similar to that used in the above experi- 
ments, was used. Another vessel of the same size and weight in 
which grass ( Poa annua) about four inches high was growing, 
was also employed. Now it was found by repeated testing that 
from the pot containing the grass the evaporation exceeded that 
of the pot having only soil. The rates in ounces would be about 
five to four for the grass and soil respectively. 

From all these investigations the writer is able to confirm his 
former investigations in regard to transpiration, 1 and in these ex- 
periments it was particularly observed that while the evaporation 
from the soil was greatly influenced by temperature and the de- 
gree of humidity — for the mean temperature and dew point were 
both noted in all these experiments — transpiration was excited to 
a greater degree by the direct rays of the sun. 

From the data just obtained it would seem safe to infer that 
when the percentage of woodland is fair (25 to 30 per cent.) at 
least twelve inches of water is transpired in the course of a sea- 
son in mild or temperate climates, or, in other words, twelve 
inches of the total annual terrestrial evaporation. All this vast 
amount of water is transpired in about six months, or during the 
vegetative period. Under these circumstances an equivalent of 
nearly half the rainfall during the warm season may be accounted 
for by the transpiration. These are striking facts, and tell in in- 
disputable terms of the happy effect of plant life upon the humid- 
ity of our atmosphere, as this substance in due proportion is very 
essential to an equable and salubrious climate. Were it not that 
the atmosphere was properly moistened so as to intercept noc- 
turnal radiation from the earth, our cereals and other products of 
husbandry as well as vegetation generally, would greatly suffer if 
not be entirely destroyed by the resulting frost. 

It is also a noteworthy fact that the exhalation of moisture 
from the vast surface presented by the leaves is nearly constant 
even during long droughts; and when streams and shallow waters 

1 Transpiration of Plants, American Naturalist for March, 1878. 



1 882.] Forests— their Influence upon Climate and Rainfall 27 

have dried up, evaporation from the soil outside the woods has 
almost ceased, transpiration continues unremittingly to furnish 
atmospheric moisture in order to keep as nearly as possible a uni- 
form proportion of this important substance in the air. What an 
harmonious adaptation of means to an end does nature exhibit 
here— plant life atomizing tons and tons of watery vapor into the 
surrounding medium, even during time of drought, and this same 
vapor in turn protecting luxuriant vegetation from the evil conse- 
quences of terrestrial radiation. Moist air during winter tends to 
moderate extreme cold, during the summer, on the contrary, it 
tends to cool the draughts, hence forests by moistening the air in 
summer give us cool and delightful breezes ; another means by 
which forests affect extremes of temperature. 

This brings us face to face with the old question, do forests, 
apart from their mechanical action, to any extent affect the rain- 
fall? Be it remembered that the total annual evaporation and 
rainfall bear a constant relation. We do not claim for forests that 
they influence in any degree the general course of storms, for the 
latter are governed by other and more general forces. May not 
forests, however, influence the local distribution of rains and dews, 
and within certain limits and periods of time, the amount of pre- 
cipitation ? We have seen that during the spring and summer 
the amount of water yielded to the atmosphere is very nearly 
equivalent to half the rainfall, even at Philadelphia. Now, grant- 
ing that our premises are correct, it will be conceded that a part, 
at least, of the water atomized to the atmosphere by a wood, is 
most likely returned to the surrounding country in the form of 
rain or heavy mists. Where is this moisture given to the air by 
trees condensed into rain, and how produced ? It has already 
been stated that rain is usually formed from one to two miles 
above the surface of the earth, hence it follows that forests located 
on mountain ridges, besides strongly favoring the ascent of vapor- 
laden currents by a mechanical effect as already pointed out, may 
also have their own moisture readily condensed, owing to their 
altitude as well as in the manner to be presently described. It 
will also be remembered that in considering the mechanical action 
of forests, it has been stated that when not situated upon mountain 
ridges they are incapable of raising the vapor-laden currents suffi- 
ciently high to be condensed into rain, and this is true, but there 
is a notable exception to the rule that rain is produced at so 
great an elevation as above indicated. 



28 Forests — their Influence upon Climate and Rainfall. [January, 

The demonstrable variation in temperature of the moist air of 
the woods and the currents outside, and the mingling of these, 
doubtless reduce the temperature sufficiently to cause local pre- 
cipitation. At first sight it might appear impossible that this 
could result in anything so tangible as rain, but we must examine 
this question carefully. During the warm season the temperature 
of the air in the forest is lower than that of the air outside, which 
is due in a measure to the trees intercepting the rays of the sun, 
causing shade, which has a cooling effect, and partly also as 
pointed out by Pettenkofer (Pop. Sci. Monthly for Feb., 1878), to 
'the slight draught which is always caused by shade in the open 
air. Every one who has ever passed from the open air on a 
hot mid-summer day to within the borders of a forest, must 
have experienced with a relish the refreshing influence of the 
shade. Again, the temperature of the trees of a forest, and even 
their tops, is found to be lower than the air in the forest. This fact 
is easily explained : the rapid evaporation of watery vapor from 
the leaves, as shown by our researches, renders the action of the 
solar rays neutral, and their temperature is somewhat reduced.^ 
The observation has been made (according to Pettenkofer) that 
the trunks of trees breast high, even at the hottest time of day, 
are 5 Centigrade cooler than the air of the forest. Ebermayer 
speaks of the temperature of the trees in a forest as being always 
lower than the air of the forest. 

As already indicated by the present researches, forests moisten 
the air over, in and to some extent around themselves. Now in 
the light of these facts may we not be pardoned for concluding 
that warm currents sweeping over a country and striking the 
cool, moist air in and above the forest, and mingling with it would 
have a portion, at least, of the contained moisture condensed into 
gentle showers, extending their beneficent influence to neighbor- 
ing fields? Again, let some stray current come along of a lower 
temperature than the air of the forest, and the moist air over the 
forest would readily be condensed, since it is a well-known fact 
that a moist air discharges its vapor more readily in the form of 
rain than a dryer atmosphere. We have now seen how trees can 
cause local rains ; it will also be observed that the rain is formed 
chiefly above the forest, though it may be through the influence 
of winds that it falls to the earth for some distance around. By 
increasing the frequency of light rains, forests tend to obviate 



1 882.] Forests — their Influence upon Climate and Rainfall. 29 

drought, -which is of ultimate importance to the farmers' crops and 
vegetation in general. It will be seen that all our deductions have 
been drawn largely from the known facts from observations. 

The experiments of L. Fantiat and A. Sartiaux (Translation of 
a communication to the French Academy of Sciences, Pop. Sci. 
Monthly for June, 1875), which have come to the notice of the 
writer since the above has been written, are of great value as well 
as interest. Space is wanting to give at any length the experi- 
ments of these authors. They say: " We now made the follow- 
ing observations in the heart of the forest of Helatte, which em- 
braces 5000 hectares of land. At the height of about six meters 
(say twenty feet) above a group of oaks and hornbeans eight or 
nine meters high, we placed a pluviometer, pscychrometer, maxi- 
mum and minimum thermometers, and an evaporometer, so as to 
ascertain at that point the amount of rainfall, the degree of satu- 
ration of the air, and the rate of temperature and evaporation. 
In open air at a distance of only 300 meters from the forest, and 
at the same height above the ground as in the former case, we 
placed similar instruments under the same conditions. With 
regard to the rainfall and degree of saturation, the observations 
for six months showed the total rainfall to be 192.50"'" 1 in the 
forest and 177. mm in the open air, difference in favor of the forest, 
I5.50 mm . The degree of humidity for the open air showed a 
mean of 61.7, and in the forest 63 , difference in favor of the 
forest, 1.3 ." These investigations are, in a measure confirmatory 
of my own. 

Forests produce abundant dews. The 'formation of dew is 
dependent on two conditions, the radiation from objects near the 
earth and a certain proportion of moisture in the air. Just as in 
the case of the production of rain, the moister the air the more 
readily is dew formed, it requiring a less reduction of tempera- 
ture, hence when the moistened atmosphere in the vicinity of a 
forest comes in contact with the night air, dew in abundance is 
the result. Having shown that the temperature of the trees, 
their leaves and the atmosphere in the woods is several degrees 
lower than the air without, it may be inferred that dew is fre- 
quently formed during the day in the shade, and, perhaps, over 
the forest, particularly when the atmosphere is tranquil or when 
there are but slight breezes, shedding its silent enlivening influ- 
ence to fields and valleys round about. This is another office on 



30 Glacial Marks in Labrador. [January 

the part of forests not by any means to be despised, since heavy 
dews are often very refreshing in their effect upon vegetation, and 
doubtless add to the fertility of the soil in many instances. It is 
an observation worthy of note, too, that in some parts of the 
globe nearly all the moisture that reaches the earth is in the form 
of dew, e. g., Egypt and Arabia. 

It should be recollected that the action of forests, in every 
aspect considered, is more or less local in character. It follows, 
therefore, that the local distribution of woods is of the utmost 
importance. Our investigations likewise show the necessity for 
forest culture in regions where a proper proportion (from twenty- 
five to thirty per cent.) does not exist for their real benefit to the 
climate, while on the other hand they exhibit with equal force 
the folly of the ravages of the woodman's axe in destroying our 
primitive forests. 



GLACIAL MARKS IN LABRADOR. 



THE engraving 1 illustrating this article, brings out clearly some 
of the characteristic features of the scenery of the coast of 
Labrador. In the foreground the rocky shore of the Horsechops, 
as the deep fiord is called, which is situated far up on the eastern 
coast of Labrador, has been ground down, smoothed and polished 
by the great mass of land ice which formerly filled Hamilton bay 
and moved slowly down from the table-land in the interior, and 
whose ice front must have presented to the sea a wall, perhaps 
500 to ioco feet high, at the end of which was probably a sub- 
marine bank or terminal moraine like those known to exist at the 
present day on the coast of Greenland and Spitzbergen. 

Across the fiord on the shores of the bay, which rise abruptly 
in great rocky terraces — also a characteristic feature of Labrador 
and Arctic landscapes — may be seen scattered snow banks, which 
linger on these shores as late as August, while those in the more 
shaded, protected places may live on until the early snows in 
September give them a renewal of life, so that their existence may 
become perennial. 

1 From a photograph kindly presented to the author by William Bradford, Esq. 
The writer here acknowledges, with pleasure, the many facilities and kindnesses re- 
to the Labrador coast in 1864. 



1 882.] Glacial Marks in Labrador. 31 

In this inhospitable, rigid climate, where the Arctic current 
passing out of Baffin's bay presses against the coast, bearing on 
its surface an almost continuous expanse of floe ice, forming a belt 
perhaps 500 to 1000 miles long by from fifty to sometimes one hun- 
dred miles wide, the temperature of the Labrador coast north of 
Belle isle is kept down to the average annual of 3 2° Fahrenheit, 
so that the climate of the more exposed parts of the coast of Lab- 
rador, particularly the capes and islands, is nearly identical with 
that of Southern Greenland. Indeed, many of the insects, the 
birds and mammals, as well as the flowers, are the same as those 
of Greenland. 

At the head of the bays and fiords, where the soil is protected 
from the chilling influences of the damp easterly winds which 
blow inland over the belt of floe ice fringing the coast, the spruces 
attain a growth some twenty and thirty feet in height, and the 
flora and fauna is, in general, more like that of the region lying 
near the limit of trees in the interior of British America. 

On the left side of the foreground is a hut of some squalid 
fisherman's family, built of hewn spruce logs, banked up on the 
sides and with the roof partially covered with sods from the wet 
peaty soil. Judging from the houses of the Labrador fishermen 
we have entered, the interior is as dark and dismal, as forbidding 
and comfortless as can well be imagined, though this is not true 
of many of the homes of the Labrador folk. 

Now the question arises, why may not this smooth, polished 
rock-surface have been made so by the floating ice borne down 
by the strong Labrador polar current, which flows past the coast 
at the rate of three or four knots an hour? That it had been 
done by land ice moving down the bay from the interior, we have 
been able to prove by our observations at " Indian Tickle," a 
deep, narrow fiord separated by a point of land from the northern 
side of Hamilton bay, or Invuctoke inlet. A " tickle," to use the 
language of the Labradorian, is any deep, narrow bay, just wide 
enough to admit of a vessel's passing through it. The shores of 
the Indian tickle presented much the same appearance, for here 
the Domino quartzite, very smoothly worn and polished, in places 
capped by trap overflows, runs under the water to the depth of 
about thirty feet, forming a polished and smooth bottom to the 
harbor. The marks we observed, and which proved conclusively 
to our mind the course taken by the ice, occur about twenty-five 



3^ 



Glacial Marks in Labrador. 



[January, 



feet above the water's edge, and below the line of lichens, which 
are probably kept at a distance by the sea spray. 

Here on the polished and smooth shore, somewhat like that 
represented in Plate in, we observed a number of remarkable 
lunoid furrows (Fig. i). These crescent-shaped depressions ran 
at exactly right angles to the course of the bay, and were from 
five to fourteen inches broad by three to nine inches long, and 
the depression was deepened in the hollow of the curve, for 




about an inch. Their inner, or concave, edge pointed south-west, 
the bay running in a general S. W. and N. E. direction. They 
were scattered irregularly over a surface twenty feet square. 
Where several followed in a line, two large ones were often suc- 
ceeded by a couple one-quarter as large, or vice versa. Also at 
Tub island on the southern side of Hamilton bay, similar mark- 
ings, though less distinct, occurred about the same distance above 
the sea, and on a similar polished quartzite. 

These marks agree precisely with a number of lunoid^ furrows 
which I have observed on a shoulder of rock near the summit of 



1 882.] Editors' Table. 33 

Mount Baldface, in the White mountains, which is 3600 feet high, 
and at other points in the White mountains, where I could ob- 
serve the course of the ancient glaciers by trains of boulders and 
also by glacial grooves. These peculiar lunoid furrows are evi- 
dently made by rounded boulders freezing into the bottom of the 
glacier; the stone being thus frozen solidly into the ice, serves as 
a rude gouge, wearing out a crescent-shaped depression. The 
succession of several such furrows appears to be the result of the 
stone's slipping from the ice and turning over and becoming 
frozen in again during the advancing and receding motions of the 
glacier. 

The presence, then, of these furrows is good evidence that the 
ice moved down the bay seaward. They could not have been 
made by floe ice, as the polar current flows along the coast at 
right angles to the direction of the bay, while it also appears that 
similar marks are abundant on the summits of some of the White 
mountain peaks. In a future paper I shall have more to say of 
glacial phenomena in Labrador. 



EDITORS' TABLE. 

EDITORS : A. S. PACKARD, JR., AND E. D. COPE. 

The intelligent press of the country is gradually adopting 

the position taken by the Naturalist, in its August number, 
on the question of the insanity of Guiteau, the murderer of Presi- 
dent Garfield. This is, that whether legally insane or not, the 
mental condition of the prisoner falls within the boundary-line of 
insanity. 

This was simply an adaptation of the well known views of 
Herbert Spencer and Dr. Maudsley. It is to be hoped that a 
full investigation of Guiteau's case will lead to an important modi- 
fication of the legal definition of insanity, and of the laws relative 
to the treatment of insane criminals. In the first place, the pres- 
ent definition, which only admits insanity where the criminal is 
unable to judge of the consequences of an act, is certainly erro- 
neous. Persons undoubtedly insane often act with deliberate design, 
and great forethought. It would be a safe, though not a perfect 
definition of insanity, to describe it as a state of mind in which 
acts are committed, which are in direct opposition to the plain 
and obvious interests, not of persons affected by the act, but of 



34 Editors' Table. [January, 

the actor. Here the question of the ignorance of consequences 
is restricted to its legitimate field, the instinct of self-preservation, 
through which the rational faculty has originated. It is another 
way of stating that the emotional or sentimental elements of 
character have so far overcome the rational as to cause the com- 
mission of self-destructive acts. Under this definition an act of 
violence committed in savage society would not indicate insanity, 
while the same act committed in civilized society, where means 
of detection and punishment abound, would be properly regarded 
as that of an insane person. 

In such a classification, criminals are those who disregard the 
rights of person and property with a reasonable expectation of 
advancing their own interests thereby. 

Benevolence is not an indication of insanity, for it is only a 
reflection of self-interest over others, and is often an expression 
of the most elevated form of self-interest. True reformers are 
not insane, but religious enthusiasts may easily be so. The for- 
mer have a definite idea of practicable methods of advancing the 
true interests of mankind ; while the methods, or aims, or both, 
of the insane enthusiasts, are at best useless and impracticable. 
But that the one class graduates into the other, is incontestible. 

In the imposition of bodily restraint on the insane, reference 
will of course be had to the quality of the act, precisely as in 
the case of the sane. The nature of the act being established, 
the question now standing in the statutes as to the capacity of 
the criminal to comprehend the consequences of his acts, would 
well be considered. He who, with deliberate intent, violates the 
rights of person and property, is more dangerous to the com- 
munity, than he who does so as an incidental effect of his aberra- 

The punishment of the former, shjould be like that of the sane 
criminal, designed to protect society in two ways ; firstly by re- 
straining the criminal himself from inflicting further injury; and 
secondly, by furnishing persons in the community of similar men- 
tal constitution with reasons for believing that it is contrary to 
their interests to commit like acts. In this way the law would 
furnish such insane with motives which would produce a 
change in the balance of the mind, the result being sanity. The 
punishment of death is as proper in such cases as in that of sane 
criminals of corresponding grade. The death penalty might even 
be necessary in the case of that lower grade of the insane who 
do not understand consequences. In this case the only object 
sought is the protection of the community, for motives are less 
operative with these than with the higher class of the insane. In 
either, the question of moral responsibility is omitted from con- 
sideration, as being beyond the range of human knowledge. — C. 

The numbers of the American Naturalist for 1881 were 

issued on the following dates: January, December 31st, 1880; 



1 88 2.] Recent Literature. 35 

February, January 25, [881 ; March, February 24; April, March 
25 ; May, April 16; June, May 19; July, June 22; August, July 
27 ; September, August 23 ; October, September 23 ; November, 
October 28 ; December, December 3. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Mivart's The Cat. 1 — The principle underlying the method of 
modern scientific, particularly biological study, is to examine one 
animal thoroughly, in order to lay the foundation for further ad- 
vanced and more comparative studies. So we have books de- 
voted wholly to the anatomy of a few common animals, typical 
forms, as the frog, the butterfly, or as in the present work, the 
cat. The tendency is thus to extreme analytical and special 
views, and such books should be of course used with the under- 
standing that the student will never make a broad, philosophical 
naturalist unless his studies be made comparative. But it is bet- 
ter to thoroughly know all that can be learned from one kind of 
cat, than to have a superficial knowledge of cats in general, or 
mammals at large. Cats are very unequally distributed, and! 
there is always a superfluity of material in our cities, so that the 
incipient medical student need not lack for material for dissection 
preliminary to his laboratory practice on the human cadaver. 
For this class of students this book is all important, while it is 
also designed for use in colleges and higher schools, or those be- 
ginning the study of zoology, as an introduction to the study of 
vertebrate animals. 

After describing clearly and simply, with the aid of abundant 
and most excellent wood engravings, the skeleton, muscles, or- 
gans of alimentation, circulation, respiration and secretion, of 
reproduction, the nervous system, with the physiology of these 
organs in sufficient detail, a full and adequate account is given of 
the cat's development. 

This important subject appears to be well treated, and is, in 
part, the result of the author's own observations, a number of the 
diagrams and illustrations having been prepared for this work. 

These chapters occupy about two-thirds of the book, and are 
succeeded by chapters on the psychology of the cat, and on the 
different kinds of cats ; while the work closes with essays on the 
cat's place in nature, the cat's " hexicology," or its relations to 
the world about it and to fossil cats, and finally, Professor Mivart 
gives us his opinions as to the pedigree and origin of the cat. 

In his discussion of the nature of the cat's mind, the young 
student will be liable to be unduly biassed by Mr. Mivart's dog- 

1 The Cat. An introduction to the study of backboned Animals, especially Mam- 
mals. B y St. George Mivart, Ph.D., F.R.S. With 200 Illustration,. New 



36 Recent Literature. [January, 

ubject which needs great candor and 
re is a great difference of opinion 
the subject of animal psychology, 
and the student should, at the outset, know that the entire sub- 
ject is unsettled, and that there are two predominant schools of 
thought. If he knows this, and that the matter may eventually 
be somewhat understood by future work, he will, perhaps, be led 
to make for himself new discoveries and observations on the 
habits and mental traits of animals, and gain clearer views of the 
entire field of comparative psychology. To make the ex cathedra 
statement that instinct is a " special faculty," or " a power of 
blindly performing appropriate complex acts, by seemingly volun- 
tary actions in response to felt stimuli," and then in footnotes to 
attack what he deems the " very singular views " of Mr. Herbert 
Spencer and Mr. Lewes, as if they were alone in attempting to 
reason out the probable origin of instinctive acts ; this, we con- 
tend, savors of dogmatism and onesidedness, and it seems to us 
that in an educational book of this sort both the old and the new 
views should be given to the student, who is supposed to have 
arrived at years of discretion, and to be able, in a degree, to judge 
for himself between conflicting theories. 

Mr. Mivart also insists, as if it were a matter of course, that an 
animal " is really the theatre of some unifying power which syn- 
thesizes its varied activities, dominates its forces, and is a princi- 



ple of individuation. There would seem to be here present, a 
vital force or principle which has no organ except that of the en- 
tire body within which it resides," etc. Now considering that a 
large number of biologists do not adhere to the old notion of a 
" vital force," we think the author should have stated both views 
fairly, giving in his adherence to whichever he may prefer. With 
the remaining portions of this chapter we agree, and the discus- 
sion concerning the nature of the cat's mind is a clear and inter- 

Our domestic cat is probably a descendant of the old domestic 
cat of Egypt, which is mentioned in inscriptions as early as 1684 
B.C., and was certainly domesticated in Egypt 1300 years before 
Christ. From Egypt the cat must have been introduced into 
Greece, while a fresco painting of a domestic cat was found on 
the wall of a Pompeiian house ; although the late Professor Rol- 
leston has suggested that the domestic cat of the Greeks was the 
white-breasted marten. The domestic cat is probably the descen- 
dant of the Egyptian cat ( Felis maniculata), a native of Northern 
Africa. 

It is a pity that among the excellent drawings of different spe- 
cies of cats given us in this book, a good representation of the 
Egyptian cat should not appear. 

In this chapter the different kinds of cats are described, and 
many of them illustrated in an excellent way, among them the 



1 382.] Recent Literature, 




Rcce?it Literature. 



[January, 



There are, in Mivart's opinion, fifty species of living cats, but 
he thinks that some of these may turn out to be mere varieties, 
and some forms regarded in this book as varieties, may possibly 
prove to be really distinct species, especially when we consider 
the South American spotted cats, the ocelots and margays, as 
well as the smaller cats of China and neighboring regions. 

The fossil species are then considered, especially those from 
the Tertiaries of France and North America, made known to us 
by Gervais, Filhol, Cope and Leidy. 

In the discussion on the cat's place in nature, after a too long 




effort to show that the cat is not a plant, but an animal and a car- 
nivorous one, the author reasons by exclusion, and shows, what 
nobody will dispute, that the cat's place in nature is as " a mem- 
ber of the typical genus of the typical family of carnivorous pla- 
cental mammals," mammals being what our author somewhat 
clumsily terms " the suck giving, tied-brained class of back-boned 

The fourteenth chapter is on " the cat's hexicology." The gen- 
tle reader is here informed that this is not a new organ or quality 
of the cat, but simply is a word coined by the author and substi- 
tuted for what seems to us a much better expression, the study of 
the environment. The study of all the " complex relations to time, 
space, physical forces, other organisms, and to surrounding con- 
ditions generally, constitute the science of hexicology" But if 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 39 

the author is so far constrained, from motives of prudence in 
dealing with scientific names to the uninitiated as to use " back- 
boned animals " for vertebrates, and the term "suck-giving " for 
mammalian, why does he take away the layman's breath by pro- 
posing the term /lexicology, when we are only just getting used to 
the much better term environment? 

But notwithstanding the formidable name at the head of the 
chapter, the essay itself is quite interesting, and serves to intro- 
duce us to the more valuable and interesting one on the pedigree 
and origin of the cat. In this essay all that has been learned of 
the cat's structure and development, and of cats and carnivora in 
general, is brought to bear upon the question of the origin of 
the species, and family, and order. In answer to these questions, 
the author, adopting the results of French and American palaeon- 
tologists, states his belief that the cat has originated from the 
cheetah, and the Felidae in general from some Viverrine animal, 
while the carnivora may have descended from Arctocyon, the 
oldest Tertiary mammal, and contrary to the views of some, our 
author derives the carnivora from the insectivora, rather than the 
marsupials. As to the method of evolution, Mivart stands out 
from most other English evolutionists as a believer in sudden or 
saltatory evolution as well as slow, gradual development of spe- 
cies, his views in a general way agreeing with those of several 
American writers on this subject. This last chapter is certainly 
an able and interesting discussion, and the entire volume is the 
work of an expert comparative anatomist, and of a strong, able, 
facile writer. 

Thomas' Fifth Report ox the Injurious Insects of Illinois. 1 
— In its typographical appearance, as well as general usefulness 
to the farmer or gardener, and interest to the entomologist, this 
report appears to us to be somewhat in advance of its predeces- 
sors. The longest article is on the army worm, and is a critical 
discussion of known facts regarding its natural history, some 
points of which still remain to be cleared up. Professor Thomas 
suggests as the result of his meteorological studies in connection 
with this insect and the chinch bug, that two favorable seasons 
are necessary to develop these insects in injurious numbers. The 
time is coming when by a study of climatic changes, we shall be 
able to predict, with some degree of certainty, the coming of in- 
jurious insects. This has already been in part worked out as 
regards the Rocky Mountain locust, and in this connection the 
suggestions and facts in the chapter of the present report on '| the 
relation of meteorological conditions to insect development " is 
timely and valuable. Enough is now known of the periodicity 
in life of the more injurious insects to indicate that the Hessian 

1 Tenth Retort of the 
the State of 1 



40 Rece?it Literature. [January, 

fly is most abundant in rather wet and moderately warm seasons ; 
while warmth appears to be the chief element in developing the 
Aphides or plant lice, some species being more favored by a humid 
atmosphere, while others develop more rapidly in a dry season. 
" The cut-worms are developed more abundantly in such seasons as 
increase the army-worms, which in their normal habits are but cut- 
worms, massing in armies and migrating being really an abnor- 
mal condition in their history. Observation shows, as heretofore 
stated, that, as a general rule, those species which occasionally 
develop in such vast numbers require for this purpose two con- 
secutive seasons, though the character of the seasons for the dif- 
ferent species differ somewhat. That is to say, those which bring 
out one species are not the ones which bring out another. As 
examples of the correctness of this statement I have only to refer 
to the migratory locusts, the chinch bug, as heretofore shown, 
the Hessian fly, the army-worm, etc. The locust and the chinch 
bug require the same kind of seasons, that is, two successive dry 
years, the latter warm as well as dry ; consequently, when two 
such seasons prevail generally over the Northwest, both species 
are apt to appear, as was the case in 1X74. But the case is differ- 
ent with the army-worm. This requires a dry summer and fall, 
and I am inclined to believe also a dry winter, followed by a cool 
and rather damp and cloudy spring. The two most noted years 
of its appearance in this State were 1861 and 1875, each of which 
followed a preceding dry year, but in neither case was the year 
in which it appeared warm, 1861 being one of average tempera- 
ture, and 1875 rather cold. The latter, which is the only one for 
which we have the records of the different seasons, was more 
than usually damp in the spring and summer." Some meteoro- 
logical tables are given in illustration. 

These chapters are followed by a descriptive catalogue of larva; 
that of the caterpillars of butterflies being compiled by Miss Net- 
tie Middleton, that of the Sphingidae, yEgeridae and Bombycidae 
by Mr. John Marten, while a chapter giving original notes on 
caterpillars is contributed by M. D. VV. Coquillet. The Report 
closes with a reprint of Bulletin 4 of the U. S. Entomological 
Commission on the Hessian fly, by A. S. Packard, Jr. 

Walcott os the Organization of Trilobites. 1 — In this essay 
Mr. Walcott brings together the results of much patient labor in 
preparing sections and studying them with a view to settle the 
vexed question as to the nature of the limbs of the trilobite. 
The results are as follows : No antennae have been discovered ; 
but " four pairs of manducatory jaws, formed by the basal joints 
of the four anterior pairs of appendages," which " have a general 
'lar to the cephalic legs of Limulus and Eurypterus." 

• New and old evidence relating t> [f> organization. By C. D. 
Cambnd-e. March, 1 88 1. 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 41 

Mr. Walcott also feels "justified in stating that there is a series 
of jointed legs extending from the cephalic shield beneath the 
thorax and pygidium to the posterior segment of the latter; that, 
as far as known, they were ambulatory, and formed of six or 
seven joints ; that to the basal joint there was attached an epipo- 
dite and branchia ; and that, from the proof we now have, there 
is little doubt but that the appendages beneath the pygidium did 
not vary essentially from those of the thoracic region. They 
may have terminated in a slender filament, or filaments, as but 
three joints have been seen in any one appendage." We con- 
gratulate the author on the success of his long-continued efforts 
and well-directed labors; he has fully demonstrated that Trilo- 
bites have slender jointed limbs on the general plan of those of 
Limulus, and not phyllopodous ones ; while he has also shown 
that the branchiae were also attached to certain of these limbs, 
though we may not be satisfied with his interpretation of the 
nature of these gills, and wait for further light on this extremely 
difficult point. His restoration of a Trilobite will be useful, 
although it does not seem entirely natural, but yet may express 
the results of Mr. Walcott's work thus far. He'has settled, how- 
ever, in an admirable way, the general nature of the appendages 
of the Trilobite, and is entitled to the thanks of palaeontologists. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets.— Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise 
Hamburg. Mit 3 Tafein 11. Abhildungon. 8vo, pp. 16,4 plates, boards. Bremen, 



the author. 

La Revue Scientifique, de la France et de L'etranger. Revue dcs Cours Scien- 
titique, ( je Serie) Uirecteurs: MM. Antoine Iheguet et Charles Richet. Paris, 
Octobre 29, 1 88 1. From the directors. 

Notice sur les Poisons Tertiairo de Cereste ( Bas>es-AIpes). Par M. H. E. Sauv. 
age. 8vo, pp. 22, 4 plates. Extrait du Bu I giqoe de France. 

3 e serie, t. vm, seance du 21 Juin, 1880. Paris, 1881. From the author. 

Compiled by C. F. < 



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GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 1 

Mimicry in Fungi. — "Instances of mimicry are not rare 
amongst fungi. They are more frequently attractive than protec- 
tive mimicries. They may be of vegetable, of animal, or of ex- 
crementitious substances, either as regards external appearance, or 
as regards odor. The main object of these mimicries is the attrac- 
tion of insects, the advantages of which to plants are: (i), either 
fertilization of hymenomycetous spores by co-specific spermatia 
from other individuals, or by the transportation of spores from the 
hymenium of one fungus to that of another, or perhaps increased 
germinative energy to the spores is obtained by the admixture of 
other co-specific spores without the element of sexuality; (2), the 
diffusion of the fungus spores by insects as well as by the larger 
an i mals." — Grevillea. 

Simblum rubescens Gerard, in Iowa. — Two years ago W. R. 
Gerard described and figured a new species of fungus in the 
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. It was discovered on Long 
Island, and was found to be a species of Simblum, a genus of the 
Phalloidei, the Stink-horn family. No species of Simblum had 
previously been known to exist outside of the tropics, 5. peri- 
phragmoides occurring in the Mauritius islands, S. gracile in 
Ceylon, S.flavescens in Java, S. pilidiatum and 5. sphcerocephalum 
in South America. Such being the distribution of the known 
species, it must be regarded as remarkable that one should be 
found in North America, and Mr. Gerard was justified in ques- 
tioning whether his specimens might not have grown from spores 
or mycelium brought in ballast from the tropics, especially as we 
understand they were found at no great distance from " ballast 
dumpings." 

This question is settled, however, by its discovery in Central 
Iowa in October of the past year. A dozen or more plants were 
found in a field by C. L. Spencer, a student in the Agricultural 
College. Good specimens were secured and placed in alcohol for 
study in the laboratory. In only one particular do the Iowa speci- 
mens disagree with the description given by Mr. Gerard. To our 
plant Schlechtendal's remark as to the odor of an allied species 
does apply very forcibly, for it certainly does " stink furchterlich." 

1 Edited by Prof. C. E. Bessey, Ames, Iowa. 



1 882.] Botany. 43 

The Asfaragus Stem for Laboratory Study. — This plant 
affords as interesting and instructive an example of the stem of 
Monocotyledons as the now generally used pumpkin stem does 
of the Dicotyledons. It is so common that every botanical labora- 
tory can be supplied with it, and its early appearance, and long- 
continued growth make it possible to secure fresh specimens 
during many months of the year. The new shoots, such as are 
sold in the markets, if placed in alcohol afford good material for 
study, although we have found it a better plan to make all the 
sections we wanted of fresh stems and then to preserve these sec- 
tions in alcohol. Thus some cross and longitudinal sections of 
the very young stems we made early last year are still in most 
excellent condition for study. Not the least interesting feature of 
the asparagus stem is its provision for increasing its diameter by 
the subsequent formation of fibro-vascular bundles in a sub-corti- 
cal meristem zone. This will afford material for much careful 
study on the part of students in the laboratory. 

The Abundance of Fresh-water Alg/e.— The excessively 
wet autumn in Central Iowa caused an unusual growth of fresh- 
water Algae. Every pond and ditch was filled with Spirogyra, 
Zygnema, Vaucheria, etc., until the first of November. Usually 
our waters are nearly barren of these growths so late in the 
season, but this year the continued wet weather, instead of the 
usual drouth, favored their development. The same causes doubt- 
less produced the unusually large amount of autumn blooming of 
our spring flowers which was noticeable at the same time. 

The Systematic Arrangement of the Thallophytes. — If we 
except England and America, where a morbid conservatism 
seems to prevail, there has been a great deal of activity recently 
among botanists with reference to a better arrangement of the 
plants lying in the great region below the mosses, and to which 
Endlicher gave the name of the Thallophyta. Thus Cohn, in 
1872, published in Hedvrigia,*^ outline of a classification, in 
which the old groups Algae, Fungi and Lichenes were no longer 
maintained in their integrity. Shortly afterwards (in 1873) 
Fischer proposed an arrangement which bears a striking similar- 
ity to Sachs'. These two are briefly given in our " Botany for 
High Schools and Colleges," and need not be repeated here. 
Sachs' now famous arrangement was published in the fourth edi- 
tion of his Lehrbuch, which appeared in 1874. This has been 
somewhat modified by various authors, notably by Professor A. 
W. Bennett, who, in 1880, proposed to restore the groups (classes) 
Algae and Fungi, subdividing them, however, into sub-classes by 
making use of Sachs' structural characters. This was republished 
in the Naturalist for January, 1881. 

De Bary, in January of the present year, published in the 
Botanische Zeitung a scheme of a systematic arrangement of the 



General Notes. 



[January, 






Thallophytes, involving some interesting points, 
classes, viz : the Cyanophyceae, Chlorophycese, Conjugate, Phaeo- 
phyceae, Fungi, Myxomycetes and Rhodophyceae, are recognized. 
These classes are regarded as genetic groups, which often include 
plants of very different structural rank. The Cyanophyceae are 
thus all Agamae, while the Chlorophyceae are, for the greater 
part, Isogamae, with three of its five branches extending into the 
Oogamae, and one into the Carposporeae. Phaeophyceae originating 
in the Isogamae, extend into the Oogamae; similarly the Fungi, 
which have their origin in the Oogamae extend into the Carposporae. 
The Conjugatae are all Isogamae, the Myxomycetes all Oogamae, 
and the Rhodophyceae all Carposporae. Thus it is seen that De 
Bary has attempted to retain the integrity of the groups which 
European algologists have generally recognized, and at the 
same time to make use of Sachs' structural classification. It may 
be understood from the following diagram : 



Cohn's later attempt was sketched in the June Naturalist of the 
past year, and Camel's in the October number. We have now 
another ( Bot. Zeitut/g. Aug. 12, 1881) by Christoph Gobi, cura- 
tor of the Herbarium of the University of St. Petersburg. This 
last bears a close resemblance to De Bary's in that Sachs' system 
is preserved for indicating structural rank ; thus we have the 
Agamae (Protophyta of Sachs), Isogamae (Zygosporeae of Sachs), 
Oogamae (Oosporeae of Sachs) and the Carposporese ; further, the 
genetic series .(or classes) include plants of different structural 
rank, the Cyanophyceae being mostly Agamae with a doubtful 
higher representation, the Rhodophyceae all Carposporeae, the 



1 882.] 



Botany. 



45 



Chlorophyceae and Fungi, each including the four structural 
forms, and the Phasophyceae some Agamse, Isogamae and Oogamae. 
The Saccharomycetes and Myxomycetes are outlying groups, 
respectively, of the agamic and isogamic Fungi. The following 
diagram will serve for comparison with the preceding one : 



: (i 



n 




Gobi, after remarking upon the imppropriateness of the name 
Thallophyta, and the difficulty of fixing upon such characters as 
will set off distinctly the plants of this group from those of all 
others, suggests the new name of Glceophytse, from the slimy 
nature of most of the species. We trust that this new name will 
not be adopted, for while there can be no exception taken to 
Gobi's criticisms upon the use of the term Thallophyta, the real 
difficulty lies in the attempt to combine in one great group, plants 
which have too many structural differences. In our opinion, the 
Thallophytes include several distinct grand divisions of the vege- 
table kingdom, just as the Cormophytes do. Old names generally 
live long after their usefulness has ceased, as witness Cryptogam, 
Endogen, Exogen, and in zoology the term Invertebrata, and 
doubtless it will be many years before we shall be rid of Thallo- 
phyta, but certainly we should not now add another to the long 
list of those which are to be forgotten. 



46 General Notes. [January, 

It is significant that in all these recent attempts at a methodical 
disposition of these plants, the lichens do not appear as a distinct 
class, but are placed with the Ascomycetes (fungi), being regarded 
by most as an order of this class. This indicates the pretty gen- 
eral acceptance of Schwendener's views as to the nature of lichens, 
or, at the least, of some very considerable modification of the 
old view. 

There are hopeful indications of a gradual settling down upon 
nearly the lines of demarkation first roughly drawn by Sachs. It 
may be that Sachs' namss will not be retained, anl, indeed, it 
may be questioned whether some of the more recently suggested 
ones are not preferable. However, we prefer Protophyta to 
Agamae, while Isogamae and Oogamae are certainly not much 
preferable to Zygosporeae and Oosporeae. Zygophyta, Oophyta 
and Carpophyta would be better in many respects than any yet 
suggested. 

The Slime Moulds (Myxomycetes) sadly puzzle the botanists. 
Their old position near the puff-balls (in the Carposporeae) they 
have hopelessly lost, while their right to a place in the Oosporeae 
(De Bary) or the Zygosporeae (Sachs and Gobi) is exceedingly 
doubtful. We agree with Fischer, Bennet and Caruel in placing 
them in or near the Protophyta. In view of Saville Kent's recent 
endeavor to show the animal nature of Slime Moulds, it may not 
be amiss to repeat here the remark made by us two years ago,. 
" It is by no means an improbable hypothesis that in the Myxo- 
mycetes we have the terrestrial phase and in the Monera the 
aquatic phase of a common group of organisms. The Myxomy- 
cetes are not Monera, but they are moneran in their structure, 
and probably also in their affinities. All the differences between 
the Myxomycetes and a Moner like Protomyxa, for example, are 
probably referable to the terrestrial habit of the former as con- 
trasted with the aquatic habit of the latter." (" Botany for High 
Schools and Colleges," p. 207, foot-note.) 

1 Bennett, De Bary and Gobi's systems the greatest emphasis 



be taken of genetic relationship in any system of classification 
needs no argument in these days, but this must not be to the ex- 
clusion of structure, and evident structural affinities, lest the prime 
object of all classification be defeated. — C. E. Bessey, 

Electric Light and Plant Growth— Dr. Siemens' interest- 
ing experiments with plants grown in electric light promise to be 
of great value not only to the student of vegetable physiology, but 
to the farmer and gardener as well. It seems to be pretty certain 
that in continuous light plants grow much more than when dark- 
ness alternates with light. Dr. Siemens is, indeed, led to ask 
whether the darkness of the night does not present a " difficulty to 



1 882.] Botany. 47 

plant life which had to be met," by a special development, instead 
of affording a period of needed rest. In fact, it begins to look as if 
the old notion of the need of rest by a plant would have to be 
abandoned, or at least very greatly modified. One of the most 
suggestive things brought out in these experiments is the blight- 
ing effect of the light from the naked electric light. Plants so ex- 
posed became shriveled and scorched, while those situated nearer 
to the light, but having a sheet of glass interposed, were not so 
affected. 

Botanical Notes. — In Professor Parker's lecture on " Biology 
as an academical study," published in Nature, there is a most ex- 
cellent denunciation of the teaching of botany and zoology as 
mere classificatory sciences, and a strong plea for the " laboratory 
method," which he properly urges for not only the college but 
for the high school also. " What," says he, " would be thought 
of a mathematical teacher who relied entirely on lectures, and 
never dreamed of insisting that his pupils should apply what he 
had taught by working out examples for themselves ? Or what 
of a teacher of art who ignored the necessity of making his stu- 
dents draw or paint ? Every one sees the necessity of practical, 
and the uselessness of exclusively theoretical teaching in these in- 
stances, yet the fact is generally ignored that the case is precisely 

the same with scientific subjects." A good service has been 

rendered by the editor of the American Monthly Microscopical 
Journal in the publication in his journal of the Rev. W. Johnson's 
V Introduction to the study of lichens." Several wood-cuts help 
to make the matter so clear that the beginner need have no 
trouble in taking up the study of these very interesting plants. 
Mr. W. H. Leggett has seen reasons for suspecting cleisto- 
gamy in the common purslane ( Portulaca oteraceaj, and asks in 

the October Torrey Bulletin for confirmation or disproof. As 

showing the incomplete state of our knowledge of the plants of 
the world, it is significant that seven new species of British lichens 
are described in Grevillea for September. If species are discover- 
able at that rate in a country which has been so diligently worked 
by collectors, what may we not look for in the world at large ! 
- Wm. Trelease has been studying the nectar glands upon the 
leaves of Populus, and finds that they appear as a rule only on the 
nrst half dozen leaves of each shoot in early spring. After a long 
series of careful examinations, the results of which he records in 
the November Botanical Gazette, he concludes that these glands 
are protective indirectly by attracting ants, ichneumonids and 
lady-btrds, which in turn serve to keep off many harmful insects 

and larger animals. From a study of the flora of Madagascar. 

J. G. Baker ventures in the Journal of Botany to estimate the 
number of species of flowering plants alone at from four to five 
thousand, a remarkably high number when we consider the limited 
area covered by it, viz : 228,573 square miles, or a little more 



4$ General Notes. [January, 

than three-fourths the size of the State of Texas. Macchiati in 

the October Nuovo Giomale Botanico Italiano enumerates the 

orchids of Sardinia, forty-six species in all. -In the same 

journal, Professor Passerini continues his enumeration of the 
fungi of Parma. No less than thirty-two species of Peronosporeae 

occur in the Parmensian flora. The re-issue of the third series 

of the well-known Botan mnounced, by the pub- 
lishers, L. Reeve & Co , London. A second edition of Elliott's 

" Hand-book of Landscape Gardening " has appeared from the 
house of D. M. Dewey & Co., of Rochester. Botanically, its chief 
interest lies in the numerous very poor colored plates, the pub- 
lisher has added. It is to be hoped that no horse-chestnut like 
the one figured in this book ever existed. There can be no ex- 
cuse for such wretched plates, and for the numerous typographi- 
cal blunders, which disfigure the work. However, we do not 
doubt, that the book may be useful to many who wish to improve 
their grounds. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Observations on the species of Planarians parasitic on 
Limulus. — During the present summer, while engaged in investi- 
gating food-fishes under the auspices of the U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, near the mouth of the Chesapeake bay, a fine large female 
specimen of Lim dm f /;/".-. mus was brought to me from one of 
the pound nets near by, into which it had strayed. Upon making 
an investigation of the creature's anatomy, I discovered a great 
number of parasitic planarian worms infesting the gills, and ad- 
hering to the leaflets of the latter were many thousands of egg 
capsules, in which the young worms were undergoing develop- 
ment. From an inspection of a numerous series of these cap- 
sules, with the aid of the proper method of sectionizing, it would 
have been possible to have obtained a full history of the develop- 
ment of the species; for such an investigation the writer was not, 
however, prepared, nor did he have the time for it, but from the 
circumstance that there was a great diversity in the size of the cap- 
sules, he believes that at least three species of these parasites make 
the gills of the horse-shoe crabs their nidus. That such parasites 
infest this animal has apparently been known for a long time. 
Alexander Agassiz alludes to it under the name of Planan i <vt- 
gulala Muller.and Max Schultze in 1873, at Weisbaden, described 
the animal before the Congress of German Naturalists, but does 
not appear to have published anything in their transactions. Re- 
cently Dr. Ludwig Graff 1 has discussed the subject anew and at 
greater length and with more thoroughness ; but he recognizes 
but one form, which he calls Planaria limuli. Dr. Graffs recog- 
nition of but one species is then the excuse for the present notice, 

1 Kurze Mittheilungen liber fortgesetzte Turbellarienstudien. Zoolog. Anzeiger, 
II, Apr., 1879, pp. 202-205. 



i882.] 



Zoology. 



and I take the opportunity so offered of putting my observations 
upon record, so as to facilitate future studies by others. 

Graff says the capsules observed by him in material supplied 
from the Frankfurt a. M. Aquarium, by Dr. Schmidt, measured 
about three millimeters long by one and a half wide, which 
would correspond pretty nearly with the outline of the largest 
capsule observed by me and represented in Fig. 9. But accord- 
ing to him these large capsules contained from two to nine em- 
bryos, while those observed by me never contained more than 
one, the presumption, therefore, is, that they belong to distinct 
species, and that on this specimen of Limulus, Planaria limit li was 
not present. 

All of the capsules were apparently chitinous, and attached by 
a cylindrical stalk to the surface of the branchial leaflets by a 
l of the end of the stalk, as represented in 




Figs. 1-7 and 9. In form the capsules are oval and flattened, 
lying down flat against the surface of the branchial leaflets with 
the plane side. The lower side of the capsule is flat, the upper 
convex, as shown in a side view, Fig. 4. When the young escape 
they find their way out by the free end of the capsule, which is 
ruptured as represented in Fig. 7. They are scattered all over 
the branchial leaflets and on both sides of them. The different 
sizes were often. seen side by side on the same leaflets together 
with the parent worms, which, as Graff observes, had often eaten 
through the branchial structures. So extensive was this damage 
that I suspect they cannot bo considered merely as commensals, 
but rather as true parasites, for it was frequently observed that 
four or five successive leaflets were eaten through in the vicinity 
of a large adult worm, so as to produce large irregular perfora- 
tions with evidences of degeneration of the branchial tissues at 
the margins of the openings. That they should find it easy to 
feed off of their host is not to be wondered at, in that the branchial 
leaflets are composed of two verv thin chitinous lamellae which 
are kept apart by numerous rounded pillars; in the space be- 
tween the lamellae and around the supporting pillars the blood of 
the host circulates. In consequence of this arrangement, -" f * 






5Q 



General Notes. 



[J.i 



uaiy, 



our parasites need to do in order to get at the juices of their 
host, is to cut through the lamella next to them and they have an 
abundant supply of food always at hand. It appears that Van 
Beneden, the elder, regards them, on the authority of A. Agassiz, 
as messmates, but from the foregoing recital it would appear that 
they are more or less truly parasitic in habit. It appears that 
other crustaceans are infested by planarians, and Professor Leidy 
has described a parasitic genus, Bdellura. 

On the specimen of Limulus examined by me there were three 
well-marked types of egg capsules. The first, represented in 
Figs. 1-4, enlarged sixteen times, measured about a twelfth of an 
inch, or about a line, in length, and usually contained from two 
to four embryos. The branches of the gastric cavity are separate 
posteriorly in the embryos, but afterward become joined, as 
srrown in Fig. 10, supposed to be the adult of this second form 
This form has a pair of eye spots developed at a very early period 




which are retained when hatched. The mode of segmentation of 
the eggs is very difficult to make out in the capsules, as the indi- 
vidual ova are very strongly pigmented, and consequently almost 
opaque, so that the contours of the cells cannot be discerned. 

The second form, represented in Figs. 5-7, enlarged sixteen 
times, is much smaller but similar in structural features to the 
preceding. The capsules measure about one-twenty -fifth of an 
inch in length, and contain usually two eggs or embryos. At 
first the ova occupy each one of the ends of the capsule, as 
shown in Fig, 5, but after the young worms have developed 
somewhat they usually lie along side of each other lengthwise of 
the capsule. They frequently change positions, however, at this 



1 882.] Zoology. 51 

stage, and it sometimes happens that there is but one embryo in 
a capsule. The ova of this, like the preceding species are nearly- 
opaque, and the walls of the stomach in like manner are composed 
of very dark granular protoplasm. 

The next form of capsule observed, is that represented in Fig. 
9, enlarged sixteen times, and is supposed to belong to the adult 
represented in Fig. 8, enlarged five and a half times. These, as 
stated before, were never seen to contain more than one embryo, 
and measure over an eighth of an inch in length. The egg is 
not so darkly pigmented as in the other forms. The supposed 
adult of this species, Fig. 8, is apparently without eyes, and the 
caecal diverticula of the stomach are arranged in a paired system 
on either side of the median line independent of each other. 
The peculiar hood-like cephalic extremity may be of the nature 
of a sucking disk. This last form is milky white in appearance ; 
the caecal prolongations of the stomach, yellowish. The stomach 
in the other forms is dark brown, so that the two types of forms 
may be at once distinguished. 

I do not propose to name the species, as these supposed distinct 
life histories may, after ail our endeavors to separate them, be 
only phases of the same thing. Sure points of distinction can 
only be got by a more thorough study of these interesting types 
than I have been able to bestow upon them, and I leave them 
here in the hands of such helminthologists as may be disposed 
to give the subjects of this notice further attention. 

I have not seen Dr. Graffs final p .per, in which P. limuli was 
to be fully described and illustrated.— John A. Ryder. 

The Circulation of Sessile-eyed Crustacea. — Dr. Yves 
Delage has published in the Archives de Zoologie experimen- 
tale et generate, a superbly illustrated and detailed memoir on the 
circulation of the sessile-eyed Crustacea. The plates are printed 
in colors, so as to bring out clearly the heart, arteries, venous 
sinuses and veins ; moreover, sections of the body are given, so 
that the topography of the circulatory system is given in a 
graphic manner. The memoir is too long for abstract, but it is 
one of the most valuable contributions of the past year to our 
knowledge of the Crustacea. The circulation appears to be on 
much the same plan as in the Decapods. 

Viviparous Chirodota.— A Brazilian species of this genus of 
Holothurians, or sea-cucumbers, has been found by Professor H. 
Ludwig to be viviparous. The genital tubes appear to give rise to 
both eggs and spermatozoa, the latter being developed in their 
blind ends and lateral bunches. The young to the number of 
sixteen, and all of the same stage of development, were found 
lying freely in the body-cavity. They had seven tentacles, two of 
them minute, and in the body-wall were groups of developing or 
developed calcareous wheels. 



52 General Notes. [January, 

A Marine Planariax and its Habitation.— In June, 1881, a 
very large female specimen of the common horse-shoe crab ( Lim- 
ulus polyphemus) came into my hands, 1 on the gills of which I 
observed a number of brown small bodies like seeds of some 
plant, together with living whitish worms, a dendroccelous Plana- 
rian, the Bdclloura Candida Girard. 2 

These worms were of various sizes, the largest (Fig. 1 ; side), 
measuring i6 mm in length and about 6 mm in width, by about i mm 
in thickness. They moved slowly and snail-like over the large 
lamellous gills, their body-margin, especially the anterior portion, 
having undulating motions, these being respiratory movements. 
On placing them in alcohol they became considerably wrinkled 
and contracted. The larger ones had 

t neither cephalic notches (which occur in 

some members of this family), nor eye-dots. 
The dorsal side showed a faint line running 
^1 - along and close to the entire margin. A 
1 ''■ '■■'.V. \ large round muscular bag occasionally pro- 

:ruded 3 from a little behind the middle of 
:he ventral surface ; this is the pharynx. 

In alcoholic specimens a second roundish 

smaller opening could be seen a little be- 

lind the pharynx, the genital orifice. The 

alimentary svstem had about ten or eleven 

V£ '-■ -\;---7 A lateral sacs. * 

WfS The seed- like brown bodies found to- 

Wm gether with the Planarians, I immediately 

took for their egg-cases, which proved to 

Fig. i.— Young Planari*, be correct upon opening some of them 

;i " ! " ' ''-'• ' x; ( ul,K '• <• whence one or two young Planarians could 

/',./ i's,'" be taken. They were of a cream color and 

wax opening; g, male more transparent than their parents. But 

strange enough, they had a pair of distinct 

:'• ■;'!■'•!! -i,n ''i!, L ,v ailuonn e y c "-dot.s, which, I presume, in the adult 

.:,ni. have degenerated. 

The pharynx, the genital orifice and even 
the genital gland (Fig. 1 g) could be recognized. From analogy, 
I infer the latter to be the male organs, the female glands having 
escaped my observation, since our worm is hermaphroditic. The 
movements of these young worms were more rapid than in the 
older ones. 

The egg- cases were of various sizes, by far the greatest num- 
ber, however, being 3.5o ram in length (excluding the stem), by 
l.50 mm in width. They were plano-convex, the latter exteriorly. 
the former towards the gills. They consisted of a brown, homo- 

1 From Theo. C. Hepp, M.D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

2 Identified by Professor A. S. Packard, Jr. 
s In alcoholic specimens in every case. 






Within many of them were the young Plan 
about, from one to three individuals 
in each capsule, in others the same 
were again enclosed within a similar 
oval case without stem, and again 
• others were, found with their tip 
broken off and empty. The greater J ( 

number of them were covered around J " ' K a 

their tip with bluish (colorless in Fig. 2. — a, eggcajwule with a 

alcoholic Specimens) ten-pin-shaped I'll, enclosing two encased embryos: 

tubes with open tips. As these ^'^ , "'^.^ " , ,' Ji'Vui 1-" ~ 
tubes were invariably on or near th ' [\ n \ V !' *" Vi ! in.V t'i/ 1 
tip of the capsules only, they cannot oj- - > • • ncl «ing three young 
be taken for parasitic organisms, ! 

may presumably be openings for an wU reeem Py cases 
exchange of oxygenized water for the enclosed offspring. Those 
capsules having no such tubes, probably got them rubbed off 
through the motions of the gills of the Limulus. A few speci- 
mens of this Planarian, from three to five millimeters in length, 
the size usually found only within the capsules, were amongst the 
larger ones creeping around. These must have just left their pro- 
tecting homes.— Carl F. Gisslcr, Ph.D. 

Eyeof Planarians.— Professor R. Hertwig finds that the nervous 
system of these worms is very primitive in character, and is but 
slightly separated off from the surrounding tissue; in the eye it 
is possible to distinguish a black pigmented and a clear colorless 
portion. The former lies along the animal's axis ; the latter is 
just below the epithelium, and is only separated from it by the 
basal membrane. The pigmented portion, again, consists of two 
parts, a transparent nucleus (vitreous body) and a superficial layer 
of surrounding pigment cells, which are only wanting at the dia- 
phragm-like point at which the retina or colorless part is con- 
nected with the rest. The cylindrical fibers of the vitreous body 
are arranged parallel to one another, the nucleated ends being 
nearest the pigment. The retina is only formed of optic cells, 
which are continued at one end into a nerve-fiber, and at the other 
into a rod- like process. The fibers of the optic nerve traverse 
the retina in a very irregular manner, so that there is no regular 
arrangement of the optic cells. 

recent illustrated paper, entitled " Observations upon the Hippo- 
potamus," by Professor H. C. Chapman, published m the Proceed- 
ings ofthe Academy of Natural Sciences «,f Philadelphia, the author 
g'ves a resume of what has been published upon the general anat- 
omy of this animal, of which he dissected an adult male and female 



of the ordinary Hippopotamus amphibius, which died during the 
year past in this country. He figures the brain, alimentary and 
reproductive systems, and adds much of importance to our 
knowledge of this great beast. In conclusion, he thus remarks 
on the natural affinities of the hippopotamus with the Ungulata 
and other mammals, especially the manatee. " In observing the 
manatee that lived for several months in the Philadelphia Zo61og- 
lcal Garden, the manner in which it rose to the surface of the 
water to breathe reminded me often of the hippopotami that I 
watched in the Zoological Garden of London and the Jardin des 
Plantes in Paris. The slow way in which the animals rise to the 
surface, the motionless pose of the almost sunken body, the nos- 
trils often just appearing at the surface, etc., are very much alike 
in both animals. In speaking of the alimentary canal, I called 
attention to the stomach of the manatee, which represents that of 
the hippopotamus in an atrophied condition, while, on the other 
hand, the stomach of the hippopotamus is intermediate between 
the peccary and the ruminants. As regards the heart it will be 
remembered that in the young hippopotamus, at least, it is bifid, 
' - itib] n - in this respect that of the manatee. The female gen- 
erative apparatus of the peccary and hippopotamus are almost 
identical. Again, the sexual vesicles are found in both hippopot- 
amus and manatee. While the placenta does not appear to me 
to have the importance attached to it bv some authors as a guide 
in determining the affinities of animals', it is proper to mention in 
this connection that according to Milne Edwards and Garrod the 
placenta of the hippopotamus is diffuse, and appears to be non- 
deciduous, and such is the case, according to Harting, in the 
dugong, and therefore in the manatee, probably, for, as a matter 
of fact, the placentation of the manatee is unknown. 

" While the brain of the hippopotamus appears to be a modifi- 
cation of a type common to the pig, peccary, sheep, ox, giraffe, 
etc., it has also, it seems to me, affinities with that of the manatee 
In a word, then, beginning with the pig, we pass by an easy 
transition to the peccary, which leads to the hippopotamus and 
thence, in diverging lines, to the Ruminantia on the one hand, and 
the manatee on the other. Palaeontologists have not discovered a 
form which bridges over the gap between the hippopotamus and 
the manatee, but it will be remembered that certain fossil bones, 
considered by Cuvier to have belonged to an extinct species of 
hippopotamus, //. medius, are regarded by Gervais as the remains 
>! th • Ifalithcn tm fossiL; m extinct Sirenian, of which order the 
manatee is a , According to Professor Owen, 

the molar teeth also, both in the Halil Inotherium, 

another Si reman, are constructed on the same pattern as those of 
the hippopotamus. It is proper to mention, however, that the 
same distinguished observer considers the teeth of the manatee 
and the Prorastomus, another extinct Sirenian, to be rather allied 



J 882.] Zoology. 55 

to those of the tapir and Lophiodon; but this qualification does 
not really invalidate the supposed affinities between the Sirenia 
and the hippopotamus. For the Artiodactyla and the Perissodac- 
tyla are probably offshoots of a common stock, and hence we may 
expect to find in these two groups certain characters common to 
both, inherited from their Lophiodon and Coryphodon-like ances- 
tors. The affinities of the teeth of the manatee with those of the 
tapir — the first an embryonic Artiodactyle, the second a generalized 
Perissodactyle — would be examples of the above view. I do not 
mean to imply that the manatee has necessarily descended directly 
from the hippopotamus, though extinct intermediate forms may 
in the future show this to be so, for possibly they may be the de- 
may appear mere waste of time, we being unable, from the nature 
of the case, td experimentally prove or disprove the truth of the 
hypothesis advanced. It seems to me, however, that the only 
explanation of the structure of the living forms and of the petrified 
remains of the animals referred to in these observations, is the hy- 
pothesis of there being some generic connection between them." 

Verrillia blakei or Haltpteris blakei.— In the San Fran- 
cisco Mining and Scientific Press, of August 9th, 1873, I pub- 
lished a " Description of a new species of Alcyonoid Polyp, which 
I placed in Cuvier's genus Pavonaria, and gave to it the specific 
name of blakei, in recognition of the courtesy of Dr. James Blake, 
who kindly furnished the specimens to describe. Subsequently, 
nine days after the publication of the first description as above, at 
a meeting of the California Academy of Sciences, held on the 1 8th 
day of August, I removed the species to a new sub-genus which 
I called Verrillia, in honor of Professor Verrill, of Yale College. 

The characters of this sub-genus were defined as follows : 
" Polypidon linear-elongate, round or ovate in cross section. 
Axis round, slender, bony; polyps arranged in two unilateral 
longitudinal series." 

In Nature for November 6th, 1873, Dr. J. E. Gray, in an article 
entitled, "On the stick fish (Osteocella septentri naUs\ and the 
habits of the sea pens," endeavored to make it appear that his 
genus and species, should have precedence, or the names so given 
by him should stand instead of mine, and gave what he called 
" the synonyma of these animals." presenting the sequence of dates 
of publication of the various papers, to show the priority of his 

To this communication of Dr. Gray's I replied in a paper read 
before the California Academy of Sciences on the 1 6th of March, 
1874. in which I reviewed the claims of Dr. Gray and his genus 
and species Osh clla u *tt t n 1 \ and domed the validit\ th "ro- 
of, on the ground that "No description sufficiently accurate to be 
worthy of consideration can be made of the axial rods or bones 
alone, of this class of animal forms, nor can species be satisfac- 



$6 General Notes. [January, 

torily determined'without the fleshy portion ; nor in our present 
state of knowledge can the microscope determine these points." 

In the Zoological Record for 1873, Vol. x (pp. 508-9), Dr. Lut- 
kin, editor of the department Ccelenterata, uses the following 
language : " Its generic identity with the Australian species (type 
of Osteocella), cannot be established so long as the latter is known 
only from the axial skeleton." 

It will be seen by the quotation that Dr. Lutken practically 

My description, read before the Academy, August 18th, 1873, 
was soon after reprinted in the American Journal of Science and 
Art, to which Professor Verrill added a foot-note as follows: "A 
recent examination of a specimen, convinces me that this species 
is most nearly allied to the Halipteris christii K611iker (Koren 
and Dar., sp.), and probably ought to be referred to the same 

While regretting that the generic title with which I had asso- 
ciated the name of a justly distinguished naturalist, as well as a 
personal friend, must yield to precedence, I can only accept his 
suggestion, and place the species in Kolliker's genus Halipterus. 
The allusions herein to the late Dr. Gray are not intended to re- 
vive any differences of opinion as between that eminent authority 
and myself, but are incidentally introduced, being necessary to 
the continuity of the record of my own connection with the form 
which furnishes the title to this paper. 

I was not aware until recently that I had not already called the 
attention of the Academy to Professor Verrill's note, which long- 
continued sickness in my family, and the pressure, until very re- 
cently, of official duties caused me to overlook. — R. E. C.Stearns, 
Berkefy, California, Nov. 9, 188 1. 

Discoveries of the U. S. Fish Commission on the South- 
ern- Coast of New England. — In the American Journal of 
Science for October, Professor Verrill records the further discov- 
eries made the past summer over a region about 42 miles wide, 
north and south, and 105 miles long, along the 100-fathom line 
off the southern coast of New England. It will be remembered 
that a remarkably rich fauna inhabits this region, which is near 
the edge of the Gulf stream, and at the edge of the descent to the 
ocean bottom. This richness in life seems to be due to the fol- 
lowing reasons stated by Verrill : This region is subject to the 
combined effects of the Gulf stream on one side, and the cold 
northern current on the other, together with the gradual decrease 
in temperature in proportion to the depth. It is, therefore, prob- 
able that, at any given depth below 50 fathoms, the temperature 
is nearly the same at all seasons of the year. Moreover, there is, 
in this region, an active circulation of the water at all times, due 
to the combined currents and tides. The successive zones of 



1 882.] Zoology. 57 

than near the coast. The vast quantities of free-swimming ani- 
mals continually brought northward by the Gulf stream, and 
filling the water, both at the surface and bottom, furnish an inex- 
haustible supply of food for many of the animals inhabiting the 
bottom, and probably, directly or indirectly to nearly all of them. 

A very large species of Salpa, often five or six inches long, 
occurs, both at the surface and close to the bottom, in vast quan- 
tities. These are eaten by star-fishes, actiniae, etc. Pteropods 
also frequently occur in the stomachs of star-fishes, while Foram- 
inifera furnish a large part of the food of many of the mud dwell- 
ing species. The fishes, which are very abundant, and of many 
species, of which the file-fish is the most notable, find a wonder- 
fully abundant supply of most excellent food in the very numerous 
species of crabs, shrimps and other Crustacea, which occur in 
such vast quantities that, not unfrequently, many thousands of 
specimens of several species are taken in a single haul of the 
trawl. Cephalopods are also abundant, and are eagerly devoured 
by the larger fishes, while others prey largely upon the numerous 
gastropods and bivalves. Many interesting fishes and mollusks 
were taken, some new to science, and of great interest ; among 
the latter, the most remarkable is a new species of the tropical 
shell Dolium ( D. b.nrdii), taken alive in 202 fathoms. Dolium 
galea extends northward to North Carolina. This southern 
form, with a large Marginella, an Avicula, and various other genera, 
more commonly found in southern waters, are curiously associ- 
ated, in this region, with genera and species which have hitherto 
been regarded as exclusively northern, or even arctic ; many of 
them having been first discovered in the waters of Greenland, 
Spitsbergen, Northern Norway, Jan Meveii Land, etc. A number 
of northern, mostly arctic, forms, not previously found south of 
Cape Cod, were also dredged. 

Does the Crow Blackbird Eat Crayfish ?— Professor Beal, 
of the Iowa Agricultural C oil ge, asks this question in the No- 
vember Naturalist, his inquiry having been prompted by fin d- 
jng twenty-six gastroliths.or stomach-stones in a bird's " gizzard.'' 
The little incident which I will here record. I think will fairly 
settle this question with an affirmative answer. Crayfish inhabit 
many, doubtless most of the sloughs and wet places on our 
prairies ; but I suppose the species to be identical with that in our 
nyers and streams, though they are sometimes spoken of as 



" 1; 


md-crabs." Outside of where the 


, watcr cov 'ers the 


til, 


y dig holes into the soil, and in 


carrying out the d 


ho] 


es are frequently built up like littl 


e chimneys, someti 




*ix inches above the surface. In a c 




tg 


descend so far, in order to keep ii 


1 the water which i 


\>u 


Y to their existence, that they pa 


ss through our vc 


ck soil, and bring up the light-coloi 


red sand and fine gf 


tin. 


J way, they do a vast amount of wo 


rk — generally, I be 



58 General Notes. [January, 

the night as they are seldom, if ever, seen so engaged. Passing 
a slough on the road, where these curious animals live, one day, 
three or four years ago, I saw a crow blackbird ( ' Quiscalus pur- 
pureas), very hard at work in an apparent effort to grasp some 
object on the ground. In a moment it flew up and alighted on a 
fence-post, having in its bill a quite large crayfish. The bird held 
it by the back, as a boy grasps one in his fingers, to keep clear of 
the creature's pinchings claws. The captor had evidently done 
that sort of thing before, for it manifested none of the awkward- 
ness of a "new hand" at the business. During the moment 
which elapsed before the bird flew off with its prey, I could dis- 
tinctly see the crayfish's legs and feet in rapid motion, as it was 
feeling about for some object to grasp, or struggling to escape. 
The bird seemed to have quite a job in mastering the bundle of 
claws and legs, but it appeared determined not to abandon its 
lucky "find." I believe this incident maybe taken as a very 
positive answer to Professor Beat' in regard to 

the food of any of our birds we need just such crucial tests as 
those which have been made by Professor Forbes, of Normal, 
Illinois. As to the presence of such an unusual number of these 
gastroliths, in the bird's stomach, it would require close observa- 
tion to determine whether they were picked up and swallowed as 
aids to digestion, in grinding up the food; or were left for the 
sa'me purpose after the other portions of the crayfish had passed 
along into the intestines. But these sagacious and active birds 
are so often seen walking in the shallow water, that their mission 
is no doubt the capture of all sorts of " small deer" which abide 
in there, as minnows, crayfish, worms, small frogs, &c. They 
are wise birds, and they walk about within a few feet of an 
observer, with a degree of coolness and nonchalance which is as 
amusing as it is unusual in our feathered visitants. In spring and 
fall they industriously follow a plow all day long, devouring all 
sorts of insects, and at such times become exceedingly tame. In 
fact, their behavior is exactly of that kind to indicate that they 
take it for granted that no one desires to hurt them. At all 
events, that is the case on my farm. — Charles Aldrieh, Webster 
City, lenva, Nov. 10, 1881. 

Wild Birds Racing with the Cars. — Several times I have 
noticed wild birds of different species flying along parallel with, 
and near a railroad train, in such a way as to suggest the idea 
that they were really trying to distance the iron horse! One 
day last spring I was coming east from Sioux City, Iowa, 
on the Illinois Central R. R., when my attention was attracted 
to a couple of birds which seemed to be making us a trial of 
their speed with the train. They were, as I supposed at the 
time, our smallest species of hawks — sharp, alert, powerful birds, 
possessed of a high degree of strength and endurance on the 
wing. They kept steadily on their course a dozen rods from 



1 882.] Zodlogy. 59 

the train, for at least a mile and a half, but the train was 
too rapid for them, and they finally turned aside and went 
back in the direction whence they came. A strong head-wind 
was blowing at the time, and the birds at some moments seemed 
to sail squarely in its teeth without fluttering a wing. I watched 
them with much interest, and I did not think I could be mistaken 
in the belief that they were really trying to beat the train in the race. 
Horses and dogs frequently race with railroad trains, and possibly 
the instinct for sport and excitement may also exist in the wild 
birds. — Charles Aldrich, Webster City, Iowa, Nov. p, 1881. 

Infusoria in Dew.— Mr. W. S. Kent states, in his Manual of 
the Infusoria, that he gathered in a very foggy day in Regent's 
Park a quantity of grass saturated with " dew," and found in every 
drop squeezed from the grass great numbers of infusoria of dif- 
ferent genera, such as Heteromita, Vorticella, etc., with Rotifer vul- 
garis and other rotifers, and numerous Amceb«,Anguillula, and va- 
rious diatoms, the collection as a whole being indistinguishable 
from the ordinary microscopic fauna of a roadside pond. 

Zoological Notes.— The practical aspects of zoology must 
be appreciably felt in India, where it is reported that no fewer than 
21,990 persons were killed during the year 1880 by snakes and 
tigers. The annual percentage of loss has increased during the 
past five years, the number of victims in 1876 not exceeding 
19,273- It also appears that the white ant in India costs the 
government £100,000 a year for repairing wood- work, bridges, 

etc., caused by its depredations. A preliminary report, by P. 

H. Carpenter, on the Comatulae dredged by the U. S. Coast Sur- 
vey, under the supervision of Mr. A. Agassiz, in the Gulf of 
Mexico, the Caribbean sea, and the east coast of the United States, 
appears in the Bulletin of the Cambridge Museum. The collec- 
tion embraces forty new species of Comatulae, the number known 
to inhabit the Caribbean sea alone being fifty-five ; the genus being 

essentially a shoal-water one. An additional case of supposed 

hybridity in birds is noticed by W. Brewster, in the Bulletin of 
the Nuttall Ornithological Club, for October. He thinks that 
Helminthophaga la, \rauchialis and //. lawcncci are hybrids 
between H. pinus and H. ckrysoptera. Hitherto it was not known 
to occur in any American birds, except among grouse and some 
of the swimming birds. Among the Passeres Trotter's hybrid 
swallow, and Ridgway's case of a supposed hybrid between 
Hdwinthophaga pinus' and Oporomis fonnosa, have lately been 
added. Mr. Brewster thinks there are several additional doubtful 

species, which " show strong traces of a hybrid origin." In the 

same journal, A. M. Frazer concludes that, instead of following 
the land, a large number of species migrate direct from Central 
America to the Mississippi valley, across the Gulf of Mexico, 
and the scarcity of these species in Southwestern Texas is thus 



60 General Notes. [January, 

explained. A new edition of Brehm's Thierleben, with 170 

chromo-lithograph plates, is to be issued in 140 weekly parts, at 
36 cents each, postpaid. B. Westermann & Co., of New York, 

are the agents in this country. An annotated list of the birds 

of Nevada, by W. A. Hoffman, appears in the Bulletin of Hayden's 
U. S. Geological Survey, Vol. vi. It is prefaced by remarks on 
the distribution of vegetation in Nevada, as affecting that of the 

avi-fauna, and is accompanied by interesting profile views. A 

valuable illustrated paper on the comparative anatomy and the his- 
tology of the brain, and more particularly of the epiphysis cerebri 
of Plagiostomes, Ganoids and Teleostei, by Dr. T. Th. Catter, gives 
us .some apparently excellent drawings of the brains of Raya 
clavata, Acanthias vulgata, Galeus cams, Acipoiser sturio, Gadus 
morrhua, Cyclopterus lumpus, and the common eel, which will be 

found very useful to naturalists in this country. The Zo'dlo- 

gischer Anzeiger, for Nov. 14, contains a summary of new re- 
searches by Salensky, on the embryonal development of Salpa, 

and several articles on the intestinal worms. Prof. Haeckel 

has gone to Ceylon on a scientific journey. A new zoological 

station, to serve as a winter laboratory, and as an annex to the 
sea-side laboratory founded by Lacaze Duthiers at Roscoff, is to 
be opened at Banyuls-sur-Mer, on the Mediterranean. The 
building, says Nature, will be of considerable size, and the aqua- 
rium will be lighted by electricity. An English adaptation of 

Claus' " Handbuch der Zoologie," by Mr. Adam Sedgwick, of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, with the addition of 500 to 600 
drawings by Prof. Claus himself, b to be published by W. Swan, 

Sonnenschein & Co., London. A hand-book of Vertebrate 

Dissection, by Prof. H. Newell Martin and William A. Moale, 
M.D., Part 1, How to dissect a Chelonian, is announced as pub- 
lished by Macmillan & Co. 

ENTOMOLOGY.' 

On Some Curious Methods of Chalcid Pupation.— In the 
course of two years' study of the Chalcididae, I have met with 
several anomalies connected with pupation, which seem to be 
worthy of description, and to which, so far as I can learn, with a 
single exception, the attention of entomologists has not been 
called. 

One of the most curious of these instances, and one which 
has excited the greatest interest among my entomological 
friends to whom I have shown the specimens, is the case of a 
larva of Phoxopteris divisana Walk., an oak-feeding Tortricid, 
which has been parasited by an Euplectrus. The species I have 
called in MS. E. albitrophis and the method of pupation is so 
similar to that of E. comstockii, graphically described by Mr. 

^his department is edited by Prof. C. V. Riley, Washington, D. C, to whom 



1 882.] Entomology. 61 

Schwarz in the January, 1881, number of the Naturalist, as to 
need no extended description. The flat, empty skin of the host 
is united to the leaf by a mesh of coarse silk, in which are placed 
transversely the seven parasitic pupae, each separated from the 
others by a silken partition, and protected as by a roof by the 
skin of the Phoxopteris. Other lepidopterous larvae will un- 
doubtedly be found to be infested by parasites of this interesting 
genus, and the only wonder is that no observations should have 
been recorded since the days of Fonscolombe. 

In early July, while examining the mines of Lithocolletis hama- 
dryad* lla, on the white oak at Washington, several mines were 
found, each of which presented a discolored portion, regularly 
elliptical in form, 3.5 mm long by 2 ,nm wide, the edge of which was 
marked by a series of small, regularly placed black dots. Upon 
removing carefully the separated epidermis of the leaf, the center 
of the discolored portion was seen to be occupied by a naked 
Chalcid pupa, not fastened to the leaf in any way, but held in 
place and protected by a series of minute cylindrical pillars, from 
twelve to fifteen in number, applied by flattened extremities to the 
upper and lower surfaces of the mine, and forming a regular 
ellipse around the pupa. The distances between the pillars were 
uniform, and the pillars themselves were very constant in size. 
Their length was about 0.3 5 mm . The excrement of Chalcid 
larvae, as is vvell-kn >\x\\, is only voided at the change to pupae, 
and is usually to be found in a few irregular pellets at the anal 
end of the body of the pupa. These pillars, however, seem to be 
clearly excrementitious, and yet must have been formed by the 
Chalcid larva prior to pupation ; but, as the anal end of the ali- 
mentary canal is only open during the transition to pupa, the 
material composing the pillars must have been expelled from 
the mouth of the larva, and shaped while yet moist. The most 
natural thought which suggests itself as to the object of this pe- 
culiar disposition of the excrement, is that the pillars by separa- 
ting the floor and the roof of the mine save the pupa from the 
pressure of the latter, as the mine of L. hamadryadeUa is flat and 
not tentiform. If this be so, and no other reasonable explanation 
offers itself, it is certainly a most interesting and unlooked-for 
provision. The adult proved to belong to a brilliant little species 
of Chrysocharis F6rst, which I have called in MS. C. singulars. 

While engaged one day in October in an oak wood, gathering 
galls with a view of breeding parasites, I found upon the under 
side of a leaf a curious assemblage of small black bodies, resem- 
bling, as much as anything I could think of, the excrement of 
some caterpillar. They were shapeless little objects, each mounted 
on end, and at the extremity of each, next the leaf, was a small 
racemose cluster of minute li-dit "rav globule*. Without giving 
them a careful examinati- n I "ett ed it n n v mind that the glob- 
ules were the sporidia of some fungus which had settled upon 



General Notes. [January, 

ental pellets as a matrix. With this view I stowed the 
leaf away in a pill-box, purposing to carry it to a mycological 
friend next day. On the following morning, however, I was greatly 
surprised to find that from several of my supposed excremental 
pellets had issued active little Chalcid flies. This of course led to 
a closer examination, and to the discovery that the supposed pel- 
lets were the bunchiest, most shapeless, most coarctate Chalcid 
pupae I had ever seen. There were twenty-two of them in all, 

of which had evidently, from the scattered hairs, once been occu- 
pied by the caterpillar upon which they had fed. Each pupa was 
fastened by its anal end to the leaf, and the clusters of light gray 
globules at the end of each, which I had taken for sporidia were 
nothing more than the contents of the alimentary canal, ejected 
before pupation. The surface of the leaf in the center of the oval 
space, round which the pupae were clustered, was covered with a 
thin web of silk, which rendered the attachment of the pupae to 
the leaf easier and firmer. 

From these strange objects the adult Chalcids emerge by burst- 
ing off the upper portion of the pi the separated 
part attached only by the sheaths of the posterior legs. The line 
of fracture extends behind the head and down caudo-ventrally, 
including the wing and leg sheaths in the separated portion. It 
has been suggested to me that the apparent want of form which 
these pupae show — their extreme coarctation — could be explained 
on the supposition that the very delicate larval skin was not shed 
at all, but simply contracted closely around the pupa and its mem- 
bers as it formed. After softening the pupa, however, in various 
menstrua, the most careful examination showed no trace of such 
a skin. The strange form must rather be laid to some peculiarity 
in the secretion of the chitine. 

Since this first experience I have several times found these in- 
teresting and sociable-looking little groups of pupae upon oak 
leaves. The little mass of excremental globules at the end of 
each, by its decided contrast of color, adds much to the strange- 
ness of the appearance. I have never found other trace of the 
host than the scattered hairs, which show it to be a bombycid 
larva. The Chalcid issuing normally from these pupae is a species 
of the true genus Eulophus ; but one is apt to be misled by the 
frequent presence of a secondary parasite— an Astichus. The lat- 
ter, however, instead of issuing in the manner indicated above, 
makes its exit through a circular hole, cut usually in the thorax 
of the pupa. It is, moreover, a much smaller insect than the 
Eulophus. — '/'<> dc continued.) — L. O. Hoivard. 

On the Ovjposition of Prodoxus decipiens. 1 — In his paper 
treating of this insect, read at the Boston meeting, the author 

1 Abstract of a paper read by C. V. Riley at the Cincinnati meeting of the 



1 882.] Entomology. 63 

stated that oviposition had not been observed. He has studied it 
carefully the past summer, and finds that, as the structure of the 
ovipositor would indicate, the female stations herself lengthwise 
with the axis of the stem, usually head upward, and literally saws 
through the epidermis with an up and down motion, just such as 
a carpenter would make in endeavoring to work the tip of an ordi- 
nary hand saw into the trunk of a tree. She never has anything to 
do with the stigma of the flower, as Pronuba does, and the im- 
portant and interesting fact is recorded that the eggs of Prodoxus 
are all inserted while the stem is soft and before the flowers begin 
to open, i. c, before Pronuba usually appears. As soon as the 
flowers begin to open (in Yucca filamentosa, the species upon 
which the observations were made) the stem has become too hard 
to permit the female to do her work, and the species has, for the 
most part, disappeared, only a few belated individuals being sub- 
sequently found, and these, so far as could be observed, perishing 
without issue. In experiments made to test the matter, it was 
found that where a female succeeded in inserting the ovipositor 
into a stem that had become hard, she perished in the effort to 
disengage herself, and remained firmly attached to the stem. 

Clover Insects.— We have received an interesting brochure on 
the insects of the clover plant by Mr. Lintner, the State Ento- 
mologist of New York. After an introduction showing by quo- 
tations from Mr. George Geddes, the importance of the clover 
crop, especially to the people of New York State, he makes mani- 
fest the large increase of insect depredators on the plant. He then 
remarks upon the fact that no notice of clover insects appears in 
the reports of Dr. Fitch, his predecessor; which fact indicates the 
scarcity or the unimportance of the insects affecting the crop in 
Fitch's time. He next quotes from Kaltenbach's Pflanzenfeinde 
a list of sixty-six species affecting clover in Europe, and by 
way of comparison gives a list of our own species which includes 
thirty-three Lepidoptera, three Coleoptera, three Diptera,five Or- 
thoptera and two Homoptera, and concludes with a detailed 
account of Hylast, < trifolii, C <<:■/ mvi.i lariiniiuiiolti, C trifolii and 
Osanis trifolii. 

It may be safely assumed that the number of species in this 
country affecting the plant, though not perhaps injuriously, will 
be at least doubled by future observation, and in Coleoptera we 
feel confident that it will be quintupled. 

Horn's Classification of the Carabid,e.— A great deal of 
the classificatory work done by entomologists is based upon the 
study of isolated groups or of more or less restricted local faunas. 
Useful as such work may be. vet the complex relationships of forms; 
tne true value of characters used for separating genera and 
Higher groups ; the coordination or subordination of characters, 
and other important classificatory questions, can be fully recog- 



IV. pp 



64 General Notes. [January, 

nized only by study of a whole family from all parts of the globe. 
Dr. Geo.H. Horn, whose excellent work on the Silphidae was 
noticed not long since in these columns (p. 128), has just published 
in the Transactions of the American Entomological Society (vol. 
pp. 91-196, plates 111-x), an elaborate paper "On the genera 
~arabidae with special reference to the fauna of Boreal America." 
This is the first paper covering the general classification of this 
large family which has appeared since the publication of Lacor- 
daire's first volume of his " Genera des Coleopteres " though a 
number of important papers by LeConte, Schanm and Chaudoir 
have contributed to our knowledge of the subject. Dr. Horn 
begins with a discussion of the characters of the Adephagous 
series of Coleoptera and divides them into seven families, the 
formation of the metasternum being of primary importance. The 
Haliplidae, Amphizoidae and Pelobiidse are considered as families 
equivalent to the long established ones, viz : Cicindelidae, Cara- 
bidae, Dytiscidae and Gyrinidae. The Pseudomorphidae, formerly 
looked upon as a distinct family, are made to constitute one of the 
three sub- families (Pseudomorphinae) of Carabidae, the two others 
being the Carabinae and Harpalinae, the bulk of the tribes and 
genera being embraced in the Harpalinae. Tables and full ex- 
positions of the characters of the tribes of the whole family are 
then given, accompanied by tables of the genera occurring in our 
fauna. We cannot, in our limited space, treat of this important 
paper in detail; but if the student will compare the lucid and in- 
genious arrangement of the sub-family Harpalinae, for instance, as 
given by Dr. Horn, with the former chaotic arrangements, he will 
be able to form an idea, not only of the immense amount of labor 
expended, but also of the excellency of the work. It is, perhaps, 
the most important of the several revisions the author has of late 
years given us— all of them so fresh, thorough and original, that 
it is a veritable pleasure to work by them.— C. V. R. 

The Butterfly Trees of Monterey Again. — We gave in 
the July number of this magazine an abstract from a letter 
of Miss Jennie R. Bush, of San Jose, Cal., in reference to the so- 
called butterfly trees, near Monterey, of that State. From speci- 
mens sent some time ago by Miss Bush, we find that the butterfly 
in question is the cosmopolitan Danais archippus, which, as is 
well known, lias , K similar habit of congregating in immense num- 
bers on trees in the Atlantic States, and does this during winter 
in the extreme Southeast (vide American fiiit.wwlo<rist, Vol. Hi.p- 
102). It was on the 27th of Februarv that Mis Bush observed 
the phenomenon above related. The inference to be drawn from 
the interesting facts is, that the species finds on the Pacific slope, 
about the latitude 36 30', a climate congenial to its hibernation, 
whereas on the Atlantic side, it has to migrate southward so far 
as latitude 30 . 



1 882.] Entomology. 65 

Interest Felt in Economic Entomology in California.— 
The Board of State Horticultural Commissioners issued a call 
for a State Convention of fruit-growers, shippers, packers, nursery- 
men, and others interested in horticulture in California, to be held 
at the Senate Chamber, Sacramento, on Tuesday and Wednesday, 
the 6th and 7th of December, 1 881, to commence at 10 o'clock, a. 
m. of the 6th, for the purpose of consultation and discussion of 
the most practical means of exterminating the insect pests, now in- 
festing the orchards and gardens of that State ; and such other 
subjects as may be introduced for the improvement of the fruit- 
growing industries of California. The Central Pacific Railroad 
Co. kindly allowed a two-thirds rate of fare from all their 
stations in California, to persons attending the convention, and 
issued instructions to their agents at all points in California, 
to sell tickets at a two-thirds rate of fare. 

Obituary. — We regret exceedingly to have to record the death 
of Joseph Duncan Putnam, president of the Davenport Academy 
of Natural Science. He died on the 10th of December, at his 
home in Davenport, in the 27th year of his age, having been born 
in Jacksonville, Ills., Oct. 18, 1855. From boyhood, Mr. Putnam 
found fascination in the study of nature, and as he grew older, 
gave more and more attention to entomology. In 1872 and 1873 
he traveled and collected in Colorado and Wyoming, in company 
with Dr. C. C. Parry. By the people of Davenport he will be 
most remembered for his unflagging efforts in behalf of the Acad- 
emy of Sciences, which is so largely indebted to him. In ento- 
mology, his chief work was on the Coccids, and at the time of his 
death he was still deeply interested in the family, and in the 
Solpugidae. Soon after his return from the West, in 1872, he 
contracted a severe cold, from the effects of which he never 
fully recovered. We first became acquainted with the deceased 
about that time, when he Avas greatly emaciated and racked 
by a very severe cough. Of late years he seemed to grow 
stronger, and get more free of his lung trouble, so that there was 
hope of prolonged life and usefulness for one who made friends of 
all whom he met, by a quiet modesty and lovable disposition, 
combined with diligent study, earnestness and enthusiasm, all the 
more remarkable, because of the physical suffering he struggled 
with. His bereaved family have our heartfelt condolence. 

The announcement of the death of Count Georges Vandalia 
Mneszech, on Nov. 17th, at Paris, aged 58, has also just reached 
us through the editor of Psyche. He had one of the moste~ f -" c 
collections of Coleoptera in the world. 



6 General Notes. [January 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 
Review of Recent Works on Anthropology. — 

nthropology: an introduction to the study of Man and Civilization. By Edward 
B. Tylor, D.C.I... F.R.S.. with illustrations. Xew York, I). Appleton & Co., 

he ancient Bronze Implements, Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain and Ire- 



Primitive Industi in stone, bone and clay of the 

Abbott, M.D., etc. Salem, Mass., George A. Bates. Cincinnati, Robert Clarke 
& Co. 1881. 8vo, pp. 560. 
Report upon Ui Surveys west of the 100th meridian, in 

charge of First Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, under 
the direction of Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army. 
Published by authority of the Honorable the Secretary of War, in accordance 
with Acts of Congress of June 23, 1874, and Ferbuary 15, 1875, in seven vol- 
umes, ace- itlas. Vol vn — 
Archaeology. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1879. [Special Titles, 
page vn and VIII.] 4to, pp. 497. 

Anthropology is the application of scientific methods to the 
study of man — it is the natural history of the human race. In 
order to appreciate the merits and the defects of a scientific trea- 
tise, it is first necessary to have a clear conception of the exten- 
sion and structure of the subject matter itself. Of anthropology 
the best idea can be conveyed by sions as they 

are understood by those most conversant with* the subject, to 

1. Hexicology (Mivart). — The study of environment, inorganic, 
organic and social, in all its relations to our race. 

2. Autliropogeny (Haeckel). — The discussion of man's origin 
with respect to place, time, zoologic affinities and primitive con- 

3. Archceology. — Prehistoric and classical. The early history 
of mankind, including modern races still in the stone period. 

4. Biology of Man. — The investigation of man's physical nature 
during its life-history, embracing anatomy, physiology and anthro- 
pometry, and compared with the evolution of lower forms. 

5. Comparative Psychology. — The study of intelligence among 
all animated beings, and the comparison of the various races of 

6. Glottology. — Research into the origin of language and of the 
Various forms which it has assumed. 

7. Ethnology. — The discussion of the origin and characteristics 
of the races of men. The description of races is ethnography. 

8. Comparative Technology. — An examination of human arts as 
to their origin and the lines of their elaboration. 

9. Sociology. — The study of society in the family, the commu- 
nity and the organized government. It includes the structure of 

l Edited by Professor Otis T. Mason, 1305 Q. street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 



1 882.] Anthropology. 67 

society, the function of its members as well as their processes and 
customs. 

10. Comparative Religion. — The description of humanity in all 
its attitudes with reference to the soul, a future life, and spiritual 
beings related to man. # 

11. Anthropological Apparatus. — A science so comprehensive 
must have its instruments of precision, its museums and libraries, 
and its special works. No treatise upon the subject at large 
would be complete without an account of these instrumentalities. 

With this analysis before us, it is not difficult to gauge the 
works under review. Tylor's Anthropology professes to cover 
the whole field. In this regard it not only enters into compe- 
tition with older works, such as Waitz's Anthropology, and 
Klemm's Culturgeschicte, but with more recent publications, such 
as Peschels' Races of Men, Topinard's Anthropologic, and Qua- 
trefages' L'Espece Humaine. Each of these works has great 
merit, especially in those divisions of the subject wherein the 
author is a specialist. Peschel is an ethnologist, Topinard and 
Quatrefages are distinguished anatomists, Tylor has devoted 
his whole life to linguistics, technology, and comparative 
religion. In this work of the latter, therefore, we should rea- 
sonably expect to find the greater space given to these 
themes. In fact, Hexicology is almost totally neglected ; 
Anthropogeny, Archaeology, Biology and Ethnology are dis- 
missed in the first three chapters of 113 pages ; Glottology has 
chapters iv-vn, 68 pages; Technology, chapters vm-xiii, 
160 pages; Sociology, chapter xvi, 35 pages; and Comparative 
Religion, chapters xiv and xv, 58 pages. Furthermore, merit 
in this instance, has no relation to the number of pages, those 
subjects which are treated in a short space being very superficially 
handled, while those which occupy the greater part of the book 
show everywhere the hand of a master. Dr. Tylor is a pleasant 
writer, never dips his pen in gall, and never rushes into extremes. 
It would be no disparagement to the great number of anthropol- 
ogists in England to say that Dr. Tylor was, of all, the best 
adapted to write this work. The book fills a decided gap in our 
scientific literature, and will, no doubt, find its way into the li- 
brary of every one interested in the natural history of man. 

The volume of Mr. Evans is of an entirely different character. 
It is a fraction of a fraction, as regards its subject matter, being a 
chapter in archaeology, restricted in its area to Great Britain, and 
in the material described to bronze, in the widest acceptation of 
that term. For ten years Evans' Ancient Stone Implements, 
Weapons, and Ofnaments of Great Britain, has been the Bible of 
archaeologists. Whether we regard the analysis of the book, its 
typographic appearance, the beautiful cuts, or the wonderful 
nicety of description, it is well nigh faultless. The volume on 
bronze implements is a fit companion to the one just mentioned. 



68 General Notes. [January, 

The introductory chapter reviews the history of bronze in the 
classical languages and touches upon the mooted question of an 
antecedent copper age. The rest of the work takes up in detail 
celts of various forms, chisels, gouges, hammers, sickles, knives, 
razors, daggers, spears, halberds, maces, swords, armor, trumpets, 
bells, pins, ornaments, and vessels. The great interest of the 
.book, however, centers around the two closing chapters, relating 
to the methods employed by ancient bronze-workers, and the 
chronology and origin of bronze. The relation of Mr. Evans to 
modern archaeological investigations as a cautious doubter, gives 
to all his utterances a credibility of the highest order. 

Dr. C. C. Abbott has long been known as an indefatigable 
worker in archaeology. For some years he has enjoyed excep- 
tionable advantages as an associate curator of the Peabody Mu- 
seum at Cambridge, Mass. Like the work of Dr. Evans, this vol- 
ume is devoted to a part only of one of the subdivisions of anthro- 
pology, being restricted in area to the north-east Atlantic States, and 
in material, to stone, bone and clay ; but, like Dr. Evans in another 
respect, the author rambles frequently far from the Atlantic ocean, 
and even inserts a chapter on copper implements. The illustra- 
tions, like those in most American archaeological works, not ex- 
cepting some of the publications of the Smithsonian Institution, are, 
most of them, very poor, indeed. The great merit of the book is its 
adaptation to a very large class of intelligent people in our coun- 
try, who are interested in local archaeology, and would like to 
place themselves under the guidance of a skilled workman. For 
such persons Primitive Industry is valuable, though a little prolix. 
Practical archaeologists will run rapidly over the volume until 
they come to chapters xxxn and XXXIIl (the latter by Professor 
Henry Carvill Lewis), in order to hear Dr. Abbott's latest utter- 
the palaeolithic implements of the Trenton gravels. 
)wn peculiar province, and a subject worthy of the most 
careful scrutiny. In short, Dr. Abbott finds in the Trenton gravels, 
at a depth varying from three to forty feet, along-side of and be- 
neath remains of the mastodon, " turtle-back " celts. The geo- 
logical age of this deposit is unknown, but the implements are 
held to be veritable traces of a people who inhabited the northern 
Atlantic seaboard of America untold centuries prior to the advent 
of the Indian, or of Indians who reached our shores as far back 
as the glacial epoch. 

Volume vn of the United States Geographical Surveys, west 
of the iooth meridian, is a joint production of F. W. Putnam, C. 
C. Abbott, S. S. Haldeman, II. C. Yarrow, II. W. Ilenshaw, Lucien 
Carr, and Albert S. Gatschet, in very unequal proportions, how- 
ever, the greater part of it being the work of Prof. Putnam and 
Dr. Abbott. Several of the chapters are reproduced from Lieut. 
Wheeler's annual reports. Although a child of hope deferred, 
the imprint dating 1879, its parents have many reasons to be 






i882.j Anthropology. 69 

proud of it. There are 22 plates, including the frontispiece and 
a map of the coast of Southern California; seventeen of these are 
heliotypes and very excellent, excepting those representing deep- 
vessels, to which the process is not adapted. The remaining 
plates, front, xvi, xvn, xvm, xix, are beautiful colored litho- 
graphs, in whose praise too much cannot be said; the dancers in 
the front, we think, are much too light colored. This method of 
illustration is very expensive, however, and must be looked upon as 
the luxury of the science. The cuts, photo-relief drawings, th< nigh 
rude, are most of them, especially those representing rotundity, 
quite graphic. The great desideratum now is a method of depict- 
ing a great number of objects correctly at a moderate expense. 
Now, what is this volume about ? The subject is graphically set 
forth. by Dr. Yarrow, on pages 32-47. It is the description of a 
fortunate series of discoveries upon the main land and on the 
Santa Barbara islands opposite, in Southern California. These 
sites yielded a large and unique collection of crania and aborigi- 
nal implements which were subsequently placed in the hands of 
Prof. F. W. Putnam and his assistants at Cambridge to describe. 
Some of the chipped flints are of extreme delicacy of form and 
finish, well shown in the heliotypes but not in the cuts. The 
sandstone mortars occur in great abundance, are quite symmetri- 
cal, and some of them are massive; of these the cuts are excellent 
and the heliotypes bad. The most interesting stone implements 
are the steatite ollas, nearly spherical, thin-walled cooking vessels, 
having small opening or mouth. The method of manufacturing 
these vessels was discovered by Mr. Paul Schumacher (pp. 1 17- 
I2l). Curious pipes of the same material, resembling very large 
cigar-holders, were abundant in the graves, and were evidently 
used by the savage taking a siesta while lying supinely. Next in 
order come the perforated stones varying greatly in size, form, 
and consequently in function. Upon this chapter Prof. Putnam 
has put some excellent work, it is, indeed, one of the best in the vol- 
ume. The closing chapters of Part 1 relate to implements of 
wood, shell, and bone, textile fabrics, ornaments and paint beads, 
contact with Europeans and crania. An appendix to Part 1 gives • 
a translation of an account of Cabrilla's voyage, which is a pre- 
cious addition to the meager stock of early literature relating to 

Part 11 relates to the Pueblo ruins and the interior tribes, and is 
made up of a series of short sketches, some of which are reproduc- 
tions from former reports ; it contains an extended chapter by Pro- 
fessor Putnam on the implements of stone, and pottery, collected 
mainly by Dr. H. C. Yarrow; a chapter on the crania collected 
by the expeditions, written bv Mr. Severance and Dr. Yarrow ; 
and an appendix on linguistics, prefaced by ; 
western Indian languages, by Albert S. Gatsch 
cabulanes belong to seven stocks: 



jo General Notes. [January, 

Grande Pueblos, Kera Pueblos, Wintun, Santa Barbara, and their 
area is given with great precision. The volume closes with 
tables of these 40 vocabularies, 211 words each, and additional 
notes and lists of very great value. 

The space assigned to the works just noticed makes it neces- 
sary to give but a mention to the following meritorious publica- 



18S1. 8vo. pp. 93. 

The distinguished name of the author as well as the great bene- 
fit to the future historian to be rendered by the publication of 
information which must be gathered now or never, are a sufficient 
guarantee of the lasting value of the last-named work. 

Anthropology in Japan.— The Transactions of the Asiatic So- 
ciety of Japan, do not often reach us. Vol. ix, Part 11, contains 
the following papers : 



bNAKE bUPERSTITIONS OF THE PUEBLOS OF N E W MkxICO.— 

When I opened the old Turquoise mine at Bonanza, near 
Santa Fe, New Mexico, we found at least two hundred rattle- 
snakes of different kinds; also, long, thin red snakes, etc., etc., in 
_ it. ail nesting h .-ether. We had four men in the shaft, two men 
excavating and two protecting the others from snakes, which 
crawled about in all directions (this was about eighteen months 
ago). 

The Pueblo Indians car 



voutly, and lamented their fate. 




An Indian friend of mine told me that the snakes 




of Montezuma. When an Indian wants u> send a 


message to 


Montezuma, he catches a rattlesnake and carries it 


to the mine, 


being convinced that the bearer of the verbal notice 




to him one day with an answer. To this mav be a 


ttributed the 


fact that certain old mines are filled with snakes. 


They were 


carried there by Indians. — Dr. Fritzgiertncr. 



1 8 8 2 . ] Geology and Paleontology. 7 1 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

The Oldest Artiodactvle. — Members of this order have 
been found in the upper Eocene of N. America ( Acluenodon), 
but none have been determined as yet from the American 
Suessonian or lower Eocene. A species represented by teeth 
from the Siderolitic beds of Switzerland has been referred to 
Dichobune ( D. coinpichii Pict) ; but dental characters alone 
are not sufficent to distinguish that genus from the Peris- 
sodactyle Plienacodontida? 1 . Dr. Lemoine found astragali of a 
small Artiodactyle in the Suessonian of Reims, which he has 
recently ascribed to his Lophioclnvnts peroni, which he believes 
{Proceedings French Assoc. Adv. Sci., Montpelier, 1880) to be a 
suilline. 1 have reported an astragalus from the Wind river for- 
mation of Wyoming Territory, which is almost exactly similar to 
those found by Lemoine. A specimen of MiocLcuus braehystomns 
Cope now to be described, enables me to characterize with some 
degree of completeness this interesting form, which precedes in 
time all the known American . Irtiodactyla. 

The characters of the tarsus are typically those of the Order 
Artiodactyla. The astragalus exhibits a distal trochlea which is 
continuous with the sustentacular facet, and which articulates 
with both cuboid and navicular bones. 

The distal portion of the fibula is free from the tibia, and its shaft 
becomes very slender, but it is possible that a more perfect speci- 
men would display it as continuous. Its distal extremity articu- 
lates with the ascending tuberositv of the calcaneum. The cuboid 
facet of the latter is narrow. The cuboid and navicular are dis- 
tinct from each other and the cuneiforms; the mesocuneiform is 
shorter than the ectocuneiform, and is coossified ivith it. 

There are probably four metatarsals. The median pair are dis- 
tinct, but appressed ; their section together, subcircular ; the lateral 
metatarsals are slender, the external one is wanting, but its facet 
on the cuboid is very small. 

These characters are in general similar to those of the genus 
Dichobune, but Cuvier 2 does not state whether the cuneiforms are' 
co6ssified in that genus or not. They are united in Anoplotherium. 

Miochenus differs from Diclwbune in the presence of but one 
internal tubercle of the superior molars, and in the single external 
tubercle of the superior premolars. Both genera are referable to 
a family to be distinguished from the Anoplothetiida by the 
presence of external digits. This has been alu.-a.ly named by Gill 
the Dichobunidcz. The genus Lopkiochcerus is not yet fully char- 
acterized, but its inferior true molars are very elongate and have 
their cusps connected by oblique ridges.— if. D. Cope. 



General Notes. [January, 

the T^niodonta. — Additional material 
suits with regard to the affinities of this 
suborder. There are three allied groups represented by the 
genera Esthonyx, Tillotherium and Calamodon of the American 
Eocenes which are equally unlike each other. Esthonyx, as I 
long since showed, is related to the existing Erinacens ; very near- 
ly indeed if the dentition alone be considered. Its anterior incisor 
teeth are unusually developed and have, as in Erinaceus, long 
roots. One pair at least in the lower jaw has enamel on the external 
face only, and enjoys a considerable period of growth. The genus 
Tillotherium is (fide Marsh) quite near to Esthonyx. Its molars 
and premolars are identical in character with those of that genus, 
the only important difference being found in the incisors. Here, 
one pair above and one pair below, are faced with enamel in front 
only, and grow from persistent pulps as in the Rodentia. This 
character has been included by Marsh in those he ascribes to his 
" order " of Tillodontia, but as he includes Esthonyx in that order, 1 
which does not possess the character, it is not very clear on what 
the supposed order reposes. The rodent character of the incisors 
is the only one I know of which distinguishes Tillotherium from 
the Insectivora. I have on this account retained the Tillodonta as 
a suborder, and referred Esthonyx to the Insectivora. 

The Tamiodonta agree with the Tillodonta in the possession of 
a pair of inferior incisors of rodent character, but it adds several 
remarkable peculiarities. Chief among these is the character 
of the inferior canines. In the Tillodonta they are either wanting, 
as in Erinaceus, according to the Cuvierian diagnosis, or they are 
insignificant. In Calamodon they are of large size, and though 
not as long rooted as the second incisors, grow from persistent 
pulps. They have two enamel faces, the anterior and posterior, 
the former like the corresponding face of the rodent incisors. 
The function of the adult crown is that of a grinding tooth. This 
character distinguishes Calamodon as a form as different from 
Tillotherium, as the latter is from Esthonyx. There are, however, 
other characters. The external incisors, wanting in Tillotherium, 
are here largely developed, and though not growing from persist- 
ent pulps have but one, an external band-like enamel face. Their 
function is also that of grinders. The fact that the rodent teeth 
in the lower jaw are the second incisors, renders it probable that 
those of the Tillodonta hold the same position in the jaw. This 
is to be anticipated from the arrangement in Esthonyx, where the 
second inferior incisors are much larger than the first and third. 
The superior dentition of the Teniodonta is unknown. There 
are two families, the Ectoganida with two species, and the Cala- 
modontidcB with five species. — E. D. Cope. 

1 Report of U. S. Geol. Survey 40th Parallel by Clarence King, Vol. (. p. 377.. 



1 882.] Geology and Paleontology. 73 

New Forms of Coryphodontid^e. — The Wasatch*beds of the 
Big Horn basin have yielded several important additions to this 
family. Of eleven species found, two belong each to a new genus, 
and one is a novelty of the little-known genus Metalophodon. 
The characters of the genera of the family may be stated as 
follows : t 



The type of Manteodon is the M. subqiiadratus, which was 
about the size of an ox. The characters of its superior molars 
are more like those of Perissodactyles than are those of the other 
CoryphodontidcE. The type of Ectacodon is the E. ductus, a 
species of about the dimensions of the last named. Its last su- 
perior molar isparallelogrammic, and hasacingulum all around it 
except on the external side. Of C \nypltodon, a species larger than 
any yet known has been abundantly found by Mr. Wortman, which 
I call, in a paper now passing through the press, C.anax. The new 
Metalophodon is as large as the Ectacodon cinctus, and has the 
second true molar more triangular and less oval than in the type 
M, armatus. The posterior external ' of the last molar, is re- 
duced to a cone. I have called it J/, testis.— E. D. Cope. 

An Anthropomorphous Lemur. — The stock from which the 
true quadrumana have been derived, is supposed to have been the 
lemurs, but no type of that sub-order has hitherto been found, 
which presents any near resemblance to either of the four families 
of monkeys. The two inferior families CebidtB and Hapalida, 
agree with most of the LcwuridtC in having three premolar 
teeth, but those of the upper jaw generally have well developed 
internal lobes like the true molars, while most of those of the 
Lemurs have none. One group of Lemurs, the Indrisitne, agree 
with the higher monkeys in having but two premolars, but these 
also are only one lobed. 

A nearly perfect cranium of a species of Ana ptomor phis Cope, 
shows that this genus had but two premolars in the superior 
series, as in the ludrisi,iu\ but that thev are two lobed, as in the 
SimiidcB and HominnUc. Of these two' families, the Hominuhc is' 
the one to which Anaptwrflixs makes the nearest approach in 
dental characters. The canine is small with a crown little longer 
than those of the premolars, and is not separated from the latter 
or from the incisors by any appreciable diastema. All but one of 
the superior incisors are lo^t from the specimen, but those of the 



74 General Notes. [January, 

lower jaw, which I discovered in 1872, were nearly erect as in 
man and the Simiidce, and not procumbent as in most Lemurs. 
The cerebral hemispheres are remarkably large for an Eocene 
mammal, extending to between the middles of the orbits; the 
anterior parts, at least, are smooth. The cerebellum piojected 
beyond the foramen magnum posteriorly, as in Tarsius. The or- 
bits are large, approaching those of Tarsius, but are not so much 
walled in by a septum from the temporal fossa as in that genus. 
The superior molars have only one internal cusp. 

The species, which I propose to call Anaptomorphus homuncu- 
Ins, has a wide palate much as in man, and the true molar teeth 
diminish in size posteriorly. The pterygoid and zygomatic fossae 
are short and wide, and the petrous bone is large and inflated. 
The animal was nocturnal in its habits and was the size of a mar- 
moset. The genus is nearer the hypothetical lemuroid ancestor 
of man than any yet discovered. — E. D. Cope. 

The Arch^an Rocks of Great Britain.— Professor Hull, 
director of the Geological Survey of Ireland, discriminates two 
petrographic types in the British Cambrian beds, the one consist- 
ing of purple sandstones or conglomerates, the other of hard green 
and purple grits and slates. The former is the " Caledonian " 
type, and is found in the north-west Highlands of Scotland. The 
second is the Hiberno-Cambrian, and characterizes East Ireland 
and North Wales. Professor Hull thinks these formations were 
deposited in distinct basins, which were separated by an Archaean 
ridge of crystalline rock which extended from Scandinavia, 
through the central Highlands of Scotland to Northwest Ireland. 
The Caledonian basin was an inland lake, the crystalline rocks 
of the outer Hebrides forming its western shore. Professor Hull 
also finds the Laurentian granite in N. W. Ireland overlaid un- 
conformably by the Lower Silurian quartzite schists and lime- 
stones. — Geological Magazine. 

A New British FoRMATiON.^-The name Devono-Silurian is 
given by Professor E. Hull to a series of cotemporary deposits 
found in various parts of the British Isles, and to some extent on 
the continent. He finds them in Devonshire and on the Welsh 
borders, and probably concealed in Southeast England ; also, in 
the south of Scotland and North and South Ireland. The beds 
were deposited under estuary or lacustrine conditions, and con- 
stitute a great group between the Silurian on the one hand, and 
the Devonian on the other. — Geological Magazine. 

Recent Extinction of the Mastodon.— The existence of the 
mastodon in North America must have been more recent than 
commonly supposed. A number of new facts bearing on this 
subject are to be found in Professor John Collett's "Geological 
Report of Indiana for 1880," recently issued. Of the thirty indi- 
vidual specimens of the remains of the mastodon (Mastodon gi- 
ganteus) found in Indiana, in almost every case a very considera- 



1 882.] Geology and Paleontology 75 

ble part of the skeleton of each animal proved to be in a greater 
or less state of decay. The remains have always been discovered 
in marshes, ponds, or other miry places, indicating at once the 
cause of the death of the animal and the reason of the preserva- 
tion of the bones from decay. Spots of ground in this condition 
are found at the summit of the glacial drift or in " old beds " of 
rivers which have adopted a shorter route and lower level; con- 
sequently, their date does not reach beyond the most recent 
changes of the earth's surface. In fact, their existence was so 
late that the only query is, says Professor Collett: Why did they 
become extinct ? A skeleton was discovered in excavating the 
bed of the canal a few miles north of Covington, Fountain county, 
in wet peat. The teeth are in good preservation, and Mr. Perrin 
Kent states that when the larger bones were cut open the marrow, 
still preserved, was utilized by the bog-cutters to " grease " their 
boots, and that pieces of sperm-like substance, two and a-half 
inches to three inches in diameter (adipocere) occupied the place 
of the kidney fat of the monster. During the past summer of 
1880 an almost complete skeleton of a mastodon was found six 
miles north-west from Hoopston, Iroquois county, Illinois, which 
goes far to settle definitely that it was not only a recent animal, 
but that it survived until the life and vegetation of to-day pre- 
vailed. The tusks formed each a full quarter of a circle, were nine 
feet long, twenty-two inches in circumference at the base, and in 
their water-soaked condition weighed one hundred and seventy- 
five pounds. The lower jaw was well preserved, with a full set of 
magnificent teeth, and is nearly three feet long. The teeth, as 
usual, were thickly enameled, and weighed each from four to five 
pounds. The leg-bones, when joined at the knee, made a total 
length of five and a-half Let, indicating that the animal was not 
less than eleven feet high, and from fifteen to sixteen feet from 
brow to rump. On inspecting the remains closely, a mass of 
fibrous, bark-like material was found between the ribs, filling the 
place of the animal's stomach. When carefully separated, it 
proved to be a crushed mass of herbs and grasses, similar to those 
which still grow in the vicinity. In the same bed of miry clay a 
multitude of small fresh-water and land shells were observed and 
collected. These were: I, Pisidium, closely resembling /'. abdi- 
tum Haldeman; 2, Valvata tri ir/nata Sav '. 3, Valvata, resem- 
bling V. striata; 4, Planorbis parvus Say. These mollusks pre- 
vail all over the States of Illinois, Indiana and parts of Michigan, 
and show conclusively that, however other conditions may differ, 
the animal and vegetable life, and consequently climate, are the 
same now as when this mastodon sank 111 his grave of mire and 
clay. 

The Mesozoic of Virginia. — Professor Fontaine gives a 
pretty full account of the geology of the Mesozoic of Virginia, 
with explanations of its peculiar features. He " has a very large 
•collection of fine plants many of them are new, and some 



76 General Notes. [January,, 

exceedingly fine. The collection is a pretty fair representa- 
tion of the flora of the older Mesozoic, and will throw light 
on the Mesozoic of North Carolina and Pennsylvania. The 
secretary communicated the following notes by Professor Fon- 
taine, made in the same letters : Upon the views of H. C. Lewis, 
respecting the Saltville valley in Southern Virginia, published 
in the Proceedings, No. 107, page 155. Mr. Fontaine points 
out that the little salt and gypsum bearing valley of Salt- 
ville cannot be "eroded along an anticlinal of Lower Silurian 
limestone, because the south-east wall hills only are of that age, 
while north-west wall hills are of the Umbral (Mauch Chunk 
or Sub-carboniferous) age." He was the first to find in the lime- 
stone on that side of the valley an abundance of Umbral fossils 
in the highly fossiliferous shale beds intercalated between the va- 
rious limestones. The species are the same as those found near 
Lewisburg, West Virginia, in the Umbral. The magnesian 
(Lower Silurian) limestone strata, bounding the valleys on the 
south-west, show no trace of fossils. The physical aspect of 
the two formations also differs. Beds of shale and limestone 
alternate in the hills north-west of the valleys; and some of 
the limestone is cherty and some of the shales are red. But 
the south-east hills contain only solid limestone strata. Those 
on the north-west have a more rounded typography. It is, 
however, quite true that the stratification is in opposite south-east 
and north-west directions, gently to the south-east, much steeper 
to the north-west. The structure is, therefore, anticlinal, and this 
fault must run along the south-east edge of the little valley. The 
explanation is then simple, the Umbral limestone is synclinal, and 
the red shale formation comes up on both sides of it — with 
north-west dip in the little valley, with a south-east dip in the 
valley of the Holston river at the foot of the mountain. A 
reference to the place in the Michigan salt group in the Palae- 
zoic series makes the presence of salt here easily under- 
stood. The horizon seems to be salt-bearing in other places in 
Southern Virginia. There is a salt ooze near Max Meadows, at 
the above geological horizon. The secretary suggested in addi- 
tion to the underlying Vespertine (Pocono) sandstone is a salt- 
producing formation on the Ohio river and up country. That the 
gypsum is an acid reaction upon the eroded out-crops of the 
limestone, is shown in Proceedings A. P. S., Vol. ix, pp. 34, 1862. 
—American Philosophical Society. 

Geological News. — Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer are 
publishing in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy a 
revision of the PaL-ocrinoidea which will prove of great value to 

Heilprin continues his researches on the Tertiary Geology of the 

Southeastern United States. Edward Wethered, F.C.S., F.GS., 

has communicated an important memoir on the formation of coal„ 



1 882.] Mineralogy 77 

of which an abstract is given in the October, 1881, Geological 

Magazine of London. The Bulletin of the Geological Society ot 

France for 1881, contains many important memoirs, principally 

relating to the geology of France, Algiers and Belgium. An 

analysis of the structure and age of the formations about Lake 
Champlain is given in the same periodical, by Professor Marcou. 

Dr. Lemoine has added many important discoveries to those 

he has previously made in the Lower Eocene near Reims, France. 
He has procured almost perfect skeletons of the Mammalian gen- 
era Heterobonts, Platnishdotlicriitm, Piuhynolophus ; of the bird 
Gastornis, and the reptile Champsosaurus. He has also discovered a 
number of the Marsupial family /" ch is probably 

nearly allied to the Ptilodus, described from New Mexico in the 

November, 1881, Naturalist. Professor Newberry criticizes 

adversely Professor Spencer's view on the Ancient outlet of Lake 
Erie, published by the American Philosophical Society. 



MINERALOGY. 1 

Systematic Mineralogy. — Bauer man. (Appleton & Co., New 
York, 1 88 1.) The latest number of that excellent series known 
as the " Text-books of Science " consists of the first volume of a 
Text-book of Systematic Mineralogy, by H. Bauerman. The in- 
troduction states the two-fold object of the work to be that it 
should form (1) a guide to general students ; (2) an elementary in- 
troduction to larger text-books. The greater part of the volume 
deals with the principles of crystallography. Not only are the 
simple and compound forms of the different systems fully de- 
scribed and illustrated, but by means of shaded figures, the origin 
of the hemihedrat and tetartohedral modifications is explained. 
The optical properties of crystals are considered at length in 
some well written chapters, and the volume concludes with an 
elementary review of the physical and chemical characters of 
minerals. The descriptive portion of the work is not yet issued. 
We cannot help thinking that this work does not quite attain the 
object for which it was written. While not sufficiently thorough 
for the advanced student, the method of treatment is not such 
as would recommend it for the beginner. The language employed 
m a large portion of the book is by no means simple, and the 
practical performance of mineralogical work is but slightly con- 
sidered. 

Lime Crystals in a Lime-kiln. — Several years ago, Brugel- 
mann succeeded in obtaining artificially microscopic cubes of 



ogical papers printed t-Uewlu 



7$ General Notes. [January, 

lime by heating calcium nitrate. Recently Levalois and Meunier 1 
have observed in the inner walls of a lime- kiln cubes of lime 5 
centimeters in diameter. The crystals were sharp on the edges, 
and had the specific gravity of 3.3. Analysis showed that the 
crystals were composed of nearly pure anhydrous lime. They 
dissolved slowly in cold, but energetically in warm acids, giving 
out considerable heat. The crystals were formed upon the lime- 
stone walls of the kiln, which, with the exception of a few days, 
had been kept at a temperature of I200°-I300° C. for over two 

Nitrobarite. — Groth 2 describes a natural nitrate of Baryta 
from Chili. It occurs as small colorless octahedral crystals, with 
tetartohedral characters, belonging to the isometric system. Ar- 
tificial crystals of nitrate of Baryta have a similar form. An ap- 
propriate mineralogical name for this mineral would be Nitto- 

Vanadium Minerals. — Within the last few years special atten- 
tion has been directed to the natural occurrence of Vanadium 
and its compounds. It has been shown that Vanadium, formerly 
regarded as one of the rarest elements, is of widespread diffusion, 
and that it almost universally accompanies Titanium in the older 
geological formations. This fact acquires a cosmical importance 
when taken in connection with the observation of Lockyer that 
Vanadium exists with Titanium in the innermost portions of the 
photosphere of the sun. 

Among recent investigations upon Vanadium minerals, those of 
Rammelsberg 3 are of great importance. He gives several new 
analyses, and after reviewing the Vanadium minerals, gives the 
following table of the natural vanadates : 



date Dechenite Pb V 2 O 8 



■ 



Websky 4 and Urba* h the crystalline forms of 

Descloizite and Vanadinite. Websky describes pseudomorphs of 
Vanadinite after Anglesite. 







« V* < r 




(Pb, Zn) 3 






e Pb CI 2 +"3 Pbs 




Bi2 y 0» 






' 


* Y- t Y> 












V*()' 






y. i 'i x 



1 Compt. Rend., 90, 1566, June, 1880. 
* Zeits. f. Kryst., 1S81. vi, 195. 

J80, p. 652. 
*Monatsb d. k. Ak \\ ~ V .July, ihSo, p. 672. Oct., 



1 882.] Mineralogy. 79 

In America, our knowledge of Vanadium minerals has been 
largely increased by the important papers of Genth. 1 Vanadium 
has been shown by the editor to occur in the Philadelphia gneisses. 2 
More recently Silliman 3 has announced the discovery of two impor- 
tant localities for Vanadium minerals in Arizona. He states that 
very beautiful and perfect orange-red and yellow crystals of Vanad- 
inite have been found in that State. He also describes Vanadium 
minerals which he believes to be Descloizite and Volborthite. 
Chileite and Mottramite are also suspected. It is to be hoped 
that a more exact chemical and crystallographic examination 
may be made upon these interesting minerals. 

Microlite from Virignia. — Very fine and large crystals of 
this rare mineral have been found in Amelia Co., Virginia. 4 The 
crystals are octahedrons modified by cubic, dodecahedral and 
sometimes also trapezohedral planes. Some of these crystals 
which have been brought to Philadelphia are several inches in 
diameter, and we have seen masses of the mineral weighing as 
much as thirty pounds ; a circumstance rendering the name of 
the mineral an inappropriate one. The mineral is of a wax 
yellow or brown color, and has a resinous lustre and conchoidal 

Amelia county has become a remarkable mineral locality. It 
has yielded also Beryl, Fluorite, Columbite, Amethyst, Apatite, 
and Tourmaline. We have seen a beryl from there which was a 
perfect hexagon with sharp edges, measuring nine inches in dia- 
meter by over two and a half feet in length. The interesting va- 
riety of quartz which occurs in the Amelia county muscovite as 
minute circular plates composed of radiating fibres is already 
known to microscopists as a most beautiful object for the polari- 

Diadochite, a phosphato-sulphate of iron has been found in 
some French anthracite coal mines. It occurs as amorphous 
brown crusts of resinous lustre. It should be looked for in the 
coal mines of this country. 

, Vivianite has been produced artificially by fusing a salt of 
iron with bone black. 

Roster ite is a variety of beryl from Elba, of a light rose red 
color. It occurs in short hexagonal tables. 

Uranothorite is a Thorite from the Lake Champlain Iron 
district, containing much Uranic oxide. 

Beauxite, according to Fischer, is a mixture of oxide of iron 
and red clay. 

* Amer Journ. Sc, July, 1876, p. 32. Proc. Amer. Pfailos. Soc, XVII, 113. 
iroc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., 1880, 256. 



So General Notes. [January, 



-A variety of amphibole. Lucchetti 1 describes 
under this name a variety of hornblende from Italy, which con- 
tains almost no magnesia. It occurs in green acicular crystals 
with the following composition : Si0 2 36.8 FeO 22.0 Fe 2 3 14.5 
AIA 15. 1 CaO 5.1 MgO 0.9 Na 2 4. K 2 0.4. 

New Bismuth Minerals.— Domeyko 2 has described a large num- 
ber of interesting Bismuth minerals from South America. Among 
them are Bolwite, an oxysulphide of bismuth (Bi 2 S 2 + Bi 2 3 ) and 
Taznite, a chloro-arseniatc and chloro-antimoniate of Bismuth. 
Bolivite occurs crystallized. Taznite is amorphous and some- 
times imperfectly fibrous. 

The optical Properties of Pyromorphite and Mimetite. — 
Jannetez and Michel 3 in a paper comparing the optical and chemi- 
cal properties of pyromorphite and the mimetite find that these 
minerals can be divided into four types ; (1) pure pyromorphite, 
uniaxial, (2) pure mimetite, biaxial, (3) mixtures showing pyro- 
morphite in the centre, surrounded by mimetite, part uniaxial, part 
biaxial, (4) groups of crystals having their axes inclined to' one 
another, biaxial appearance. 

Chalcocite on an Old Coin.— Upon some bronze Roman 
coins found at the bottom of a French lake, Daubree 4 has observed 
an incrustation, 2 mm in thickness, of chalcocite. The chalcocite 
forms hexagonal plates like the cupreine of Breithaupt. Some 
chalcopynte and malachite were also formed. While similar in- 

the present case is interesting in that the water was cold and pure! 
Nova Scotia Minerals.— Among other minerals found in the 
trap of Nova Scotia, Gilpin 5 mentions Chlorophceite, Delessite, 
Acadiahte, Mordenite, Louisite, Ledererite, Gyrolite, Centralla- 
site, Cyanolite, Steelite, etc. He regards Louisite as a variety of 
Okenite, and Steelite as a variety of Mordenite. 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 6 
M. de Brazza's Journey from the Ogowe to the Congo.— 
Some further details of M. de Brazza's journey are given in the 
Royal Geographical Society's Proceedings for November 188 1. 
"After leaving his station at Francheville in July, 1880 the trav- 
eler saw the sources of the Passa affluent of the Upper Ogowe, 
and crossed the River Leketi (an affluent of the Alima, the Kunia 



1 882.] Geography and Travels. 8i 

of Mr. Stanley's map), which appears to have been misnamed 
M'pama in the map of his previous journey, by this route reach- 
ing the navigable portion of the Alima in four days. It is thought 
probable that the plateau of the Batekes reaches to the right bank 
of the Upper Ogowe, and is connected with that of the Bayakas, 
in which, perhaps, the River Ngunie, which joins the Ogowe be- 
low Lambarene, takes its rise. The plateau of the Batekes 
(Achicuyos) separates the Alima from the M'pama (the M'paka 
of Mr. Stanley), which probably rises in the plateau of the 
Balalis, flowing direct to the Congo. Leaving the plateau of the 
Batekes (Achicuyos) by the M'pama, M. de Brazza arrived at 
the plateau of the Abomas, which is well peopled and very fertile, 
and separates the M'pama from the Lefini (the River ^awson of 
Mr. Stanley). On leaving the plateau of the Abomas M. de 
Brazza was assured that he could reach Stanley Pool on the Con- 
go in four days, by way of the plateau of the Makokos, but he 
thought it advisable to change his route, in order to enter into 
negotiations with the Ubangi tribe, with whom he had had pre- 
vious difficulties. He afterwards descended the Lefini on a raft 
to within a day's journey of its confluence with the Congo. He 
then marched by land, with only five attendants, in two days, to 
the Congo, which he reached near to a populous part of the 
Ubangi country. He was received by the chief Ngampei, who is 
subject to the Makokos, and arranged with him to make certain 
propositions to the Ubangis. Without waiting for the result of 
this step, he returned to the Lefini, and in two days' time reached 
the plateau of Makoko, to whom all the country is subject be- 
tween the Lefini. the Jue (Zue of Mr. Crudgington. and Gordon 
Bennett of Mr. Stanley), and the Congo. Makoko assembled all 
the chiefs of the Ubangis, from the Alima, the Bakinga (the Li- 
kuma or Likona of the old maps), and the Ikelemba and through 
his influence peace was made with M. de Brazza. Makoko then 
sent two chiefs down with him by canoe to the spot ceded for the 
Brazzaville station, near Stanley Pool. Whilst there, M. de 
Brazza explored the road from the village of N'gamforu, chief of 
the Abomas, to the River Kunia, across the platea«- of the Ma- 
kokos ; and he considers that the principal difficulties to be met 
with on the road from Francheville to Stanley Pool would be the 
passage of the Rivers Leketi, M'pama, and Lefini." 

Central Africa.— The African traveler, Dr. Enim Bey, be- 
lieves there are three lakes lying to the north of the Victoria 
Nyanza. Beatrice Gulf certainly does not belong to the Albert 
Nyanza, but to a lake south of the Albert. Steamers now go 
regularly from Dufile to Manage, a station on the west coast of 

Lake Albert. At the beginning of the present year Mr. J. M. 

Schuver left Cairo with the intention of traversing Africa from 
north to south. When last heard from he was on his way to 



82 General Notes. [January, 

Fadasi near the Yabos affluent of the Blue Nile in about E. long. 
35° 10' N. lat. 9°. He expected to return to Fazogl and journey 
through the Galla country after the rainy season was over. In 
this stage of his great journey Mr. Schuver's chief objects are 
stated to be the determination of the sources of the Sobat and 
the discovery of the lakes, which are believed to exist on the 

high plateau between the White Nile and Kaffa. Mr. Joseph 

Thomson has recently been exploring the Loende tributary of the 
Roouma River. No coal was found. The whole country is 
thickly covered with forest composed chiefly of India rubber 
trees. The land rises immediately from the shores of the Indian 
Ocean to an altitude of three hundred feet, and gradually an eleva- 
tion of three thousand feet is attained. Mr. Thomson now intends 
to visit the region lying between the sea and Mount Kilimanjaro 
and extending from Melinda on the north to Pangani on the south. 

The Missionary Expeditions to Lake Tanganyika continue 

to be unfortunate. The Algerian Mission at Urundi, near the 
head of the lake, reports the murder of three of its members and 
nearly all the missionaries of the London Missionary Society on 
the west shore of the lake were incapacitated by illness at last 

accounts. Herr Flegel has succeeded in ascending the Niger to 

Gomba, but the boatman refused to go on to Say. He prooosed 
to explore Adamawa in search of the sources of the Binue. — -Mr. 
Stanley succeeded in reaching Stanley Pool in the latter part of July 
and spent several days there. He confirms the belief expressed by 
M. de Brazza and the Baptist Missionaries, that the Pool is more 
than one degree further west than he fixed it in his map. The 
longitude now given is 15 47' west from Greenwich. The country 
on the north bank of the Congo is reported to be exceedingly 

healthy. The Atkenaum says : "The expedition which the 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.despatched 
to West Africa a little more than a year ago, appears to have 
made fair progress. The object is to found an extensive American 
mission ontheBihe plateau as that field of labor is entirely distinct 
from those worked by European agencies. The party arrived at 
Benguela in due course and afterwards took up their abode at 
Calumbella, twelve miles off, and were delayed there till March 
nth, chiefly owing to difficulties about porters, which appear to 
be as great there as on the eastern side of the continent. Start- 
ing at last on the day named, they made what is, for African 
traveling, a rapid march to- Bailunda, accomplishing the two 
hundred miles in fifteen days. Mr Bagster and his companions 
settled here for a month to await the arrival of stores from the 
coast before moving on to Bihe, some fifty miles distant. In 
the middle of April it became evident tint Mr. Bagster must go 
to the coast and hurry on matters. He accordingly left his com- 
panions at Bailunda to study the Ambunda language and re- 
turned to Benguela." Later intelligence informs us of his having 



'1 882.] Geography and Travels. 83 

rejoined the party, now settled in camp, some six days march from 
Bihe. The nights there are cool, the thermometer falling as low 
as 40 and rising at noon to 85 or 90 . The natives are friendly. 
The missionaries have made some progress in learning their lan- 
guage. Dr. Pogge and Lieutenant Wissmann were at Malange 

at the end of last May, and hoped to arrive at Kimbundo in the 
latter part of June. They started from Loanda in January and as- 
cended the Kwanza river for some distance. 

Arctic Discovery.— The Brothers Krause, sent out by the 
Bremen Society, have visited the Chukchi peninsula at various 
points and intend spending the winter in the north of Alaska. 

Captain Adams, the well known Arctic whaling captain, has 
this last summer penetrated as far up Wellington Channel as an 
expedition has ever been. He then steered down Peel Sound to 
within a short distance of where the Erebus and Terror were lost 
He also visited Beechey Island and the Gulf of Boothia. From 
an Eskimo near Fury and Hecla Straits, Captain Adams heard a 
story concerning the death of an officer — possibly Lieutenant 
Crozier, and two seamen of the Franklin expedition. 

Mr. Leigh Smith's vessel, the Bra, in which he sailed for Franz 
Josef Land, has probably been beset by the ice, as she has not 
been heard from. She was provisioned for fourteen or fifteen 
months. 

The Italian Antarctic Expedition has failed for want of funds. 
Lieutenant Bove has, however, gone to Buenos Ayres, to explore 
the coast lands of Patagonia and Eastern Tierra del Fuego for the 
Argentine Government. He will be accompanied by a number 
of Italian savants in a separate vessel. 

International Polar Conference. — The Conference was held 
this year at St. Petersburg. Delegates were present from Den- 
mark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Austria-Hungarv, France and 
Holland. Polar stations are to be established 'at Upernavik by 
Denmark, at Bosskop, Finland, by Norway, at Jan Mayen by Aus- 
tria-Hungary, at the mouth of the Lena and Novaya Zemlya by 
Russia and in Spitzbergen by Sweden. Observations are to be 
begun as soon as possible after August I, 1882. and continued as 
far as practicable until September 1, 1883. Meteorological and 
magnetic phenomena will be observed, hour by hour, and on the 
1st and 15th of each month observations will be taken every five 
minutes during the twentv-four hours, and every twenty seconds 
dunng one hour, which will be previously fixed; mean time at 
Gottingen being adopted in all cases. It was recommeiuled that 
observations of the temperature of the soil, of evaporation, ofter- 
ptnal galvanic currents, of atmospheric electricity, etc., be taken. 
It was resolved ([) to found, if possible, a special publication to 
bring more quickly to the knowledge of the scientific world, as 
well as of the leaders of the various expeditions, the results 



84 General Notes, [January, 

achieved from time to time, etc. ; (2), to leave behind, where prac- 
ticable, the buildings and other of the equipments of expeditions 
likely to be useful to future investigators in the same branches of 
science, and to take all possible precautions for their preserva- 
tion; and (3), to endeavor to make arrangement with railway and 
steamer companies for the reduction of the cost of passages and 
transport. 

Geographical News. — The second Geographical Society in 
the United States has been organized at San Francisco, under 

the title of The Geographical Society of the Pacific. The 

recent census of India, shows the total population to be 252,000,- 

000. Russian explorers have recently visited the Bai Shan 

Mountain, twelve miles north-east of Kuldja and found that the 
fires that have been burning there from time immemorial are not 
volcanic, but proceed from burning coal. On the sides of the 
mountain there are caves emitting smoke and sulphurous gas. 
The question as to the existence of volcanic formations in Central 

Asia, may now be considered as decided in the negatative. 

The Nature states that " Mr. James Jackson, ' Archiviste- 
Bibliothecaire ' of the Paris Geographical Society, has published, 
in a volume of 340 pages, a ' Liste Provisoire de Bibliographies 
Geographiques Speciales.' The list was undertaken at the 
instance of the Society, and was printed in some haste, we believe, 
for the recent Venice Congress. But when we remember that 
the list is only a bibliographical one, a list of lists, in fact, the 
accumulation of geographical literature is almost appalling. It 
bears evidence of extensive and careful research, though the 
author admits that it is by no means exhaustive. Mr. Jackson 
recently visited the United States to search the libraries there, 
and the result is a work invaluable to all students of geography. 
He has wisely devoted comparatively small space to Europe, 
because, as he states, the works relating to the countries of that 
continent are well known and easily accessible. Mr. Jackson 
gives not only bibliographies proper, but references to works on 
travel and geography, and to periodicals, journals, and transac- 
tions, which contain special lists. The divisions of the list are : — 
Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Oceanica, Polar regions, Oceans 
and Hydrography, Peoples and Nations, Voyages, Travelers, and 
Geographers, and Generalities. By means of the arrangement 
under each division the methodical table of contents, the index to 
authors and periodical publications, the work is rendered easily 
consumable. It reflects the greatest credit on Mr. Jackson's 

industry and on the enterprise of the Paris Society." A new 

island has been discovered in lat. 7 48' S. long. 8*° 48' W. and 
188 miles from Punta Aguja. south of Guayaquil, the nearest 
land. It appears to be of volcanic origin and is only fifty feet 
above the sea, in its highest part. It is a mile long and about 
the same width. In the northern portion of the Chinese pro- 



1882.] Scientific News. 85 

vince of Shensi the sand from the desert is seriously encroaching 
on the country and has already half buried some cities. The 
high walls which have hitherto kept it out of Yiilin will not much 
longer be of any avail, as the sand is already heaped almost to 

the top. An expedition was sent last summer to explore the 

neighborhood of Bear Lake, British Columbia, which was pre- 
viously quite unknown. In the Geographical Section at the 

Meeting of the British Association, in addition to the papers here- 
tofore mentioned the following were read : — Progress of Arctic 
Research since the Foundation of the British Association, by 
Clements R. Markham, F. R. S ; On the Island of Socotra, by 
Professor J. Bailey Balfour ; Journey to the Imperial Mausolea, 
East of Peking, by F. S. A. Bourne; Comparative Sketch of 
what was known of Africa in 1830, with what is known in 1881, 
by Lieutenant Col. J. A. Grant ; Some Results of Fifty Year's 
Exploration in Africa, by the Rev. Horace Waller; Recent Visit 
to the Gold Mines of the West Coast of Africa, by Commander 
V. L. Cameron, R. N. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

— The first part of a valuable work by M. Alph. Milne Edwards, 
on "The Fauna of Austral Regions," has been presented to the 
French Academy. The geographical distribution of birds is 
chiefly dealt with. It is remarkable (and would hardly have been 
expected) that these animals are eminently adapted to reveal the 
existence and position of the zoological centers whence the various 
species have radiated. The penguins are specially interesting in 
this respect. They appear to have migrated from a center of pro- 
duction in the Antarctic islands, near Victoria land, and to have 
followed the great current- going northwards, reaching the waters 
of Cape Horn, the Falklands, New Georgia, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and various islands of the Indian ocean, establishing, in 
each case, powerful colonies, with (in time) distinctive characters. 
Another colony, represented by the Spheniscans, starting troni 
the same center, and favored by Humboldt's current, has gone to 
the west of Cape Horn, along the coast of Chili, to Peru and the 
Gallipagos islands, touching at various points. 

— The volume on the Vertebrata of the Western Tertiary forma- 
tions on which Professor Cope has been engaged for several years. 
is, we understand, approaching completion. Most of the plates 
are drawn, and the printing of the text is well advanced. This 
work will cover much ground, and will furnish much detailed 
information on a subject which has of later times excited general 
interest. The volume is No. iv of the Hayden series. Vol. m 
will follow. It will give a similar account of the recent discover- 



86 Scientific News. ■ [January 

ies in the Permian and Mesozoic formations of the West. Nearly 
a thousand species of Vertebrata will be described and figured in 
these volumes. The Hayden series, when completed, will form a 
monument to Dr. Hayden, who projected it, and will reflect credit 
on the Government, which has sustained the publication. 

— Among recent publications of the Census Bureau is an ex- 
tra Census Bulletin containing tables showing the approximate 
areas of the United States, the several States, and their counties. 
If has been prepared by Mr. Henry Gannett, the geographer and 
special agent of the tenth census. It appears that of several States 
a number of estimates of area have been in use, differing from one 
another by thousands of square miles, and none of them perhaps 
traceable to any authentic source; while many of the results are 
palpably wrong, being so far from the truth that it is a source of 
surprise that they were not corrected before. A map defining the 
gross areas of the States and Territories accompanies this useful 
Bulletin. 

— Mr. Allen Whitman, a native of East Bridgewater, Mass., died 
recently in St. Paul, Minnesota, aged 45 years. He was a graduate 
of Harvard, and while one of the best classical scholars in the coun- 
try, was one of the most valuable assistants in the U. S. Ento- 
mological Commission, having previous to the organization of the 
Commission, published two valuable reports on the locust as it 
appeared in Minnesota. 

— The University of Cambridge, England, has conferred the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws upon Professor Thomas 
Sterry Hunt, LL.D., F.R.S., a native of Connecticut, who was for 
twenty-five years chemist and mineralogist to the Geological Sur- 
vey of Canada.'and resigned that post in 1872 to accept the Chair 
of Geology in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

— Professor XV. N. Rice, and Mr. H. L Osborn, in their report 
as curators of the Museum of Wesleyan University, gives a review 
of the state of the museum. Many important additions have been 
made, and the spirit and zeal shown by the curators should re- 
sult in such pecuniary benefactions as would liberally endow that 
department. 

— An autobiographical sketch by Rev. .Titus Coan, entitled, 
" Life in Hawaii," is announced by A. D. F. Randolph & Co. It 
includes accounts of the eruptions of the volcanoes in the Hawaiian 
Islands, of which this missionary has been a diligent historian 



— The late John Amory Lowell bequeathed $20,000 1 
ard College, for the botanical garden, on condition th: 
ailed the " Lowell Botanic Garden," in memory of his 



1 882.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 87 

father, who started the first subscription for the purpose of estab- 
lishing this department. 

— Mr. G. H. Darwin in his work on the tidal evolution of the 
moon has drawn the inference that geological denudation and 
deposition must have been vastly more active in former times than 
at present. 

— Mr. C. S. Nachet, the founder of the well-known French 
firm of microscope manufacturers, died October 28, at the 
advanced age of 83. 

— The Census Bulletin, No. 270, refers to the production of 
iron ore in the United States, which was 7,971,706 tons; with a 
valuation of $23,167,007. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Middlesex Institute, Oct. 12, 1 881. —The President, L. L. 
Dame, read a paper on " Botanical Nomenclature," in the course 
of which he alluded to the different pronunciations prevailing 
even among good botanists, and advocated, subjecting all names 
becoming Latinized to the Latin rules of prounciation without re- 
gard to the vernacular as the only way of ensuring absolute uni- 
formity. In the discussion which followed it was objected that 
under such an arbitrary rule many names derived from persons 
would become so disguised as to be practically lost, thus defeat- 
ing the object for which they were established. But how far 
this objection may prevail against the unquestionable advantages 
of a uniform pronunciation is an open question. The paper was, 
however, the most important in its bearings of any yet presented 
to the Institute, and well calculated to set the members to think- 
ing in the right direction. A new by-law providing for the for- 
mation of sections was adopted, and the completion of arrange- 
ments for a course of lectures announced. Prof. Edward S. 
Morse, and Rev. Edwin C. Bolles, D. D.. of Salem ; Prof. John 
Fiske and Prof. Wm. H. Niles, of Cambridge, Mass. ; and Prof. 
Chas. A. Young, of Princeton, New Jersey, were elected honor- 
ary members. 

New York Academy of Sciences, Nov. 14.— Dr. A. A. Jul- 
ien read a paper on the excavation of the bed of the Kaaterskill, 

Nov. 21.— Dr. Louis Elsberg remarked on the cell-doctrine and 
thebioplasson doctrine. 

Nov. 28.— Commander Cheyne, R. N., delivered a lecture en- 
titled, " The Discovery of the North Pole practicable." 

. A. A. Julien read a paper on the volcanic tufas of 



Challis, Idaho. 



88 Selected Articles in Scientific Serials. [January, 1882. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Nov. 16. — Mr. Wil- 
liam Trelease compared the glands of plants with those of ani- 
mals. He described the histology and showed the homology of 
the organs in question. The glands are anomalous in that a deep- 
lying tissue secretes the fluid, which reaches the exterior through 
a distinct break in the epidermis — not a stoma. The secreting 
tissue is the end of a fibro-vascular bundle, the cambium having 
produced the active cells, instead of wood cells, the whole being 
surrounded by a thin bast sheath. He described a number of 
cases showing the glands to represent undeveloped flowers, as 
previously indicated by Delpino. Professor D. P. Penhallow then 
read a paper on the temperature of trees. 

Dec. 7. — Professor A. Hyatt described the sponge found in the 
Boston Water Supply, and Mr. B. H. Van Vleck discussed its 
distribution in Farm Pond, and the general condition of the lat- 
ter; Dr. Wm. F. Whitney showed a skull of an ancient Mexican, 
with an arrow-head imbedded in the superior nasal fossa. 

American Geographical Society, New York, Nov. 25.— Dr. 
I. I. Hayes 1 delivered a lecture on the water-ways of New York, 
considered in relation to the transportation interests of the State, 
and the commerce of the city. 



SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

American Journal of Science, Dec. — Lower Silurian fossils 
(Graptolites) in Northern Maine, by W. W. Dodge. A contribu- 
tion to Croll's theory of secular climatal changes, by W. J. Mc- 
Gee. On the relation of the so-called " Karnes " of the Connecti- 
cut River valley to the Terrace formation, by J. D. Dana. 

Geological Magazine, Nov. — Evaporation and eccentricity as 
co-factors in glacial periods, by E. Hill. The valley system of 
S. E. England, by S. V. Wood. Sudden extinction of the Mam- 
moth, by C. Reid. 

Annales des Sciences Natureli.es, Sept., 1 881. —Observations 
on the development and organization of the Proscolex of Billiar- 
zia lue.matobia, by J. Chatin. Observations on the sexual cells 
of Hydroids, by A. Weismann. Observations on the functions of 
the caudal appendage of Limuli, by J. de Bellesme. Rare or new 
Crustacea of the coast of France, by M. Hesse. Observations on 
the encystment of Trichina spiralis, by J. Chatin. 

Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Nov. i. — On 
the developmental history of the ophiuran skeleton, by H. Lud- 
wig. Contributions to the anatomy and histology of Sipuncu- 
lus nudus. by J. Andreae. Comparative anatomical studies on the 
brain of bony fishes, with especial reference to the Cyprinoids, by 
P. Mayser. 

1 Since suddenly deceased, Dec 17. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. xvi. — FEBRUARY, 1882.— No. 



THE SIPHONOPHORES. 

BY J. WALTER FEWKES. 
{Continued from October number, 1S81.) 
IV.— ANATOMY AND DEVELOPMENT OF DIPHYES. 
'THE Siphonophores which we have thus far considered all 
A agree in this particular, that they have a float attached at one 
end of the stem to buoy it up in the water. It may, in some 
genera, be doubtful how far this structure is necessary, or to 
what extent it is functional, but it is never without representation 
in any of the Physophoridae. We come now to consider tubular 
jelly-fishes, which may be looked upon as in many respects the 
highest 1 of the Siphonophores. In no member of the group is 
there a float such as is to be found in Agalma and its allies, while 
in details of structure their organization is very characteristic, and 
different from the tubular Medusae already studied. A good 
representative of these Medusae, whose several genera make up 
the Diphyidae, 2 is the beautiful genus Diphyes, represented in our 
waters, as far as explored, by a single species. An account of 
the anatomy and development of this genus seems a fitting intro- 
duction to a more extended acquaintance with, the remaining 
Siphonophores, which embrace some of the most beautiful ani- 
mals with which the student of marine life is familiar. 

The differences between Diphyes and Agalma seem so great 

fa to the primitive medusa of Agalma, we' may place them, as a whole, below the 
Physophoridie. My reasons for ]>Luin<' them h.-hei will W given later in tins 
paper. 

""The designation Diphyidsc seems to me preferable to Leuckart's term, Calyco- 
phorid*. Theve.y.d „ ,^ (1|1 | ,,,, |( , 1 V ,. the type of a family between the 
Physophorid* and Diphvid.v. 



[February, 



that, at first sight, it is almost impossible to recognize anything in 
i between them both. A more intimate study, however, 




1882.] The Siphonophores. 91 

Prominent among all the structures which characterize the 
Siphonophores, is the axis or stem from which the group is 
named. In Diphyes this part (s) is very well developed, and in 
live specimens may be seen trailing behind to a great distance in 
the water, just as we have seen was the case in the genera of Phy- 
sophoridae already mentioned. Along its whole extent we find 
appendages so fastened that they do not incommode in the least 
possible manner the direct motion of the animal through the water. 
In the genus Diphyes it will be noticed that all the organs are 
especially adapted for rapid motion, and as one watches these 
graceful tubes, with their appendages, shooting through the sea, 
the adaptation for this mode of life seems complete. With this 
thought in mind, one can almost predict the organs of the Phy- 
sophores which should be missed in Diphyes, and the modifica- 
tions of their form which would be expected. 

A float would, if of any size, be a great impediment to the free 
motion of the jelly-fish. In Diphyes, consequently, it is alto- 
gether wanting, and other methods are resorted to in order to 
diminish the specific gravity of the colony. 

No organ of Diphyes better illustrates the modification and 
adaptation which has taken place to bring about rapid motion, 
than those which move the colony, which are here, as in all 
Siphonophores, the nectocalyces. There are only two of these 
swimming-bells, as they arc called, and they are very different in 
outline and general appearance from the swimming-bells of any 
of the animals which we have yet considered. These bells differ 
also one from the other, in size, shape and anatomy. 

At one end of the axis of Diphyes, as it floats gracefully ex- 
tended in the water, there are two gelatinous, transparent bodies 
of somewhat conical shape fab, pb) ; these are the two necto- 
calyces which, with the exception of one genus, Hippopodius, are 
double throughout all the members of the Diphyidse. 1 The con- 
nection between the two bells at the extremity of the axis is so 
strong, that when they are raised from the water they are not 
broken apart, but the axis, by contraction, is simply drawn up in- 
to a deep groove in the under side of the bell, while the appen- 
dages, even when the colony is lifted out of water, remain attached 

more at length i„ nt genera of pipbyidar, Hippopodius has 



92 The Siphonopkores. [February, 

much more strongly than corresponding structures of Agalma 
and kindred forms. In this retracted position they are often car- 
ried, as the animal darts forward in its course through the water. 
To facilitate that motion by diminishing the resistance of the sur- 
rounding medium, the method of attachment no less than the 
form of the bells, contributes. 

In Agalma the nectocalyces, as we have seen, seem to arise in 
two rows, with bell openings looking in opposite directions. 
They are capable of a very limited change of position, and most 
of the variety of motion which the colony has, is brought about 
by combination in the action of nectocalyces situated in different 
regions of the stem, or in a muscular twisting of the axis upon 
which they are fastened, by which their openings are made to 
face in different directions. The method is too simple if rapid 
motion be desired, and ill adapted to that purpose in Diphyes. 
In Stephanomia variety and rapidity of movement are brought 
about by multiplication of nectocalyces. Even in this genus the 
means are inferior to those which we find in Diphyes. 1 

The swimming-bells of Diphyes are placed one behind the 
other, so that their longer axes lie in a straight line which falls in 
the direction of motion. Both bell cavities open in the same 
way, facing backward as they float in the water. When they act 
simultaneously the fluid ejected from their cavities by the contrac- 
tion of the bell walls, presses together on the surrounding me- 
dium and reinforces each other. There is no action of one bell 
in opposition to another, as may happen in Agalma. The vol- 
ume of ejected water is comparatively much larger than in any 
of the Physophoridse. 

The anterior bell (ab) of the two nectocalyces has a pyramidal 
shape, and is pointed at the apex opposite the bell opening. If 
this bell were attached by the same region as the nectocalyx of 
Agalma, it would seem as if this apical prolongation should also 
indicate the place of attachment of the stem. In Diphyes, how- 
ever, this is not the case. The apex of the first bell is not homol- 
ogous to the apex of the bell of other Medusae, nor does it cor- 
respond to the point of attachment of the nectocalyx to the stem 

l The motion of the Diphyes is sometimes so rapid that the eye cannot follow the 
animal. The water is driven out of the bell cavity by a single muscular contraction 



1 882.] The Siphonophores. 93 

of Agalma. The apex of the anterior bell is in reality the pro- 
longation of the side of the bell, while the true apex has been 
abnormally twisted out of position, and is found just above the 
bell opening, near the origin of the stem which seems to hang 
down between the two nectocalyces. 

Nowhere in its structure is the modification, which takes place 
in the organs of the bell as a result of this abnormal twisting, 
better shown than in the course of the chymiferous tubes upon 
the inner walls of the bell cavity. The radial tubes are especially 
modified in their course by the change in external form which the 
bell has undergone. 

The chymiferous tubes of the anterior nectocalyx in Diphyes, 
consist of a system of four radial vessels placed upon the inner 
walls of the bell cavity, and a single large tube or cavity extending 
into one side of the bell walls parallel to the outer surface. The 
former tubes start from a common junction, and pass radially to 
the bell margin, while the latter ends blindly about two-thirds the 
distance between the bell rim and the pointed extremity of the 
nectocalyx. Both open into the cavity of the stem ; the former 
by a vessel passing from their junction to the stem; the latter 
more directly through the same tube. 

The length of the four radial tubes is very unequal, as would 
naturally be expected if the distortion which we have suggested 
as having taken place in the anterior bell, has in reality occurred. 
The two tubes (c) which lie in those parts of the bell which have 
been enlarged, are therefore naturally much longer than those in 
the remaining portions of the bell. So small indeed has that 
side of the nectocalyx which adjoins the posterior bell become, and 
so enormously has the opposite half been enlarged, that the tubes of 
one are inconspicuous and with difficulty traced, while those of 
the other are very prominent on the inner bell walls. At first 
sight then, we might suppose that there were but two radial ves- 
sels, while a closer study shows that there are four such tubes as 
we have seen exists in the nectocalyces of all Siphonophores. At 
the common junction of these tubes, we must look for the 
apex of the bell cavity. At that point, about midway in the 
length of the two bells, the vessels communicate with the stem 
cavity by means of a short tube, similarly placed to a like vessel 
in the nectocalyx of Agalma. 

There is, however, in the anterior nectocalyx a tube (I) which 



94 The SiphonopJwres. [February, 

has the form of a cavity filled with a spongy mass 1 of cells, and 
which seems without representation in the bell of Agalma. This 
cavity starts from the union of the vessel last mentioned with the 
stem cavity, and extends through the substance of the bell walls, 
ending blindly a short distance from its union with the stem. If 
we look for its homologue in the bells of Agalma, it will be found 
to exactly correspond in position with the mantel tubes, which 
are diminutive branches from the vessel which in Agalma con- 
nects the radial system with the cavity of the axis. This greatly 
developed mantel tube in the anterior nectocalyx of Diphyes has 
been called the somatocyst. It is not a float, as far as its homol- 
ogy goes, although it may, at times, contain globules of oil, 
which serve to diminish the specific gravity of the animal. The 
existence of the somatocyst in the bell walls on one side, and not 
on the other, necessitates a thickening of those lateral walls, 
which are usually placed uppermost as the medusa floats in the 
water. The walls on the opposite or lower side are very thin. 
The thickened upper bell walls, from which the axis hangs, are 
continued beyond the margin of the bell in order to give a basis 
of attachment to the stem. This elongation extends over and pro- 
tects 2 a portion of the posterior nectocalyx, as shown in the figure. 
It often happens that the posterior bell is ruptured from its connec- 
tion with the anterior, and but one nectocalyx, with its attached 
stem, is found. Such a find is liable to deceive a novice in the 
study of the tubular medusa. It can be laid down as a law to 
which there is but one exception as yet known, that all the adult 
Diphyidse have two nectocalyces in their normal condition. 

The second or posterior nectocalyx (pb) differs widely from 
the anterior in shape and in the character of its chymiferous ves- 
sels, more particularly in their course through the bell walls. 
While it has the elongated form of the anterior, the course of the 



Uphv 



Ki-i.lity 



1 882.] The Siphonophores. 95 

radial tubes as well as the point of attachment of the bell to the 
stem, shows that one side of the bell is not abnormally developed 
at the expense of the other. Its general form is exactly what 
would take place if an Agalma bell were much elongated in the 
line of its height, in order to secure a greater capacity for the 

The most important variation in shape from the anterior bell, 
is the formation of two ridges extending the whole length of 
the under side of the posterior nectocalyx on the side which is 
opposite that part of the anterior bell which is thickened and 
bears the somatocyst. These ridges are continued into two 
prominences beyond the bell opening. 1 In the interval between 
these two ridges there is a groove in which is lodged the stem 
when retracted. In some genera, as Abyla, still further means of 
covering the stem when thus retracted are found, but in Diphyes 
the groove is without covering. The posterior bell is smaller 
than the anterior, and is easily detached. Its radial system of 
vessels communicates with the stem cavity by a small vessel 
which is destitute of mantel tubes or somatocyst. While the two 
nectocalyces of Diphyes are the most prominent structures in the 
animal when alive, and the only organs to be studied in alcoholic 
specimens, they are by no means the most- important. The 
active habits of Diphyes has given them this predominance in 
-size. There remain many other appendages to the stem yet to 
be mentioned. 

These parts of the colony are fastened regularly along the 
whole length of the stem to its very extremity. They consist of 
covering-scales, polypites to which are appended tentacles dotted 
along their length with tentacular pendants, and clusters of sex- 
ual bells. Representatives of the bodies called tasters in my 
account of Agalma do not exist, as far as known, in the Diphyidas. 
The appendages are not placed irregularly upon the stem, a 
Polypite in one place and a cluster of sexual bells in another, but 
are found in clusters, separated by short intervals of the stem. 



Each « 



ists of a covering-scale, a polypit 

hahly act as rudders to determine the d 



The Siphonophi 



[February, 




genus Apolemia, 
separate from 
the remainder of 
the colony and 
lead an indepen- 
dent life. This l g 
is also true in a s 

(nectocalyx) ; 
in u i c cu.npiCLC M> chymirerous tube of the nectocalyx ; 

form in the clus alar knob, the 

ters of the Diph- tracted \ s e slmw in a theSen e J!!rof%h e e 

yes colony. For ] 

a long time these separated fragme 
thought to be new genera, that from a Diphyes 
had been called Eudoxia, un 
by Leuckart that it was in reality only a frag- 
ment dropped from the stem of a Diphyes. 
We cannot give a better idea of the ( " 
: of these clu 
scription of the Eudoxia 1 found i 

red that the Eudoxia 
form of a Diphyes fragment is seldom reached 




97 
attached to the 
axis. It is only after 
separation that the 
appendages grow to a 
form like that which 
we are about to de- 
scribe. The Eudoxia 
discovered by us at 
Newport, R. L, al- 
though probably the 
same species as that 
mentioned by Huxley 
and others, was found 

before its Diphyes was 
taken. 

A separated frag- 
ment of one of the 
■Eudoxia. Letter- Diphyidae, which in 

2 as Fig. 2. t J le case Q f Diphyes 

as Eudoxia, may be called a Diphyi- 
>id, and as such it is commonly described, 
of Eudoxia, or the Diphyizoid 
of Diphyes is, in a general way, as follows. 
It is not necessary for me again to more than 
remind the reader that in these popular papers 
finer details of stri 

In general outline Eudoxia (Fig. 2) re- 
nbles Diphyes. The likeness, however, is 
only a superficial one, as will be seen later in 
sideration. As it floats or swims in 
r, those portions of the colony which 
are prominent are the two gelatinous bell- 
shaped bodies fastened to each other, end 
the two nec- 
tocalyces of Diphyes. Except in the mode of 
attachment, however, there is little likeness be- 
neither morphologically or function- 
Of the two transparent campanulate bodies, the anterior 
not, in Eudoxia, a nectocalyx, but a thickened, almost con- 



9 8 The Siphonophorcs. [February, 

ical covering-scale ; its surface is convex with one side flattened 
and the base concave for the lodgment of the sexual bells and 
retracted tentacle. There are no radial vessels in this covering- 
scale, and only the central cavity (I) of peculiar cellular appear- 
ance, representing the somatocyst. At the fundus of this cavity 
there is generally found an oil globule (og) which it is unneces- 
sary to say has no morphological relationships with the float of 
Agalma and its allies. A similar globule is also found at the 
base of the somatocyst near the point of attachment of the young 
Eudoxia to the stem of the Diphyes, before the rupture of the 
fragment took place. 

The structure of the covering-scale of Eudoxia betrays at once 
the homology of the central tube of the covering-scales of other 
Siphonophores, as well as of the somatocyst of the anterior bell 
of Diphyes. The covering-scale of Eudoxia resembles the ante- 
rior bell of Diphyes except that it has no radial system of ves- 
sels and no bell cavity. The somatocyst of the swimming-bell of 
the Diphyes is represented in its fragment, Eudoxia, by the central 
cavity (I) of the large covering-scale. This cavity is in turn the 
same as the central tube of the covering-scales of all other 
Siphonophores. When we recollect what has been pointed out 
above in relation to the homology of the somatocyst to the man- 
tle vessels in the nectocalyces of Agalma, the true homology of 
the covering scale and the nectocalyx becomes evident. If this 
view of the morphology be a correct one, the comparison of the 
covering-scale with the asymmetrical bell of a hydroid like the 
genus Hybocodon, is not correct, or at least its medially-placed 
tube does not correspond with a radial tube in the bell walls of 
the hydroid medusa. 

The under side or base of the conical covering-scale of Eu- 
doxia is very concave, and in this recess hang, when retracted, 
the remaining structures of the animal. The largest (b) of these 
bodies is a nectocalyx whose outer walls are crossed by four 
longitudinal ridges, serrated on their edges and continued into 
projections beyond the bell cavity. Two of these ridges, corre- 
sponding with those found on the under side of the posterior 
nectocalyx of Diphyes, are more prominent than the other pair, 
and enclose a canal in which the polypite, tentacle and sexual 
bell, lie when retracted. The bell cavity is deep, filling almost 
the whole interior of the nectocalyx, and along its surface pass 



1 882.] The Siphonophores. 99 

the four radial tubes (n) from common junction at the apex of 
the cavity to the bell rim. Their length is about equal, and their 
course in the bell walls is direct, without division or bifurcation. 
In the interval between the point of union of the covering-scale 
and nectocalyx, suspended from the under side of the former, 
hangs a flask-shaped body (p) which resembles very closely the 
feeding polyps of Agalma. It contains the stomach, and at its free 
end is found the mouth. The stomach cavity is in direct commu- 
nication with the cavity of the covering-scale. From a point 
near the origin of the polypite there is suspended a long flexible 
highly contractile tentacle. This tentacle can be wholly re- 
tracted at the base of the polypite, but when the Eudoxia is in 
motion, is found reaching far behind the point of suspension, 
gracefully extending to a great length. In addition to the poly- 
pite we also find a cluster of bells (g) occupying the interval be- 
low the covering-scale and its point of attachment to the necto- 
calyx already mentioned. These bells enclose in their cavities, in 
place of a proboscis, a globular mass of eggs. It will be seen 
that the Eudoxia, which I have described, has female 1 sexual 
bells only ; the male bells I have never been fortunate enough 
to find. The sexual bells are found in all stages of growth, from 
a simple bud to a well developed bell hanging from a stout 
peduncle. The history of the growth of the egg after it is 
dropped from the female bell, will be treated of in a special paper 
on the embryology of Diphyes. 

The anatomy of Diphyes seems to me to sustain the homology 
of the Siphonophores as pointed out in our account of the anat- 
omy of Agalma. The absence of the float at the extremity of 
the stem offers, no difficulty to this homology when we recollect 
that the air bladder itself is only a modified medusa bell, and 
consequently homologous to the anterior of the two bells of 
Diphyes. The posterior nectocalyx is homologous to a true necto- 
calyx, while the anterior represents the float of the Physophori- 
dae. The axis of Diphyes, as that of Agalma, is homologous 
with the proboscis of a Lizzia, and from its sides bud the medu- 



very impori 

and Ehlcs. m 



I diflcrcnco l-H-1 



ioo The Siphonophores. [February, 

the proboscis of Lizzia'and the stem of Diphyes, that while the 
buds from the former separate without absorption of the stomach 
walls, the Eudoxia appropriates a section of the Diphyes axis to 
form essential parts of its body. 

To my mind there is no difficulty in a comparison of the Eu- 
doxia with Lizzia 1 and with the Physophoridae. Eudoxia is the 
adult form of which the Diphyes is the " nurse stage," so that 
we have here a true alternation of generation as in other medusae. 
It is natural, therefore, that the likeness between Eudoxia and 
Agalma should be a distant one, since the latter genus never 
passes out of the Diphyes form, or the " nurse " from which the 
Eudoxia buds. On this account I consider the Physophoridae as 
lower, anatomically and embryologically, than the Diphyidae. 
Like those forms of fixed hydroids, which never drop medusa- 
shaped buds, and never, therefore, advance out of the fixed "nurse 
stage," the Physophoridae never attain as completely developed a 
form as the Diphyidse. They never bud off a gonophore as the 
medusoid bud is sometimes called, but always remain in the em- 
bryonic form. As the Diphyes stage is comparable with a stro- 
bila or a budding Lizzia, the Eudoxia is the completed generation 
comparable with the adult Lizzia which drops the eggs, or the 
sexual form. 

The following table exhibits the corresponding parts of Liz- 
zia and Eudoxia : 

Lizzia. Eudoxia. 

Bell. Covering scale («). 

Manubrium (proboscis). Feeding polyp (polypite) (/). 



;a bud from the probos- Swimmin 
t (aborted). 



in this article, by Professor McCrady in 185 
rbor, p. 67). Since that date the theory has 

E. Mailer. (HaeckeL Zur Kntwick! der 

.liiller, lag. over Nogle Siphonophorer, Nat, 



1 882.] The Siphonophores. 101 

If we were to follow precedent in our studies of the Siphono- 
phores, we must apply to the adult the name Eudoxia instead of 
the almost universally used Diphyes. It is just as absurd to re- 
tain the name Diphyes to designate anything but a younger 
stage in the growth of Eudoxia, as it would be to designate the 
adult sea-urchin a pluteus, or to retain the word auricularia for 
the adult starfish. The monogastric form, or the Eudoxia, is the 
adult ; the polygastric, or Diphyes, the larva. 

There is another point to be considered. If from the embry- 
onic feature of possessing a long axis, or stem, the relatives of 
Diphyes are referred to the Siphonophores, is that reference a 
good one, and would the characters as assigned to the group to 
which Agalma belongs (Siphonophorae) hold in descriptions of 
the adult Diphyid ? The Eudoxia has no stem-like structure, 
which gave the name to the group, although it is a true relative. 

The comparison of Eudoxia with Agalma, or the adult stage of 
Diphyes with the corresponding larval condition, Agalma, is evi- 
dently legitimate, as the comparison of the developed bud of 
Lizzia with a genus similar to the Lizzia from which it budded. 
Although we have in Eudoxia an alternation of generation, it is 
unlike that condition in some other animals, as in the echino- 
derms, where the nurse cannot be homologized with the adult. In 
some respects it resembles most closely that process of growth 
which we are familiar with under the name of strobilation. The Eu- 
doxia is the separated Ephyra, and the Diphyes is a free-swimming 
scyphistoma, as far as the relation of the nurse to the adult goes. 
Here however the parallelism ends. The same holds true also in a 
comparison of genera of Diphyidae with the free-living proglot- 
tis of the tape worms (Leuckart, Siphonophoren von Nizza, p. 
29). As McCrady has already pointed out (Lectures), there is a 
close resemblance between a Taenia and the Scyphistoma in mode 
of strobilation, but as there is no homology between the pro- 
glottids and the Ephyra, so there is little in common in the struc- 
ture of the Diphyizoid and Ephyra. They resemble each other 
simply in the mode of strobilation. 

The corresponding parts of an Agalma and an Eudoxia are 
given in the table below : 



102 Remarks on the Cretaceous and [February, 

REMARKS ON THE CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY 
FLORA OF THE WESTERN TERRITORIES. 



THE following notes were suggested by two valuable commu- 
cations to Nature, in the numbers bearing date June 30 and 
October 6, 1881 ; the first, that of Dr. J. S. Newberry, tending to 
show that the flora of the Dakota group, together with that of 
the Laramie group, are of Cretaceous age ; the second, that of J. 
Starkie Gardner, Esq., of London, contending to the contrary, 
that both those floras are Tertiary. 

As there is not any fixed characters admitted as standard 
points of determination of the age of a fossil flora, phytopalaeon- 
tologists have no means of coming to an understanding on the 
subject, except by a comparison of the vegetable remains of the 
divers formations with those of localities whose geological hori- 
zon has been ascertained. 

I take here, for comparison with the plants of the Dakota 
group, the Upper Cretaceous flora of Groenland, Atane ; that of 
Moletin, of Quedlinburg, of the Quader-sandstone of the Hartz 
and other localities of Germany where this formation, generally 
considered as Middle Cretaceous, or Cenomanian, has been 
observed. 

One hundred and seventy specific forms of plants are now 
known from the Dakota group; they represent six ferns, one 
Equisetum, or seven cryptogamous acrogens ; seven Cycadea;, 
ten conifers, three monocotyledonous plants ; the others, about 
one hundred and fifty, all dicotyledonous angiosperms. 

As far as known until now, the flora of Atane, Groenland, is 
represented in sixty-three species — thirteen ferns, two Cycadese, 
ten conifers, three monocotyledonous, while thirty-four, or a little 
more than one-half, are angiosperms. 

The relation of the Atane flora with that of the Dakota group 
is marked by ten identical species : one fern, two conifers and 
seven dicotyledonous ; while quite as distinct an affinity is demon- 
strated by allied types of the genera Ficus, Sassafras, Diospyros 
and Sapindus. 

The flora of Quedlinburg is composed of twenty species; four 
ferns, four conifers, one monocotyledonous, with eleven angio- 
sperms, a little more than half of the species. Of this group of 



1 882.] Tertiary Flora of the Western Territories. 103 

plants, the relation to the flora of the Dakota group is shown by- 
only one identical species, a fern, which is also found at Atane 
and Moletin, while analogy is marked by two species of Myrica 
and a Proteoides. 

Moletin, in eighteen species described of its flora, has one fern, 
four conifers, one monocotyledonous and twelve angiospermous 
plants, these, therefore, constituting two-thirds of the flora. 

Though the number is small, the flora is related to that of the 
Dakota group by identity of one fern, one conifer, both also 
recognized at Atane, and of two dicotyledonous species. This 
is a remarkably close relationship indeed, more intimate than that 
between the Quedlinburg and Moletin floras, and it is positive, 
for the species indicating it, Gleichoiia fcurriana, Finns quensledti, 
Aralia formosa and Magnolia speciosa, all described by Heer, are 
of easily identifiable characters. 

The quader-sandstone of the Hartz is, by its numerous species 
of Credneria, related to the no less numerous representatives of 
the genus Protophyllum of the Dakota group. 

In the Monde des Plantes, by Saporta, the author, who has had 
opportunity to compare specimens of plants of the Cenomanian of 
Bohemia with those of the more common and characteristic spe- 
cies of the Dakota group, remarks, p. 202, that the flora of this 
group presents, if not identical species with those of Bohemia and 
Moravia, at least a number of equivalent forms. 

Mr. Feistmantel says, in a note to Professor Heer, 1 that the 
lower division of the Cretaceous of Bohemia (Perutzer-Schichten) 
is Cenomanian. After naming a number of plants found in the 
sandstone of this formation, he adds that the beds of shale, partly 
between, partly above the sandstone, contain remains of plants, 
ferns, conifers and a mass of dicotyledonous leaves and fresh- 
water shells. Of the forty-nine species determined by him, nine 
are also at Moletin, seven at Niedershoena, while three ferns and 
conifers are present in the Lower Cretaceous of Groenland, and 
four in the Upper, that of Atane. Of the same plants the Da- 
kota group has five, positively identified: Gleichenia kurriana, 
Pinns quenstedti, Sequoia Rcichenbaclii, Magnolia speciosa and 
Aralia formosa. A sixth might be added, Sequoia fas tigiata, but 
its identification is less definite. And still with the flora of Nieder- 
shoena, that of the American Cretaceous is related by one identi- 



104 Remarks on the Cretaceous and [February, 

cal species, and the affinity of character of a Pterophyllum, a Cau- 
linites, a Fagus, two species of Ficus, a Myrica and a Daphnogene. 

To set aside the evidence derived from the remains of plants 
indicating synchronism and Cretaceous age of the localities above 
named, it may be said, as it has been done for the Laramie 
group, that vegetable remains are not sufficient authority for the 
determination of the age of a formation. 

But here the determination of the formation from where the re- 
mains are derived, has been first made, or later confirmed by the 
characters of animal remains found in the intercalated or superposed 
strata. Heer states that the Moletin formation is positively referable 
tothe quader-sandstone, Cenomanian, overlying the planer of Reuss 
referred to the Turonian ; and of that of Quedlinburg, he states 
that it is referable to the lowest zone of the Belemnitella quadrata, 
which constitutes the lowest stage of the Senonian or Upper Cre- 
taceous. In the quader-sandstein of the Hartz, from where the 
Credneria species have been obtained, a large number of animal 
remains, mostly of invertebrate and fishes, have been found. 
Stiehler, in his Beitrage, 1 quotes a long list of these genera and 
species, all Cretaceous. It is the same with the animal remains 
found in the strata overlaying the Dakota group in a space of 
more than two thousand feet. 

The objection by Mr. Gardner is, that these so-called Creta- 
ceous animal remains may not or are not generally or specifi- 
cally identical with those of the Middle Cretaceous of Eng- 
land. Of this I am unable to judge. But it is said also that 
the vegetable types of the Dakota group appear too young to 
represent a Cretaceous formation, for some of them are closely 
related to plants of the Miocene. This is true, as it will be 
seen here below ; but that cannot be taken into account in the 
discussion, for the relation is quite as prominent, rather still more 
marked with species of the present vegetation of North America, 
where a number of types of the flora of the Dakota group are 
reproduced in some of the more important and beautiful trees of 
our forests. This is the more remarkable that the affinity is not 
at all observable with the plants of the Lower Tertiary or Eocene 
of the Laramie group. But this refers to the second part of the 
discussion ; before coming to it there are still a few words to say 
on the present objection. 

1 Beitrage zur Kentnis-; <ler Vorweltlichen Flora, 1857. 



1 882.] Tertiary Flora of the Western Territories. 105 

The Lowest Cretaceous flora of Groenland, that of Come, is 
composed, as far as known, of seventy-five species, of which 
forty-two represent Cryptogamous acrogens, ferns, Lycopods and 
Equisetaceae ; nine Cycadeae, seventeen conifers, six monocotyle- 
donous and only one dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. Com- 
posed as it is, the group has rather the character of a Jurassic 
than of a Cretaceous flora. It is, however, related with Atane 
by five identical species, three ferns and two conifers, and also by 
that first or more ancient dicotyledonous plant, a Populus of the 
same type as three other forms of this genus described from 

What conclusions can be derived from the above? The char- 
acter of the flora of Come being Jurassic, the formation which it 
characterizes cannot be considered as Tertiary. Heer thinks even 
that the true Cretaceous begins with the flora of Atane. But 
admitting Come as lowest Cretaceous, we may follow the relation 
of its flora through Atane, not only with the Dakota group, but 
with all the formations mentioned above from Germany — Qued- 
linburg, Moletin, the Quader-sandstone and others; and, there- 
fore, to admit the Dakota group to the Tertiary, it would be ne- 
cessary to erase from the Cretaceous, as it is constituted, the 
whole of the formations related to it with Come, or the whole of 
the formations where angiospermous plants have been found. 

On the second question considered in the memoirs of Mr. 
Starkie Gardner and Dr. Newberry, or the relative age of the 
Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary formations of North America in 
comparison with those of England, I have to omit the facts 
derived from animal palaeontology. I can only briefly remark on 
the affinity and disparity of some vegetable types of the Dakota 
group compared to those of the American Eocene (the so-called 
Laramie or Lignitic group); of the Miocene of Carbon, and on the 
relation of the plants of the Lignitic with those of the Eocene of 
England and France. 

From what is known until now of the plants of the American 
formations named above, the flora of the Dakota group is, as said 
already, more distinctly related by analogy and identity of species 
to that of the Miocene than to that of the Lignitic. Except the 
dose affinity remarked between Cinnamomum Neerii(U. S. Geol. 
Kept, vi, p. 8 4l PI. xxviii, f. ii) and Cinnamomum affine (same 
Re Pt, Vii, PI. xxxvii, f. 1-5, 7), I do not know of any Cretaceous 



106 Remarks on the Cretaceous and [February, 

species which can be pointed out as indicating a distinct relation to 
plants of the Laramie group. Leaves of Cinnamomum have been 
described by Dr. Newberry from the Orcas island (Descriptions of 
fossil plants collected by Mr. G. Gibbs) and supposed by the 
author to be referable, partly at least, to Cinnamomum Heerii, de- 
scribed first from Vancouver's island. The author's remark, that 
the specimens, though typically allied to Cinnamomum Schaich- 
zeri and C. lanceolatum, indicate a larger and thicker leaf, confirms 
his supposition ; for Cinnamomum Heerii, of which a fine specimen, 
preserved entire, has been obtained this year in Kansas for the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology of Cambridge, merely differs 
from C. affine, found at Golden and Carbon, by its more rounded 
base, both species being represented by leaves equally large and 
subcoriaceous. This form, therefore, passes to the Miocene 
through the Eocene without apparent modification. Of smaller 
leaves described from specimens of the Dakota group as Cinna- 
momum Scheuchzcri, a species of which two fine specimens have 
been also procured this year in Kansas, none have been seen in the 
plants of the Lignitic. The ferns of the last group also are without 
analogy to those published by Heer and myself from the Dakota 
group. The same can be said of the conifers, except Abietites 
dubius, which according to Saporta,has,by the scars left by the base 
of the leaves upon the stems, some analogy with Cunninghamites, 
a Cretaceous type. In the monocotyledonous, the palms especially, 
in the angiosperms the types of Populus, Platanus, Quercus, 
Ficus, Laurus, Viburnum, Rhamnus, Juglans, etc., all appear 
without relation to any of those of the Dakota group. Per con- 
tra, when comparing the plants of this Cretaceous formation with 
those of the Miocene of Carbon, even of the Pliocene of Califor- 
nia, we find closely allied types, even identity of characters in 
species of Salix and still more in those of Populus. For exam- 
ple, between Populus elliptica Newby., Illustr. of species, PI. Ill, t 
1-2, of the Dakota group, and P. cuneaia Newby., ibid., PI. xiv, f. 
1-4, of the Union group, no possible difference is found in the 
shape, size and nervation of the leaves. In the Cretaceous spe- 
cies, the borders are a little more distinctly crenate-serrate. But 
such a difference is of no account in leaves of the same type as 
the polymorphous Populus arctica, whose borders are entire or 
undulate, or more or less deeply serrate-crenate. Liriodendron 
and sassafras, not at all represented in the Laramie, are found in 



1 882.] Tertiary Flora of the Western Territories. 107 

the Miocene, especially in that of Europe, in remarkably similar 
forms of leaves. Even Liriodendron giganteum of the Dakota 
group, considering the leaves only, is reproduced in L. tulipifcra 
of the present North American flora. The same observation can 
be made on Fagus and Quercus, in comparing Fag us polyclada 
and Quercus primordialis of the Cretaceous, which without rep- 
resentative in the plants of the Laramie group, have species of 
similar type in the Miocene and also in the flora of this epoch. 
The Cretaceous Platanus primceva is comparable to the Miocene 
P. gulielmce, while of the types of Aralia, so remarkaby abun- 
dant in the Cretaceous of Kansas, two are found at Carbon and 
Evanston, and none in the Lignitic. Aralia quinquepartita, fig- 
ured U. S. Geol. Repts., vn, PL xv, f. 6, and still from better 
specimen, Vol. vin (ined.), PI. vn, f. 4, is reproduced in Aralia 
augustiloba of the Pliocene (gold gravel formation) of California. 
More of this same kind of analogy could be given, but the above 
is sufficient to prove that the characters of the flora of the Lara- 
mie group, or Eocene, greatly differ both from those of the Cre- 
taceous and of the Miocene of this continent. 

That they are related, and some of them positively identical 
with those of the Eocene of Europe, is remarked by Dr. Gardner, 
who has found in the Eocene of England, among a number of 
ferns, two species identified in the flora of the Laramie group. 
The table in the U. S. Geol. Repts., Vol. vn, p. 314, etc., indicates 
the relation of the plants of the Lignitic with those of different 
formations and localities as it was known when the volume was 
published. With the flora of Sezane, for example, the affinity is 
marked by twenty-one species. Since then a new kind of palm 
Ludoviopsis, obtained at Golden, indicates affinity to a species of 
Sezane, and another that of a finely preserved dicotyledonous 
kaf, figured in the same volume, PL xv, f. 5, is recognized by 
Saporta as identical to one of his species of the same locality, 
Sterculia modesta, thus increasing in a remarkable degree, the 
evidence of the relation of the flora of the Laramie group with 
that of the Eocene of Sezane. 

But the review and discussion of the data concerning the Ter- 
tiary age of the Lignitic may be now of little importance, as all 
the phytopalaeontologists who have entered into the discussion, 
have recognized the Tertiary characters of its flora. For it 
1S evid ent that a number of the species described as Mio- 



108 Remarks on the Cretaceous, etc. [February, 

cene by Dr. Newberry from the Fort Union group, are iden- 
tical with those abundantly represented at Golden. If this fact 
has not been acknowledged by the eminent geologist of New 
York, the cause is most probably due to the mingling of the 
specimens submitted to him, which, derived from divers localities, 
were representatives of two formations, but were labeled as from 
the same locality, as would be, for example, the specimens of 
Carbon mixed with those of Golden, or those of Washakie mixed 
with those of Black Butte. A lot of specimens sent to me by 
the U. S. Geol. Survey, and labeled Point of Rocks, were certainly 
obtained from the Washakie group, as all represent Miocene spe- 
cies without analogy to those collected later by Dr. Hayden at 
Point of Rocks. This supposition only can explain the aggre- 
gation in the same geological group, of species like Taxodiinn 
occidental, the large palms, Sabal Campbelli, the remarkable 
leaves of Platanus Haydeni, P. Ra -ua, etc., with 

such positively Miocene plants as Sequoia Langsdorffi, the forms 
of Populus allied to P. arctica, even species of our time, Onoclea 
sensibilis, Cory/us Americana, C. rcstrata, etc. All this gives to 
the Union group an evident Miocene facies, and therefore, from 
this consideration only, and in substituting Miocene for Tertiary, 
it would be possible and right to say, that no Miocene plant has 
been found in the Laramie group. 

On the identity of some of the species of plants of the Union 
group with those of the Laramie, there is no possible doubt. 
The most abundant remains procured at the Raton mountains, by 
divers explorations, represent Sabal Campbelli; some of the 
finest specimens procured at Golden are of Platanus Haydeni 
and P. RaynoldsL Some large pieces of sandstone, procured at 
Golden for the Museum of Princeton College, represent both the 
species figured in the illustrations of Dr. Newberry, Pis. xix and 
xxi. And as all the specimens I have described from the collec- 
tion made by the Geological Survey of Dr. F. V. Hayden, are 
now deposited in the National Museum, the determination of the 
species can be there critically examined. 



1 882.] Incubation of the Top- Minnow ( Gambusia). 109 

STRUCTURE AND OVARIAN INCUBATION OF GAM- 
BUSIA PATRUELIS, A TOP-MINNOW. 1 

BY JOHN A. RYDER. 

OINCE we have taken up our temporary residence at Cherry- 
^ stone we have found this interesting genus of cyprinodonts in 
great abundance in fresh and brackish water streams, also in a fresh 
water pond in the vicinity, a few miles south of where our station 
is located. In the latter situation three forms have been collected 
all of which are in breeding condition — we will not say spawning 
condition, as they do not, as do most other fishes, commit their 
ova to the care of the element in which they live, but carry them 
about in the ovary, where they are impregnated and where they 
develop in a very remarkable manner. 

Of the manner of impregnation we know little or nothing, ex- 
cept the evidence furnished by the conformation of the external 
genitalia of the two sexes. In the adult male, which measures 
one and one-eighth of an inch in length, the anal fin is strangely 
modified into an intromittent organ for the conveyance of the 
milt into the ovary of the female ; a tubular organ appears to be 
formed by the three foremost anal rays, but one which is greatly 
prolonged and united by a membrane. At the apex these rays are 
somewhat curved toward each other, and thus form a blunt point, 
but the foremost one of the three rays is armed for its whole 
length with ridges at its base and with sharp recurved hooks at 
its tip, the other two at their tips similarly with hooks, and be- 
tween their tips *re two small fenestra or openings which possibly 
communicate directly with the sperm duct from the testes. The 
basal elements of the fin are aggregated into a cylindrical col- 
umnar truncated bony mass, which is prolonged upward into the 
cavity of the air-bladder for the distance of nearly the eighth of an 
inch ; from it a series of fibrous bands pass to the dorsal and pos- 
terior wall of the air-bladder to be inserted in the median line. 
Whether this bony column serves to steady the fin in the act of 
copulation, or whether it serves to give passage to the sperm duct, 
is an unsettled question with the writer. The modified anal fin of 
the male measures a third of an inch in length. Other peculiari- 
ties of the male are noticeable— for instance, as the more abbrevi- 
ated air-bladder or space which also occupies a more oblique 



no Incubation of the Top- Minnow (Gambusia). [February, 

position than in the female. The most remarkable difference pre- 
sented by the male as compared with the female, however, is his 
inconsiderable weight, which is only 160 milligrammes, while that 
of the gravid female is 1030 milligrammes, or nearly six and one- 
half times the weight of the male. 

The female, as already stated, is larger than the male, and 
measures one inch and three-fourths in length. The liver lies for 
the most part on the left side. The intestine makes one turn upon 
itself in the fore part of the body cavity and passes back along 
the floor of the abdomen to the vent. The air-bladder occupies 
two-fifths of the abdominal cavity, and at its posterior end the 
wolffian duct traverses it vertically, to be enlarged near its outlet 
into a fusiform urinary bladder of very much the same form as in 
many embryo fishes. The ovary is a simple, unpaired organ which 
lies somewhat to the right and extends from the anterior portion 
of the body cavity to its hinder end, and serves to fill up its lower 
moiety when fully developed. The ova, when full grown, are each 
enveloped in a sac or follicle supplied with blood from a median 
vascular trunk which divides and subdivides as it traverses the ovary 
lengthwise in a manner similar to that of the stem to which grapes 
in the bunch are attached. In this way it happens that each egg 
or ovum has it own independent supply of blood from the general 
vascular system of the mother, from which the material for the 
growth and maturation of the egg is derived, and which afterward 
becomes specialized into a contrivance by which the life of the 
developing embryo is maintained while undergoing development 
in their respective follicles in the ovary or egg-bag. The ova 
develop along the course of the main vessel and its branches, as 
may be learned upon examining a hardened specimen, where the 
very immature ovarian eggs are seen to be involved in a mesh- 
work of connective fibrous tissue, which serves not only to 
strengthen the vessels but also afterward enters into the structure 
of the walls of the ovarian sacs or follicles externally. 

The very immature eggs measure from less than a hundredth 
of an inch up to a fiftieth, and on up to a twelfth of an inch, when 
they may be said to be mature. They develop along a nearly 
median rachis or stalk which extends backward and slightly down- 
ward, and which gets its blood supply very far forward from the 
dorsal aorta. The ova, after developing a little way, are each in- 
closed in a follicle, the Grnefian follicle, ovisac, ovarian capsule, 



1 8 8 2 .] Incubation of the Top-Min now ( Gambusia) . 1 1 1 

membrana granulosa of Von Baer, or membrana celhUosa of Coste. 
As the egg is matured there is a space developed about it which 
is said to result from the breaking up of the granular layer of 
cells covering it. This space is filled with fluid, and in this liquid, 
which increases in quantity as development proceeds, the embryo 
top-minnow is constantly bathed. There is no trace whatever 
in the egg of this fish of an independent egg membrane, as is 
the case with all known forms which spawn directly into the 
water, and which is usually, if not in all cases, perforated by 
one or more micropylar openings or pores for the entrance of 
the spermatozoon. This fact raises the question whether the egg 
membrane or zona radiata usually present in the ova of water- 
spawning fishes is not entirely absent in all the viviparous species. 
Whether Rathke has recorded anything on this point in his ac- 
count of the development of Zoarces, the viviparous blenny, I am 
not able to say at present, as I do not have access to his memoir. 1 
Suffice it to say, however, that with very cautious preparation, 
staining and dissection of the follicles inclosing the ova of Gam- 
busia, I have completely failed to discover what I could regard 
as an egg membrane, although personally familiar with the ap- 
pearance of the coverings of the ova of more than twenty species, 
embracing fifteen or more families. The zona radiata or covering 
of the egg in other bony fishes is said to be secreted from the 
cells lining the follicles and is composed of a gelatinoid substance, 
and it is often perforated all over by a vast number of extremely 
fine tubules, called pore canals by their discoverer, Johannes Muel- 
ler. No such structure existing as a covering for the egg of Gam- 
busia, we are in a position to ask the question why such an unique 
condition of affairs should exist in this case ? The answer, it 
would appear to us, is not far to seek. In the case of eggs which 
ordinarily hatch in water it is necessary that they should be sup- 
plied with a covering more or less firm and capable of protecting 
the contained embryo, which in the case of the top-minnow is not 
needed, because the embryo is developed so as to be quite com- 
petent to take care of itself as a very well organized little fish 



112 Incubation of the Top- Minnow. (Gambusia). [February, 

when it leaves the body of its parent. Nature will not waste her 
powers in an effort to make useless clothes for such of her chil- 
dren as do not need them ; on the contrary, she is constantly 
utilizing structures economically, and often so as to serve more 
than one purpose. This is the apparent answer to the query with 
which we started. 

The follicles or sacs containing the ova are built up internally 
of flat, polygonal cells of pavement epithelium, and externally of 
a network of multipolar, fibrous, connective tissue cells and mi- 
nute capillary blood vessels, with cellular walls, which radiate in 
all directions over the follicle from the point where the main arte- 
rial vessel joins the follicle, and which, together with its accom- 
panying veins and investment of fibrous tissue, constitutes the 
stalk by which the follicle and its contained naked ovum is sus- 
pended to the main arterial trunk and vein. The capillary system 
ends in a larger venous trunk, which also follows the course of the 
main median arterial trunk back to the heart by way of the Cu- 
vierian ducts. The very intricate mesh-work of fine vessels which 
covers the follicle supplies the developing fish with fresh oxygen, 
and also serves to carry off the carbonic dioxide in much the same 
way as the placenta or after-birth performs a similar duty for the 
young mammal developing in the uterus of its parent. There is 
this great difference, however, between the fish and the mammal. 
In the former there is no uterus; the development takes place in 
the follicle in which the eggs have grown and matured ; there is 
no true placenta, but respiration is effected by a follicular mesh- 
work of blood vessels, and the interchange of oxygen and carbonic 
dioxide gases takes place through the intermediation at first of 
the fluid by which the embryo is surrounded in its follicle, and 
later when blood vessels and gills have developed in the embryo 
they, too, become accessories to aid in the oxygenation of its 
blood. In the mammal there is a uterus ; the egg must leave its 
ovarian follicle ; be conveyed to the uterine cavity before a per- 
fectly normal development can begin ; there is a fully developed 
richly vascular placenta joined to the foetus, the villi or vascular 
loops of which are insinuated between those developed on the 
maternal surface of the uterine cavity. In both fish and mammal, 
however, this general likeness remains ; that there is no imme- 
diate vascular connection between mother and embryo. In both 
the respiration of the embryo is effected by the transpiration of 



1 8 8 2 .] Incubation of the Top- Minnow ( Gambusia). 1 1 3 

gases through the intermediation of membranes and fluids, oxygen 
being constantly supplied and carbonic dioxide carried off by 
means of a specialized portion of the blood system of the mater- 
nal organism. 

There is still another difference which distinguishes the develop- 
ing fish from the mammal, which has not been noticed. The body 
of the former is built up by a gradual transformation or conver- 
sion of the substance of the yelk into the various structures 
which make up its organization. In other words, the young fish 
obtains no nutrition from its parent ; there is merely an incorpo- 
ration of the stored protoplasm of the yelk sack. In the mammal, 
on the other hand, the embryo receives nourishment through the 
placental structures, the largest proportion of the embryo is built 
up from the protoplasm supplied from the blood system of the 
parent. Judging from the large size of the young of some vivipa- 
rous fishes, such as in Embiotoca, it is possible that there may be 
some exceptions to the rule indicated above. 

Besides the very intricate network of capillary vessels which 
covers the follicles of the ovary of Gambusia, a large opening 
of a circular or oval form makes its appearance in the wall of 
each one at or near the point of attachment of the vascular stalk 
by which they are supported. This opening appears to increase 
in size as the young fish develops ; whether it is present during 
the earliest stages of the intrafollicular development of the em- 
bryo I do not know, as I did not have an opportunity to see 
those phases. A branch from the main nutritive vessel frequently 
lies near the margin of the opening, curving around it. Whether 
this opening serves the same purpose as the micropyle of ova 
provided with a membrane, would appear very probable, as it is 
difficult to see in what other manner the milt, which is probably 
introduced into the ovarian cavity by the male, could reach the 
ovum through the wall of its follicle. The opening into the fol- 
licle may be named the follicular foramen. Through it the cavity 
m which the embryo lies is brought into direct communication 
with the general ovarian space. 

We found ourselves unable to determine the species of the 
form, the structure of which is described above ; none of those 
described in Jordan's Manual appear to agree with our species. 
It may be, as some of us have surmised, that the isolation of the 



sula of Virginia, for a great 



rjthof 



114 Incubation of the Top-Minnow (Gambusia). [February, 

time, may have served to develop specific characters, and that it is 
undescribed. We leave the determination of the species to the 
systematic ichthyologists. 1 

Thus far our account has dealt only with the structure of the 
adults and the peculiar contrivances by means of which repro- 
duction is effected ; we will now take up the discussion of the 
egg and the embryo. 

The globular vitellus measures about a line in diameter includ- 
ing the embryonic or germinal portion. The germinal proto- 
plasm probably occupies a peripheral position covering the nutri- 
tive or vitelline portion of the egg as a continuous envelope with 
strands of germinal matter running from it through and among 
the corpuscles of the vitellus. This peripheral germinal layer, 
when the egg is ready to be fertilized, migrates toward one pole 
and assumes a biscuit shape. This is essentially the history of 
the formation of the germinal disk of the Teleostean egg as 
worked out independently by Coste, Kupffer and the writer. 
Little of a trustworthy character is known of the history of the 
gerrninative vesicle and spot, which bear the same relation to the 
egg as the nucleus and nucleolus do to the substance of the cell 
of the ordinary type. When cleavage of the germinal disk has 
begun, it is the first positive evidence that impregnation has been 
successful. The disk then begins to spread over the vitellus or 
yelk and soon acquires the form of a watch glass, with its concave 
side lying next to the surface of the yelk. Coincident with the 
lateral expansion of the germinal disk, a thickening appears at 
one point in its margin which is the first sign of the appearance 
of the embryo fish. With its still further expansion, the em- 
bryo is developed more from the margin of the disk toward its 
center; in this way it happens that the axis of the embryo lies in 
one of the radii of the disk ; its head toward the center, its tail at 
the margin. 

But before the embryo is fairly formed, a space appears under 
the disk, limited by the thickened rim of the latter, and the em- 
bryo at one side. This space, the segmentation cavity, 2 is filled 



1 882.] Incubation of the Top-Mmnow ( (iambusia). 115 

With fluid and grows with the growth of the germinal disk, as the 
latter becomes converted into the blastoderm, and does not disappear 
until some time after the embryo has left the egg as a young fish ; 
and then it often remains as a space around the yelk sac for as 
long as a vestige of the latter remains, as may be seen in the 
young of Cybium, Parephippus, Gadus, Elacate and Syngnathus. 
In regard to this point, I hold views entirely different from any 
other observers, but inasmuch as the writer has had opportuni- 
ties for the study of the development of a greater number of spe- 
cies, representing a greater number of families, than any previous 
investigator, and because the observations are based on material 
studied without the use of hardening re-agents which either 
deform or obliterate the segmentation cavity, and also because it 
was found to be present in all of the forms which were sufficiently 
well studied, it is believed that it will be found in the developing 
ova of most or all Teleostean fishes. Should this prove to be the 
fact, the Teleostean egg will be as distinctly defined in respect to 
the sum of the developmental characters which it presents, from 
the developing ova of other vertebrates, as the adult Teleost is 
from the remaining classes of the sub-kingdom to which it be- 
longs. The floor of the cavity appears to be formed by the hypo- 
blast or innermost embryonic layer, while its roof is formed by 
the epiblast or outermost skin layer. Gradually this blastoderm, 
which has been derived by cleavage from the germinal disk, 
grows over the yelk, no part of its epiblast layer being in direct 
contact with the hypoblast below on account of the presence of the 
intervening film of fluid, except at its rim. The embryo is also 
found to be in fixed contact with the yelk. The blastoderm 
grows at about an equal rate all around its margin ; the point 
where the edges of the blastoderm finally close is almost directly 
opposite the site where the germinal disk first appeared ; the clo- 
sure at last occurs just behind the tail of the embryo where a 
little crater-like elevation marks the point at which it disappears. 
The ernbryo now lies along a meridian of the blastoderm ; its 
head at the original germinal pole, its tail at the other. The 
growth of the blastoderm over the yelk is greatly facilitated by 
the film of fluid contained in the segmentation cavity, over which 
it can glide as it grows without friction. This view seems to me 
to be the most rational yet proposed in explanation of the 
method by which the blastoderm grows laterally in all directions 



n6 Incubation of the To p- Minnoiv ( Gambusia). [February, 

down over the yelk. In some cases the yelk sac is frequently much 
absorbed before the outer epiblastic sac begins to collapse. This 
is the case with Cybium after it leaves the egg, and proves very 
conclusively that the outer sac is entirely free, laterally and ven- 
trally, from the inner one containing the yelk. 

There are two principal methods by which the yelk is absorbed; 
the one where a more or less extensive net-work of vessels is 
developed over the surface of the yelk, and through which all, or 
nearly all, of the blood passes to reach the venous end of the 
heart; in many cases no such net-work is ever developed, as for 
instance, in the shad, mackerel cod and bonito. To the former 
class the young top-minnow belongs. Its yelk is orange-colored 
and imbedded in it superficially are a great number of refringent 
oil globules of small size. There appears to be a sinus beneath 
the head, continuous with the segmentation cavity in which the 
heart is developed. The body of the young fish lies in a groove 
or furrow on the surface of the yelk. This is the youngest state 
in which I have seen Gambusia, and explains why I have given 
the preceding general account of the development of a young 
fish. The somites or segments of muscle plates had been devel- 
oped for some time. The heart, brain, intestine and organs of 
sense were defined. 

The next import mt stage observed, was when the yelk sac was 
in great part absorbed and the fish nearly ready to hatch, or more 
properly to leave its follicle and the body of its parent. The ex- 
traordinary acceleration of development noted in almost every 
detail of structure, was such as I had never witnessed in any 
other species of young fish. The bones of the skull, although 
still cartilaginous, were advanced to a condition not seen in the 
shad until it has been hatched for three weeks or more. There 
were intermaxillary elements with teeth ; pharyngeal patches of 
teeth ; the brain was preity well roofed over by the cartilaginous 
cranium ; the branchiosteges were developed in cartilage ; the 
opercles completely covered and concealed the gills, the opercular 
elements being differentiated ; the gills already bore branchial 
leaflets ; the neural and haemal arches of the vertebrse were being 
developed in cartilage ; scales covered the sides and back and were 
developing in pockets of the dermal epithelium ; in fine, all the fins 
were already developed except the ventrals with the same num- 
ber of rays as in the adult, and yet the yelk sac was not nearly 



i i ; 

absorbed. I have never seen in any fish embryos of the same 
age, an instance where scales were developed or where the fins 
had approximated their adult condition so nearly as in this case. 
The only instance known to me at this writing where a continu- 
ous dorsal and ventral median fin-fold is never developed, is in the 
case of Syngnathus, where the caudal rays are developed before 
the dorsal ones. Whether the unpaired fins of Gambusia are 
or are not derived from such a fold would be an interesting obser- 
vation. A marked acceleration is also noticeable in the develop- 
ment of the brain, a study of which, by means of sections, as 
compared with that of the adult, has furnished me with some 
valuable clues in following up the development of Teleostean 
brains in general. 

To sum up, this fish begins an independent career as far devel- 
oped as when the shad, cod, mackerel, bonito and many other 
fishes are from three to six weeks old. By so much it has the 
advantage over those types in the struggle for existence in that 
it is ready to feed, to pursue its prey discriminately, as soon as 
it is born, while the other forms alluded to are comparatively 
helpless until some time after they have absorbed their yelk sacs, 
although most of them by that time have acquired mandibular, 
maxillary or pharyngeal teeth or both. The Fish Commission 
authorities need never be uneasy about the fate of the top-min- 
nows ; they will take care of themselves ; their species is sure of 
survival. But our study, it would seem to the writer, has not 
been in vain, because, even though the fish is too small to be of 
any practical value, it has taught us that where nature has so 
effectually provided for the protection of the young fish, she does 
not require one adult to produce as many embryos. In Gam- 
busia twenty-five to thirty young is perhaps the limit of produc- 
tion for a single female ; in Apeltes, or the four-spined stickle- 
back, the male of which is provided, according to my observa- 
tions, with a spinning apparatus with which he fabricates a nest in 
which the young are hatched and taken care of, the number of 
eggs is from fifteen to twenty. Contrasting these small numbers 
with 100,000 to 3,000,000, the number of ova easily matured in a 
single season by a single female of many anadromous and marine 
species which have heavy, adhesive or floating eggs, it would 
appear that the quantity of germs produced by different species 
of fishes is in some way proportioned to their chances of survi- 



Ii8 Incubation of the Top- Minnow (Gambusia). [February, 

val. Otherwise we are at a loss to explain the enormous fertility 
of many marine forms ; the astounding fertility of the oyster and 
clam are other instances illustrating this principle, where ova are 
matured by the tens of millions, but where barely one out of a 
million survives so as to attain adult age. 

Certain adaptations of structure are also plainly noticeable on 
a comparative study of fish ova. Thus the egg membrane of 
floating eggs is extremely thin, thinner than that of heavy or 
adhesive eggs, while the thickest membranes are those provided 
with external filamentous appendages. The most thinly clad 
hatch out soonest. May it not be that the thinness of the en- 
velope of the egg has some relation to the rapidity with which 
the oxygenation of the egg is effected, and consequently with the 
rapidity of tissue and embryonic changes ? And, finally, who 
would undertake to say that all of these modifications of the em- 
bryonic envelope are not such as could be developed by natural 
selection so as to favor the survival of the greatest number of 
embryos ? 

Many other general views of a similar character might be 
drawn from the material in my possession, but I fear that there 
has been already too much detail entered into for this note to be 
of interest to the general reader. 

Before closing I wish to state that it is the oviduct of the female 
in some cyprinodonts that is prolonged into a tube at the anterior 
edge of the anal fin. This difference, as compared with Gambusia, 
would be useful as a generic character, as suggested by Colonel 
Marshall McDonald, to whose unselfish, helpful interest I am 
deeply indebted for assistance in manifold ways, while the in- 
vestigation of the material was in progress, upon which the fore- 
going account is based. 1 

a cyprinodont is that by M. Duvernoy, Sur le develof.pement de la Paecilia Surinam- 

alcoholic material, but shows the remarkable acceleration of development of the 
embryos the same as in Gambusia. The number of embryos, their arrangement in 
the ovary, and the position of the ovary itself appear also to be similar. 



1 882.J A few of the Useful Plants of Northern Japan. 1 1 9 

NOTE ON A FEW OF THE USEFUL PLANTS OF 
NORTHERN JAPAN. 

BY PROFESSOR D. P. PENHALLOW. 

THE object of the following lines is, not so much to draw at- 
tention to the plants which are generally recognized as of 
great value to man, as it is to bring to notice plants less widely 
known for their useful properties and in which special interest 
centers, either from the novelty of their use or the fact that, while 
but little known, they possess qualities which, under the improve- 
ment of cultivation, would render them highly desirable acquisi- 
tions wherever they can be grown. 

Depending upon the natural products of the uncultivated soil 
to supplement the products of the chase, the aborigines of Yesso 
have long since discovered whatever plants are of real value, 
either as articles of food, or as furnishing material for their few 
and simple manufactures, and some of these they have turned to 
such good account, that they are worthy of more than casual 

Various species of Lilium abound throughout the forests, and 
all those which furnish a sufficiently large bulb, are utilized as a 
source of farinaceous food. Early in autumn the women may be 
seen returning to their villages loaded with bulbs. These are 
thoroughly crushed in a large wooden mortar, after which the 
starch is separated from the cellular mass by repeated washing. 
The former is then dried and hung up in bags for winter use, 
while the latter is dried in round, perforated cakes somewhat 
resembling miniature mill-stones, and hung up to dry. Later, it 
serves as food for the Aino and for the caged bears which are 
generally to be met with wherever there is a small settlement. 
The Japanese hold the lily bulbs, as a source of farinaceous food, 
in great esteem, and the demand for them is so great that they 
are cultivated ( L. bulbiferum) in large quantities and form one of 
the prominent farm products to be seen in the market. The 
bulbs are simply boiled and eaten as potatoes would be. From 
personal experience we are able to certify as to their qualities. 
It is somewhat more difficult, however, to give testimony bearing 
.upon the flavor and desirable qualities of flowers and buds from 
various species of Hemerocallis. In certain sections of the island, 
particularly on the pumice formation of the east coast, these plants 



120 A few of the Useful Plants of Northern Japan. [February, 

are particularly abundant, and at the time of blossoming, the 
fields, for miles along the road on either side, are an almost uni- 
form golden yellow. At such a time the Aino women may be 
seen busily engaged gathering the flowers which they take 
home and dry, or pickle in salt. They are afterwards used in 
soups. I have been told that the Japanese make a similar use of 
them, but probably only to a very limited extent. 

In the Pitasites japonicus Miq., or fuki, both Japanese and Aino 
find an article of food which they seem to hold in high esteem. 
During early summer, the leaves make a very rank growth, often 
reaching a height of three feet. While in the early stages of 
growth, the petioles are succulent and crisp, and are largely used 
in soups. They are devoid of flavor and it is difficult to conceive 
what quality they possess which should recommend them as an 
article of food. The fact remains, however, that they are not only 
collected from the woods, but the plants have even been brought 
into cultivation expressly for their succulent petioles. The fuki 
is common everywhere in Yesso, being abundant not only in 
the villages, but it is found to extend well up the mountain slopes 
and frequently occurs at an elevation of 3000 feet. 

Not less interesting is the similar use which the Japanese make 
of the bur-dock root. Lappa major Gaert., which attains great 
length under cultivation, but as an article of food is tasteless, 
hard and fibrous. 

The horned fruits of the Trapa bispinosa Roxb., var. incisa, 
which is common in all the large ponds, are largely used by the 
Aino, and to some extent by the Japanese, for food. 

Turning our attention to those plants which yield something 
of more evident value, we find in t a, or kokuwa, 

a vine which gives promise of being a valuable acquisition to our 
New England flora. The vine is common in all the valleys of 
Yesso, and extends southward to Central Niphon. Vigorous 
in growth and fruiting abundantly, it can be trained like a grape- 
vine. The fruit is an oblong, greenish berry about one inch in 
length. The pulp is of uniform texture, seeds minute and skin 
thin. When fully ripe they possess a very delicate flavor. Aside 
from its fruit, the plant is of value as an ornamental vine, on 
account of its fine foliage. A somewhat less desirable plant is 
found in its congener, A. polygama, which grows in more elevated 
places, fruits less abundantly and is not so rich in foliage. 



1 882.] A few of the Useful Plants of Northern Japan. 1 2 1 

Arundinaria japonica is so abundant everywhere, from bottom 
lands to the summits of mountains over 4000 feet in height, and 
its rhizomes form such a strong network just below the surface, 
rendering it exceedingly difficult to properly clear the land and 
plough it, that the plant, from the farmer's standpoint, is regarded 
as an intolerable nuisance ; nevertheless it possesses some quali- 
ties which render it of considerable value. Like the true bam- 
boo, the wood is exceedingly strong and elastic, and finds many 
useful employments in a variety of manufactures. It likewise 
serves as an important material in the construction of houses and 
fences. During the winter months, when all else is covered with 
snow, the yet green, though dry and silicious leaves furnish al- 
most the only food for the numerous wild deer, and constitute a 
very large part of the diet of the hard-worked and much-abused 
pack-horses. When the young shoots appear in early summer, 
they are carefully gathered, and under the name of take-no-ko are 
used for food as we would employ young asparagus; though by 
no means so tender as the latter, they make a very desirable 
dish. 

The clothing of the Aino, though to some extent made of cot- 
ton cloth obtained from the Japanese, is almost entirely a product 
of their own industry, and made of such material as can be 
found in the fibers of wild plants. 1 The fiber for their cloth is 
obtained from both the Ulmus campestris and U. montana. 

The long leaves of the Typha laiifolia, or kina, serve the same 
people with most admirable material for floor mats. Each sum- 
mer long excursions are made to the localities where the plant is 
particularly abundant, and large quantities of leaves are gathered 
and prepared for winter employment. 

The bark and leaves of Pntmts padus have long furnished the 
principal medicine in use by the Aino, and it is interesting to ob- 
serve that they have been employed in precisely those disorders 
for which our P. virginiana bark is used. 

Another plant which is held in high esteem for its medicinal 
Properties, is a species of Acorus, the roots of which are em- 
ployed in cases of dysentery with good effect. 

1 See American Naturalist for August, 1S80. 



122 Habits of Butterflies. [February, 

HABITS OF BUTTERFLIES. 1 

I. On certain habits of I/r/i, uia charitonia Linn., a species of 
butterfly found in Florida. — According to Wallace and Bates 
all species of Heliconidae have so obnoxious a smell and taste by- 
reason of the pungent odor which seems to pervade their systems, 
that birds will not touch them, though their flight is so early and 
their abundance so great all through the tropics, that they could 
be caught more easily than most other butterflies. So lizards 
and monkeys refuse them. 

Hcliconia charitonia is common at Indian river, being a forest 
species, and Dr. Win. Wittfield observed three of these butterflies 
fixed upon a chrysalis of the same species in the forest last May. 
He watched them off and on for two days, and tried to drive 
them away, picking them off with the fingers, but they returned 
to the same position, and remained there till the morning of the 
third day, when he found all gone, and the empty shell of the 
chrysalis only remaining. 

This led him to raise another chrysalis, which he placed in a 
flower bed frequented by II. charitonia. Soon some butterflies 
came and touched the chrysalis, but its wriggling caused them to 
move off. Two days before the imago was due, and before dis- 
coloration of the shell of the chrysalis had commenced, they at- 
tached themselves again, two or three at a time, and as before, 
would only yield to force, and then returned. On the third day 
all had gone and the empty shell remained. Query: Did the 
butterflies, aware of their own immunity from persecution, 
gather for the purpose of guarding the chrysalis from attacks of 
birds or other enemies, just at the time when it was most defence- 
less ; or were they attracted by sexual desire, the imago perhaps 
being of the opposite sex to the butterflies gathered upon it ?" 

II. On an alleged ah/ \n the history of Argynnis 

myrina. — Mr. Scudder, in the American Naturalist, 1872, re- 
lated " The Curious History of a Butterfly," and stated that in 
both A. myrina and bellona occurred a phenomenon which he 
considered unique among butterflies; there being two sets of in- 
dividuals, each following its own cycle of changes, apparently 
with as little to do with the other set as if it were a different spe- 



1 882.] Editors' Table. 123 

rise to the apparition of two or three successive broods in the 
course of the year. He regarded these series as distinct from 
each other as any two species, and offering differences such as 
usually characterize somewhat distinct genera. 

All this was based upon what the author stated to be a fact, 
that the eggs of these species are wholly undeveloped at the 
birth of the female, and that they are not developed for weeks or 
months, so that what appears to be two successive broods of the 
butterflies cannot possibly be such, as one cannot be descended from 
the other. Any one, in fact, must have come direct from the sec- 
ond brood back of it and not the first. 

Mr. Edwards ascertained in 1875, 'y6, and 'yj; by breeding A. 
myrina in the Catskill mountains (in part, bringing the eggs or 
caterpillars to Coalburgh, W. Va.) that the foregoing statement was 
based in error. That the females at birth have fully developed eggs, 
requiring but impregnation, and that they are laid almost imme- 
diately ; in fact, two of his butterflies paired a few hours after both 
emerged from the chrysalis. Eggs were laid to the number of 
ninety-three, within forty-eight hours from chrysalis, and they pro- 
duced caterpillars. Also that other points in Mr. Scudder's curious 
history were made in error; and his observations were published 
in the Canadian Entomologist. Nevertheless, in his work on Butter- 
flies, Mr. Scudder repeats the same story, with no verification or data 
whatever, and with no direct allusion to the published refutation. 

Mr. Edwards stated that Thccla henrici Grote, lays its eggs on 
the wild plum at the base of the plum stalks; the young larva? 
climb the stalks and eat a hole in the side of the small plum, and 
thereafter continued to feed on the inner part of the plum, going 
to another when the first is excavated. The species is single- 
brooded, appearing in April, about the time the wild plum trees 
are coming into bloom (in West Virginia). 

EDITORS' TABLE. 

EDITORS : A. S. PACKARD, JR., AND E. D. COPE. 

The popular view as to the definition of science, if we are 

to judge from the subject matter of "scientific columns" in our 
newspapers and magazines, is somewhat wide of the mark. It is 
evidently not well understood that the application of science to 
Practical life is not science itself, and should be treated of under a 



124 -Editors' Tabic. [February, 

distinct name. Science (including metaphysics) embraces the de- 
scription of the properties of bodies, and of the general laws which 
are derived therefrom. The processes necessary for accomplishing 
these ends, including deductive reasoning, are included, as acces- 
sories, under the same general head. But the manifold uses of 
the knowledge thus acquired are not science, but art. Not fine 
art of course, but mechanic art, medical art, etc. Mechanic art is 
the application to human uses of the facts and laws of physical 
and mathematical sciences. Medical art is an application of the 
facts and laws of anatomical and physiological science. The pur- 
suit of applied science is always a shorter road to popular favor 
than the cultivation of pure science. People are naturally im- 
pressed by their senses, and they easily confound the exhibitor 
with the creator. Moreover the genius displayed by the inventor 
is like that of the artist proper, a wonderful attribute of the 
human mind. It is only second in rank to the power of discover- 
ing new truth, and it excites our wonder the more, because it is 
more automatic. Omnc igin-tum pro mirabile is a saying which 
describes the average sentiment of humanity. With lucid ex- 
planation, wonder ceases, for " anybody can understand it." From 
time immemorial the worker in mysteries has commanded the 
admiration and purses of mankind, while the expounder of truth 
has scarcely been tolerated. But it is becoming generally known 
that all mysteries yield to the solvent of investigation, and that 
when the web is unraveled, it is found to consist of the universal 
raw material, put together by the ordinary laws of necessity which 
reason discloses. Nevetherless mental automatism remains, after 
consciousness, the second wonder of the universe, whether it be 
displayed in scientific or artistic labor. While science has her 
true field — the discovery of truth, it will ever be the glory of art 
to apply it to human necessities and pleasures. 

In the death of the Hon. Lewis H. Morgan, American 

science loses one of its original thinkers, and one of its most in- 
defatigable workers. His work on ancient society is " epoch-mak- 
ing," and advanced the science to a new stage of its history. In 
selecting the industrial history of mankind as the true test of his 
progress, Mr. Morgan applied the idea, subsequently worked out 
by Herbert Spencer, that the industrial form of society is a higher 
type than the militant, and is more prosperous, and more perma- 
nent. It is the available test of the progress of intelligence among 
primitive races ; and the progress of intelligence is the evolution 
of man. We are satisfied that Mr. Morgan's general ethnologic 
system will remain, whatever may become of some of the details, 
and that his name will stand as that of the first of American thinkers 
in the high field of anthropology, up to this date. Like other 



1 8 8 2 .] Recent Literature. 1 2 5 

men who are ahead of their generation, Mr. Morgan did not re- 
ceive the popular recognition which was his clue and which his na- 
tive modesty forbade him to seek ; but that his work rewarded him 
with true satisfaction cannot be doubted by those who knew him. 

Congress will soon be occupied with the question of the 

revision of the tariff. We have already referred 1 to the tax on in- 
tellectual progress which has been imposed in the shape of duties 
on books, apparatus and specimens necessary for private students 
of natural history in this country. No congressman familiar 
with the situation would countenance such a piece of medieval 
barbarism, and if scientists will act in the premises, we have not 
a doubt that the objectionable legislation will be repealed this 
winter. But we must act. Let every subscriber to the Natural- 
ist write to his representative in Congress, anil ask for his influence 
in favor of repeal. Congressmen will naturally give the preference 
to those objects to which their attention is most urgently directed. 

-American "Academies of Science" are frequently consti- 
tuted like stock corporations, with a sufficient sprinkling of scientific 
men to furnish credit to the remaining members. Sometimes the 
president is a scientific man, but the secretary, like those of cor- 
porations, is generally selected for his clerical ability ; so also many 
of the other officers. The Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences has lately done itself the honor of electing one of its most 
distinguished scientific members to the office of president. We re- 
fer to Professor Joseph Leidy. This is a step in the right direction, 
and one' to be followed we hope by many others of the same kind. 
Aa American cotemporary- accuses the Naturalist of 
appropriating from its pages a notice of Dr. Harm's so-called or- 
ganic remains in meteorites. The note in question was taken 
from the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society of London, 
and by an oversight was not credited to that source' The failure 
to credit the article will however hardly be regretted by its author. 

" Of all the experts examined during the Guiteau trial, Dr. 

Edward Spitzka, of New York, seems to be the only one to recog- 
nize the fact that a man may be insane by malformation, and not 
be more diseased than a man with strabismus or with six fingers. 

RECENT LITERATURE. 
Habit and Intelligence, by Joseph John Murphy. 2 This is 



1 26 Recent Literature. [February, 

of evolution applies to organic life. He sees his way clearly for 
the continued development of life from the simplest protoplasmic 
protozoan upward to the complex bodily and mental organization 
of the higher mammals and of man himself. He traces with due 
precision the differentiation of a nervous system, and the gradual 
growth therefrom of the powers to which we give the names of 
consciousness, mind, and intelligence— the latter of which is but 
the result of consciousness. He perceives, in concert with most 
American naturalists, the insufficiency of Darwin's theory of 
"natural selection" to account for lightest varia- 

tion, though he admits, with some hesitation and occasional con- 
tradiction of himself, its efficiency to preserve a beneficial variation 
when it has once arisen. To refute Darwin he gleans facts and 
theories from Cope, Mivart, Wallace, and other naturalists, accepts 
also the aid of the physicists who >\c\\y the possibility of the 
countless millions of years required by the "natural selection" 
theory ; and succeeds in fortifying himself in a position from which 
it would be difficult indeed for a pure Darwinian to dislodge him. 
But he dismisses in few words Spencer's masterly theory of the in- 
fluence of the total environment upon an organism, and scarcely 
notices Cope and Hyatt's proofs of the ease with which new 
genera can be produced by an acceleration or retardation of the 
embryological stages of life. 

Having thrown doubt upon Darwin, he is in a hurry to assert 
that all evolution is the result of a " Formative Intelligence" orig- 
inally impressed upon organic existence from a source outside 
of them. 

He does not admit the possibility of the evolution of the lowest 
protoplasmic life from inorganic matter ; and still less can he con- 
ceive of the evolution from simple matter of the molecules of the 
so-called elements of the chemist. Upon such subjects as the 
origin of life the only safe position is that of the agnostic ; we do 
not "know," we have no "positive proof," similar to that which 
tells us of our own existence, or informs us of the existence of 
tangible objects. But the agnostic may have his opinion, his 
belief, comparable to the beliefs and creeds of the religions and 
sects, and like them, incapable of "positive proof." But while 
the belief of the creeds is based upon a book or upon traditions, 
the opinions of the agnostic, held by him loosely and susceptible 
of modification in the face of new discoveries, are always in har- 
mony with the facts of which we have "positive proof," and do 
but form their logical continuation. 

Such a statement as that on page 41 of Mr. Murphy's book — 
"the notion of any finite thing existing without having been 
created is more inconceivable — it is absurd," proves nothing 
and disproves nothing. We admit that it is inconceivable, it is 
" too high, we cannot attain unto it," yet it is simpler than the 
belief in a Creator who breathed , s of matter 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 

a "Formative Intelligence," and then left that intelligence, 
tributed among a number of organisms struggling for ( 
to take care of itself, and to develop into higher life through an 
ordeal of suffering and in spite of imperfection, disease, and the 
; without taking any 
Still more is it simpler 
than to conceive of an omnipotent, omnipresent, personal, and 
good God who, after creating life, watches and sustains it, yet 
permits an evil spirit to exist, and allows pain and disease to mar 
the beauty of his creation. To conceive of the matter of the 
universe as capable of evolving conscientiousness is past our 
mental power, but is the difficulty removed by having to account 
also for the origin, existence and habitat of a non-material Creator 
who beneficently allows a non-material destroyer to play havoc 
with his creation? On this subject Mr. Murphy does but assert 
his opinions, his argument really stops with the accumulation of 
proofs of the coexistence of intelligence with life— a point in 
which we cordially agree with him, objecting only to his term 
"unconscious intelligence," as applied to the acts of the lower 
animals. In this matter we would go further than Mr. Murphy. 
Proud man, ignorant of the inner life of the lower animals, finds 
it difficult to stand outside of his individuality sufficiently tojudge 
fairly of their actions. Our author quotes the building of hex- 
agonal cells by th© honev-bee as an instance of unconscious in- 
telligence. We believe, 'in the light of the numerous observations 
made by Lubbock, McCook, and others on hvmenopterous in- 
sects, that one or several bees discovered this economical form of 
cell just as man stumbles, by simply trying, on the greater part of 
his discoveries. To account for the perpetuation of the dis- 
covery when made we have no need to call in " natural selection," 
or any [power more abstruse than that of inter-communication, 
which is well known to be possessed in a high degree by ants 
and bees. 

One of the principal points sought to be made out in favor of a 
"formative impulse" is the development of structure in advance 
of function, as evidenced in the metamorphoses of the Hydroida, 
Ascidia. Crustacea, and Batrachia, in all of which the writer con- 
tends that structures useless to the possessor are laid down in 
anticipation of a future development, in which such structures 
are useful. Such structures are the long abdomen of a Zoea, 
useless (our author asserts) to the Zoea, but coming into use 
J n the lobster; the notochord of the Ascidian, destined to be 
aborted, but foreshadowing that of the vertebrate ; the incom- 
plete medusa buds of some hvdroids, anticipatory of the free 
medusa of others; and the transition from swimming b idd r 
to hing, foreshadowed in Ganoids and Dipnoans, and cams d 
out in the Batrachia. A ideologist might reasonably query by 
what process of reasoning it is provable that these structures, 



128 Recent Literature. [February, 

transitional though they may appear to us, are not of use to their 
possessors. But the gradual evolution of a structure not yet become 
functionally useful, is but a parallel case with the persistence for 
a long period of structure no longer functionally useful. The 
wonder is rather, when we review the wondrous changes passed 
through in the life history of an animal or of a plant, from 
the seed to the tree, from the egg to the free embryo and thence 
to adult life, that all works so truly as it does, and that variation 
is not more frequent The slightest over-development of one 
organ, or arrest of development of another, caused by the sur- 
rounding environment or by heredity (the effect of the environ- 
ment of ancestors) may change the genus, the change may neither 
be useful or hurtful, yet its tendency is to continue when com- 
menced, and it may, in process of time, become functionally use- 
ful. On the other hand, a useful variation may take place sud- 
denly (as we see in Amblystoma) and a hurtful one is put an end 
to by the death of the possessor. We commend this book to the 
notice of our readers. 

Southall's Pliocene Man in America. 1 — The author evidently 
means well enough in writing this pamphlet, but he appears to ' 
start with the idea that geology is an exact science, that we know 
the precise time, even geologically speaking, when the Pliocene 
epoch ended and the Quaternary began, and that certain haphazard 
estimates of the time in years that man has been on the earth made 
by an accomplished zoologist like Mr. A. R. Wallace, who has, 
however, published little or nothing original upon palaeontology or 
geology, are of real value. So when ten years ago a " Mr. Vivian 
and Mr. A. R. Wallace claimed for [man] an antiquity of i,coo,ooo 
and 500,000 years " we do not see why Mr. Southall or any other 
man should in 1881, get into a flurry over the matter, unless he 
wants to make himself conspicuous as a critic of geologists and 
geological reasoning in general. Confining ourselves to the 
points of most importance in the query as to the age of Pliocene 
man, the geologist wants to know the limits of the Pliocene in 
western America. What Whitney calls Pliocene deposits may 
be contemporary with the incoming of the glacial period in 
eastern America, or it may be a transition period between the 
Pliocene and Quaternary period. As we understand it, the age of 
those lower level gold-bearing sands and gravels is quite uncer- 
tain, and they may, contrary to Whitney's opinion, be no older than 
our eastern boulder clays. Moreover what Mr. Southall overlooks, 
none of the specimens of human art found on the Pacific coast, in 
ailed Pliocene deposits, have been taken out either by the 
in the presence of a geologist, not even of Professor 



h 


nd 


of or in 


v 


/'// 


':Zt!!Z, 


G 






Pr 


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>v T.McK. 



I S 8 2 .] Recent Literature. 1 29 

Whitney himself, and while we may accept nearly all of the 
statements Whitney makes at second hand, the testimony is of 
course weakened by this fact. Until, then, geologists who are 
also palaeontologists, which Professor Whitney would not claim to 
be, have settled the age of our western gold drift, which may turn 
out to be no older than our eastern glacial drift, we do not see 
why the layman should not wait until geologists agree in the 
matter. At any rate the present pamphlet is a confused and 
hasty statement of conclusions from a mass of indigested and 
necessarily vague notions of a few geologists, naturalists and 
historians (the latter most worthy men, but not claiming to know 
anything about the Pliocene, or any other geological period). 
We doubt whether one geologist in a hundred thinks man is older 
than the glacial period, while if well verified facts warranted the 
conclusion, they would willingly allow that man lived not only 
through the Pliocene, but began his existence in the Chalk period. 
The true scientist is willing to follow the lead of facts ; critics, 
such as our author, seem anxious to prejudice good people against 
geology and geologists, and to. forestall public opinion on ques- 
tions about which geologists themselves are divided and uncer- 
tain from the very nature of the evidence with which they are 
dealing. Perhaps before i8~2 Mr. Uawkins would have made the 
same overstatements that Lyell made previous to 1S/2. There is 
a tendency in the mind of a scientific discoverer to overestimate 
m his enthusiasm the tendency of new found facts, and to at first 
exaggerate the importance of the results of his discovery. But 
for a critic after the lapse of ten or fifteen years to " run a muck " 
at such men, as though the same opinions' were now held as ten 
or fifteen years ago, is to mislead good people who cannot dis- 
tinguish between blind and mdiscriminating, ignorant pseudo- 
criticism and the habit on the part of every candid scientific man 
to abandon extreme views it" fresh discoveries teach him to hold 
more moderate ones. The pamphlet is only of value as contain- 
ing remarks of Professors Dawkins, Dawson, Hughes and others, 
who cannot speak without saying something of interest. 
^Miss Ormerod's Manual of Injurious Insects. 1 — This is a 

; 
authoress. It is devoted to "Food Crops and the Insects that 
"mure them » « Forest Trees anJ thc [n ^ ^ ;h ,, ;;r . ;rc them ;- and 
fi "ally to " Fruit Crops and the Insects that iniure them." It 
doses with a glossary and b traduction to 



13° Recent Literature. [February, 

Westwood. Miss Ormerod has evidently taken a good deal of 
pains with the subject of remedies, and here the book is strong. 
We have found a number of most useful hints for dealing with 
forest insects, which are quite new to us. The style is compact 
and clear, and the book as a whole is an excellent and useful 



lals Anhange; 

-Kci tni<. dei- Fl is fi chc 



1 38 2.] Recent Literature. 1 3 1 

de 1878. Groupe vnr, Classe 84. Rapport sur les Poissons, Cruslaces et Mol- 
lusques. Tar M. Leon Vaillant. Imprimerie Nationale. Paris, 1880. From the 

Sur un gisement de Rennes aupres de Paris. Par M. Gaudry. 4I0, pp. 3. Paris, 

Ciel et Terre, Revue populaire D'Astronomieet de MeXeorologie. No. 1, I« Mmb, 

On Portions of a Cranium and a Jaw in the slab containing the remains of the 
" Natural History R^iew." i.Sf.j. ' L m'lon, '1881. ' From the author. 

The Scientific Roll and Magazine of Systematic Notes, Conducted by Alexander 

Ramsay, l'.G. S. Climate, Vol. 1. Svo, pp. 22. London, November, 1S81. From 

On the Geographical Distribution of certain fresh-water Mollusks of North 
America and tlu -. .irint ion. l!v A. ( ,. Weiherly, A.M. Svo, 

i Society of Natural History, January, 



Proceedings of the Unii 






cmnati, 1SS2. Prom the author. 



, ' ''" V • pp .. I , „n th k „, , < ;-, Kuu, ,1 Sciences, Decern 
'^l- Kansas City, ,881. From the author. 



General Notes. [February, 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY. 1 

An Instance of the Physiological Value of Trichomes. — The 
tissues of nascent organs are thin-walled, have a relatively large 
amount of protoplasm; and are gorged with nourishing sap. While 
in this condition they possess no air passages or cavities, and the 
stomata are consequently incapable of performing their function 
— they can no more "breathe" than can an animal with its lungs 
full of water. This formative period in the life of the tissues, how- 
ever, is one in which a rapid supply of oxygen is required to 
carry on the metastatic changes incident to growth. This need 
is supplied by greatly increasing the surface of the organ bathed 
by the air, allowing a greater transfusion of oxygen through the 
uncuticularized surface walls. The expansion is secured by means 
of innumerable slender trichomes. 

These trichomes are thus seen to be a provision for increasing 
the absorbing surface, to the end that abundant material may be 
supplied for metastasis. 

As the tissues mature, the intercellular spaces beneath the 
stomata with their extensions ramifying throughout the organ 
become empty of sap and allow of the free circulation of air, while 
the cuticle becomes nearly or quite impervious. The oxygen- 
ation of the tissues is then more readily effected through internal 
communication; the hairs therefore disappear or are replaced by 
those serving a different purpose. — % C. Arthur. 

The Arrangement of Fibrous Roots.— A few years ago, in 
harvesting about fifty bushels of beets of several varieties, my at- 
tention was drawn to a peculiarity in the arrangement of the fibrous 
roots of which till then I had been unaware. While the greater 
part of the beet was nearly or quite bare of rootlets these were 
very numerous and closely clustered in two vertical bands on op- 
posite sides of the main root. Each band covered, say, one-tenth 
of the entire circumference, more or less. Later I observed just 
such an arrangement of the rootlets of turnips. But this year I 
have seen some turnips with the fibers in simple rows as in carrots 
and parsnips. In these last the rootlets are in vertical (or now 
and then somewhat spiral) rows. The number of rows seems to 
be always four, but so situated as in some degree to correspond 
with the two bands in beets and turnips; that is, the rows are not 
exactly equidistant, but arc, as it were, arranged in two pairs on 
opposite sides of the main root, and vet so nearlv equidistant that 
it is sometimes difficult to say which two constitute a pair. The 
intervals between the rows are commonly in the ratio of 5 to 7, or 
on a cross section the lines joining the rows would form a parallelo- 
gram whose sides would be about as 5 to 7. 

The rootlets of carrots differ from those of turnips and beets in 



1 882.] Botany. 133 

being thickened towards their base and this spreading laterally so 
as to give the surface of the carrot somewhat the appearance of 
having rings of growth. Furthermore these fibers instead of 
spreading out into the ground seem to hug the main root and 
are turned commonly to one side as if the carrot had been twisted 
in the pulling. Sometimes on the same root they are turned both 
ways, and generally or always more or less downward. 

The rootlets of parsnips are distributed much as those of carrots, 
somewhat thickened at base, but generally much longer and more 
spreading and branching. They penetrate more deeply into the 
soil too and hence the difficulty of digging them. The rows of 
fibers seem to form a longer parallelogram' than those of carrots, 
the sides being about as 4 to 7. 

The rootlets in curled dock ( Rmnex crispus) are plainly in three 
rows (except in one forked root the larger branch of which had 
four distinct rows). Swamp dock (R. verHHUatus) has the main 
root much divided, but the fibers of these divisions are mostly in 
fours, the rows perhaps not quite so regular as the three rows of 
the curled dock, still plainly to be distinguished. 

The roots of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) have rather 
large rootlets very plainly in three vertical rows. 

I designed to make observations on other roots, but the cold 
weather has come on and frozen the ground.— Charles Wright, 
Wcthcrsfield, Conn., Dec. 1881. 

The Royal Gardens at Kew. — From the Gardener's Chronicle 
we learn that the Report on the progress and condition of the 
Royal Gardens at Kew, for the vear 18S0, has just been issued. 
Pending its receipt, the follow in --'will be found of interest. The 
number of visitors during the vear amounted to very nearly 
three quarters of a million (723,681), the highest number for one 
day being 61,831. In the plant houses of 'the Botanic Gardens 
™e palms have been entirelv re-arranged owing to their crowded 
condition. In this department more space is urgently needed. 
A he Arboretum suffered much from the frosts and gales of the 
winter of 1879-80. Curiously a number of California!! species 
r u TOi! greatly from the inclemency of the weather; thus Finns 
instgnis, F mu , y , t p , ,/ i/; , r ?\and A! < braetcata were all 
more or less injured. Finns liliiottii was also injured. 

There are now no less than 220 species and varieties of Oaks 
grown in the Arboretum ; 24 of Chestnuts, 34 of Beeches. A 
catalogue is in preparation " which will give the names of the 
Principal species and varieties with their native countries and 
g*»yms ." Such a catalogue from such a source can not fail 
o be of the highest value to botanists the world over, and its 
-PPyarance will be looked for with interest by all. 

The important economico-botanical collections from the India 
museum at South Kensington were transferred to Kew during 



134 General Notes. [February, 

the year 1880. This consisted of an immense quantity of material, 
from which the Kew authorities selected suites of specimens. 
Thus of rice alone " there were about two thousand samples, 
from the most widely distributed districts of India, and weighing 
in the aggregate about three tons. Every one of these was care- 
fully examined and compared, and a series was separated show- 
ing every type of variation to which Indian rice is subject. The 
amount of this variation in form, color and texture is almost in- 
conceivable, and the trouble and expense which must have been 
involved in the accumulation of the specimens, is amply justified 
by the clearness with which this fact is now brought out. In 
form the individual rice-grains vary from elongated to ovoid, in 
texture from translucent to pearl white opacity, in color from 
white to pink, brown, mottled, and even black." 

In the Herbarium Dr. M. C. Cooke's services have been 
secured. He has undertaken the arrangement of the collections 
of thallophytes, especially of the fungi, " which, owing to the press 
of work in keeping the Phanerogams and Ferns constantly worked 
up, have been somewhat neglected." This latter announcement 
will be received with gratification by the many students of fungi 
in this country and England. 

A General Index to the Journal of Botany. — James Britten 
announces a " General Index to the Journal of Botany," from its 
beginning to the end of Volume xx, to be published at six 
shillings (about $1.50) per copy, provided that a sufficient number 
of subscriptions are received. The importance of this index to 
all botanists, even in casus where complete sets of the Journal 
are not possessed, is so great that it is to be hoped that many 
orders will be sent from this country. Orders should be addressed 
to West, Newman & Co , 54 [ iatton Garden, E. C, London, Eng- 
land. As Volume xx, will not be completed until the end of 
the year 1882, the index will not appear for a year or more. 

Bentham on Graminf.i:.— George Bcntham read an important 
paper on the Graminene before the Linnean Society at its meeting 
November 3, 1881. He recognizes fourteen tribes which he dis- 
poses under two sub-orders, or families as follows : 



Botanical Notes.— A fine full-page cut of a b 

/ Ta >r',! II i ,'■'>'. Fii'J ,i tently introdu 
glish gardens from Brazil, is given in a late nu 



1 882.] Botany. 135 

Gardener's Chronicle. The leaf which is pinnatified, is from two 
to two and a half feet wide, and is borne upon a thick petiole be- 
tween three and four feet long. The spathe, fifteen inches long-, 
and borne upon a scape eight inches 1 1 i - 1 1 , is of a brown coppery 
tint inside mottled with green, while the spadix is of a pale pink 
color. It will doubtless prove to be a valuable acquisition to our 

list of ornamental plants. Rev. M. J. Berkeley describes a 

new parasite upon the lilac in the Gardener's Chronicle. It is 
evidently one of the Peronosporeae, and is named by Air. Berkeley, 
Ovularia syringce. The conidia (acrospores) are large and ovoid, 
and occur singly on the ends of the hyphae which protrude 
through the stomata. The parasite "produces large brown 
patches, sometimes occupying almost the whole of the leaf." Has 

this yet appeared in this country? A leaf of the giant water 

lily (Victoria rcgia ) -rowing in Lake Nuna in Peru is recorded 
by Paul Marcoy in the Wiener Illitstrirtc Gartenzcitung as having 
a circumference ot 24 feet g% inches, and weighing between 13 
and 14 pounds. One of the flowers measured 4 feet 2 inches in 
circumference, and weighed three and a half pounds. The outer 

petals were nine inches in length. Dr. Vasey in the December 

Botanical Gazette describes three new species of grasses, viz: 
Melica Hallii from Colorado and the Great Plains of British 
America; Spon ts ; < from Soda Springs, California, and 

Poa pnrpurasccits from Oregon, and the Yellowstone region. 

In the same journal some one under the pseudonym of" Emcsby" 
puts in a plea for Systematic Botany, or rather, it would appear, 
for what has been called Analytical Botany, as opposed to histo- 
logical and physiological Bota'nv. The writer apparently places 
a higher value uporTthe " identification " of a fzw plants, or the 
finding of a " new species " than upon that study of the structure 
and function of plants which alone can enable us to understand 
them as living things. His ideal botanv is apparently one which 

culminates in the study and description of species! M. 

Lechantier read a paper recently before the Academy of Sciences, 
Paris, upon the modifications in the composition of plants pre- 
served in silos. Indian corn and clover lost a little of their 
nitrogenous matter; but the loss of glucosides was much greater; 
the chief loss being now in the glucose and sugar group, now in 
the starch and cellulose. Fatty matter, on the other hand, in- 
creased. Part 1 of the " Transactions o\ the Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society" for 1881, has just appeared. It contains 
in addition to much of interest to horticulturists, many lists of 

trees, shrubs and other p] mts int. restin \ I » the botanist also. ■ 

figures and popular descriptions of the Short-leaved Skullcap 
(Scutellaria brer folic, from Texas, and two fine species of Dahlia 
(£>. Intea and I\ .>', , r . n * 1 , 1U' * 1 " , 'it» cultivation, 

are given in the December American Agriculturist, Good 

figures of Chara baltica Bruz., var C. coniraria 



136 General Notes. [February, 

Kuetz. accompany " Notes on British Characes " by H. and J. 
Groves in the December Journal of Botany. The two delayed 

plates illustrating a paper on Cine ho u 1 Led^erian ■ (from Bolivia), 
by Henry Trimen in the November Journal of Botany, appear in 
the December number. They are excellently done. 

ZOOLOGY. 

IS THE HUMAN SKULL BECOMING THINNER ? If the doctrines of 

evolution are true, and the evidence supporting them is of a con- 
vincing character, questions relating to the operation of the laws 
by which improvement or degradation results, become of particu- 
lar importance when applied to the human race, and it is a matter 
of serious inquiry whether, under the altered conditions of 
civilization, causes may not be at work which operate to the dis- 
advantage of the whole organism, by detracting from the efficiency 
of a part ? 

According to the theory as expounded by Darwin and others, 
we have the tendency of all organisms to accommodate themselves 
to their environment, and to adapt themselves to altered circum- 
stances within certain limits, this principle of adaptation in co- 
operation with heredity, or the tendency of the offspring to in- 
herit the characteristics of its progenitors, are made to account for 
much of the otherwise inexplicable phenomena with which we 
are surrounded. 

Now according to this doctrine, an organism is endowed with 
ability to succeed amid certain surroundings — in the higher verte- 
brates, for example, we have the framework of bone, with all its 
beautiful applications of the principles of mechanics, so arranged 
as to prevent to a great extent injury of the important organs, 
and when we come to the brain, we find it enclosed in a rigid 
covering, capable of resisting a considerable degree of violence 
without being fractured, and evidently intended to protect the 

If we accept the tenets of evolutionists, a race adapted to cer- 
tain circumstances, will, if those circumstances be altered, become 
modified in a corresponding degree, and retrogression may result 
as well as improvement, and this modification may be confined to 
a certain part or organ. Let us consider, therefore, what forces have 
exerted their influence upon this casket of the brain. 

First, natural selection in the case of those creatures that en- 
gaged in fierce combats, would lead M eliminate those individuals 
with frail craniums, and as man comes within the category oi 
belligerent creatures, when barbaric warfare, and the dangers of 

of course exercise a powerful, influence in maintaining a standard 
of cranial strength. Then, too, in the presence of repeated violence, 
adaptation would undoubtedly provide a suitable armor for this 
delicate and important organ. And as it is difficult to conceive 



1 882.] Zoology. 137 

how the weight of its contents or the action of its muscles can 
exert any considerable influence upon its greater portion in man, 
the above may be regarded as the principal agencies, for sexual 
selection is confined to capabilities of an active character, and 
attributes which are displayed, and would be inoperative upon a 
hidden part, the function of which is only passive. 

In civilized man, however, at all events in the higher grades of 
modern civilization, natural selection may be said to exert no in- 
fluence in this direction, war -is too infrequent and engages too 
small a portion of mankind, while the forces with which it deals, 
are of a nature to alter the whole aspect of the case. And while 
adaptation undoubtedly operates, particularly among the laboring 
classes, upon other portions of the frame to maintain their rigidity, 
it is only in rare instances that the skull is called upon to support 
any greater pressure than that exerted by the head gear. 

It is not to be overlooked in this connection, that among semi- 
civilized peoples where the facilities for transportation are limited, 
the head is often made to support considerable weights, and ex- 
cept where rigid rules of caste prevent the intermarriage of classes, 
the joint action of adaptation and heredity disseminate the effects 
of this custom throughout the community. 

There probably never was a time in the history of the world, 
when the skull was subjected to so little violence, as since the 
introduction of modern methods of transportation, and when we 
recall the fact, that it was but a few centuries ago, that the most 
advanced nations of the present day were barbaric, it is too soon 
to look for any great change. Yet it is not uncommon to hear 
of cases of fracture of the skull, which are ascribed to its unusual 
thinness. May not these be the results of fortuitous cooperations 
of the agencies mentioned? 

If the force of the position assumed is accepted, the logical 
delusion is that we are approaching a time when the human 
cranium will become much thinner, so delicate, in fact, that it will 
be easily fractured, we may therefore expect a revival of natural 
selection, and an increase of cases of death from violence to the 
head.— *Ki?. Cooper. 

Habits of the Fierasfer, a Boarder in the Sea-Cucum- 
ber.— The Holothurians or sea-cucumbers have been long known 
b y fishermen to harbor a curious fish, to which Cuvier gave the 
name Fierasfer. Several species of it are known. The most 
common in the Mediterranean, the Fierasfer acus, has been re- 
cently made an object of special study by Professor Emery, at 
the zoological station at Naples. 

io procure Holothurians tenanted by the fierasfer, it is necess- 
ary to seek the animals at a certain depth ; those living near the 
shore do not usually contain them. * The two Mediterranean 
species of holothurians. which are most frequently tenanted, are 
^tickopus regalis and Holothuria tuhdosa. When these animals 



are accumulated in certain quantity in the same tank, the little 
fishes ere long appear. According to Professor Emery, who has 
opened hundreds of holothurians in his search, the fierasfer is 
generally lodged in the cavity of the body. It penetrates first, 
as we shall see, by the anus into the intestine. Then it migrates 
into the pulmonary passages, the thin and delicate walls of which 
soon rupture in consequence, and allow the fish to pass into the 
peri-intestinal space. 

When free, the fierasfer ordinarily, swims in an oblique position, 
the head down and the tail curved towards the back. By un- 
dulatory movements of its ventral fin, it moves obliquely forward, 
keeping about the same level, or obliquely in the direction of the 
axis of the body. It is but a poor swimmer, and when placed in 
a tank along with other fishes it is soon devoured, being incapable 
of flight, of defending itself, or of hiding in a medium uninhabit- 

Swimming with its head downwards, the fierasfer explores the 
bottom of the water and the bodies lying there. If it comes upon 
a holothurian, it immediately shows some agitation, examines the 
object on all sides, and having reached one of the extremities, 
examines it attentively. If it be the head-extremity, the fish re- 
turns suddenly, and proceeds to the opposite end, by which the 
holothurian sucks in and expels the water necessary to its exist- 
ance. Then commences a curious proceeding. In the time of 
expiration, when the holothurian is expelling water, the little fish, 
excited by this mechanical action, applies its snout strenuouly to 
the anal orifice, then curves back its pointed tail over one side of 
its body, and by a rapid movement of recoil, introduces the tail 
into the rectum of the holothurian. This accomplished, the fish 
raises the anterior part of its body, while its tail remains pinched 
in the holothurian, and pushes itself further and further in with 
each movement of suction. After a time the anterior part enters 
in its turn, and the fish is completely inclosed in its host. 

Professor Emery has sometimes seen a small fierasfer get into 
its position at once, while in other cases the progress of the fish 
is so slow that the patience of the observer is exhausted. While 
the general mode of introduction is that described, there may be 
some modifications. Thus the fierasfer may penetrate head-first, 
or, victim of a mistake, may endeavor, generally without success, 
to effect an entrance by the mouth of the holothurian. 

The fierasfer is not necessarily solitary ; on the contrary, it often 
shares its abode with two or three of its kind. Professor Emery 
has seen, in the Naples aquarium, seven fierasfers successively 
enter the same holothurian, causing their host injuries which 
proved fatal. 

It has already been stated that the fierasfer does not remain in 
the intestine, which is difficultly habitable because of the quantity 
of sand in it. We have to note, however, that it always remains 



1 882.] Zoology. 139 

near the anus, though which it protrudes its head, from time to 
time, in search of food. Thus it is not, in any way, either a 
parasite or a commensal, in the sense attached to these words in 
natural history — that is to say, it does not live at the expense of 
the holothurian, either consuming its substmce or taking some of 
the food that animal has amassed for itself. Hence the earlier 
naturalists who studied the habits of the fish were mistaken in 
considering it as an example of parasitism by a vertebrate animal. 
The fierasfer is merely, as Professor Emery puts it, a lodger, or 

According to Professor Semper, of Wurtzburg, however, there 
is on the coast of the Philippine islands, a small fish of the genus 
Enchdwphis, closely allied to fierasfer, which, also living in holo- 
thurians, feeds on their viscera, and is, therefore, a true parasite. 
— English Mechanic. 

Habits of the Menopoma. — Having recently collected speci- 
mens of the common Menopoma ( .!/. 1 1 *kaniensis) for Professor 
Ward's museum in Rochester, N. Y., I give some of my observa- 

AU my specimens were caught in the Loyalhanna creek, West- 
moreland Co., Pa. It is well known to those accustomed to fish 
m the streams of this region, from its troublesome habit of taking 
bait placed in the water for nobler game. When thus hooked, its 
vicious biting and squirming, together with the slime which its 
skin secretes, render it exceedingly disagreeable to handle. It 
is often hooked in bottom fishing for catfish. Many anglers cut 
the hook off, rather than extract it, and the amphibian's flat head 
is often rendered still flatter by a lively application of the sports- 
man's boot heel. 

In the early summer when the water is clear, Menopomae are 
often to be seen on the pebbly bottom in considerable numbers. 
Once when fishing with some friends from off a large rock in the 
J-oyalhanna creek, we saw quite a shoal of them moving sluggish- 
ly about among the stones on the bottom. They would quickly 
take our hooks baited with a piece of meat or a fish head. In one 
instance two large ones laid hold of the same bait and were 
promptly landed on the rock. In a few minutes we had a dozen. 
J-ast August I fished the same spot for them but without success. 
Acting on the advice of a "native" (which was to drop some 
bait— dead fish, &c, near certain rocks under which he insisted 
^e "alligators" staid) I caught ten large specimens in a single 
morning, and ten more a few days later. Those taken were of 
various sizes, measuring from ten to eighteen inches in length. 
Une taken by a friend was twenty-two inches long. Fishermen 
hereabouts say they have frequently caught hell-benders two 
Ie et long. 

They are remarkably tenacious of life. I carried my specimens 



140 General Notes. [February, 

six miles in a bag behind me on horseback, under a blazing hot 
sun, and kept them five weeks in a tub of water without a morsel 
to eat, and when I came to put them in alcohol they seemed 
almost as fresh as ever. During their confinement in the tub, 
two of the females deposited a large amount of spawn. This 
spawn was something similar to frog spawn in its general appear- 
ance, but the mass had not the dark colors of the latter. The ova 
were exuded in strings and were much farther apart than frog 
eggs. They were of a yellow color, while the glutinous mass 
which connected them had a grayish appearance. The spawn 
seemed to expand greatly by absorption of water. It lay in the 
tub among the animals for a week but was not disturbed by them. 

The Menopona, here called "alligator" and "water dog," is an 
exceedingly voracious animal, feeding on fish, worms, crayfish, 
&c. Some of those taken by me disgorged crayfish shortly after 
being caught. Its large mouth which literally stretches " from 
ear to ear," takes in almost any bait not too large to be swallowed. 
May it not be a sort of scavenger of the water ? It inhabits the 
Mississippi and Ohio rivers and their tributaries. — Ckas. H. 
Townserid. 

The Sparrow Pest in Australia. — Through the kindness of 
a correspondent I have received an interesting official document 
showing that Passer domesticus has proved not less obnoxious in 
Australia than in this country. It is a folio of eleven pages, being 
the progress-report of a commission appointed by His Excellency, 
Sir W. F. D. Jervois, Major-General, &c, to inquire into and re- 
port upon the " alleged injuries by sparrows " together with an 
analysis of correspondence and minutes of proceedings of the 
commissioners, published in September, 1881, at Adelaide by 
order of the House of Assembly. "The commissioners appointed 
to inquire into the alleged damages caused by sparrows to horti- 
culture and agriculture in South Australia, and into remedial 
measures, and to report thereon, having proof of the evil existing 
in great force, and over larger districts of country, and being con- 
vinced that their suppression is urgent before another harvest and 
fruit season sets in, and before another nesting season (now 
beginning) shall swell their numbers, beg to present a progress 
report," &c. 

The analysis of correspondence on the questions of inquiry 
shows: 1. That the sparrow is established over an immense area 
in South Australia. 2. That sufferers in such area " cry for relief 
from sparrow depredations as if from a pest." 3. That the 
sparrows are increasing at an astonishing and alarming rate, their 
work being " done under conditions despairing to the cultivator, 
and under conditions that he cannot control ; for the seed is taken 
out of the ground, the fruit-bud off the tree, the sprouting vege- 
table as fast as it grows, and the fruit ere it is ripe." 4. The cul- 
tivated plants attacked are apricots, cherries, figs, apples, grapes, 



1 882.] Zoology, 141 

peaches, plums, pears, nectarines, loquats, olives — wheat and 
barley — peas, cabbages, cauliflowers and garden seeds generally. 
5. All means of defence have hitherto proved inadequate. 6. The 
commissioners suggest in addition to the usual means of defence, 
the tender of rewards for sparrows' eggs and heads ; the removal 
of gun-licenses for the season, poisoned water in summer, sulphur 
fumes under roosts at night, plaster of paris mixed with oatmeal 
and water. " It is further declared that the united action of all 
property holders, including the government, is essentia/ to effective 
results." 

The state of the case in Australia being no worse than it is in 
the United States, these sensible and energetic measures contrast 
favorably with the neglect and indifference we have shown in so 
practically important a matter, notwithstanding the unceasing 
protests of all competent judges, chiefly through our long-suffer- 
ing national good-nature, partly through sickly sentiment, and in 
some slight degree through the ranting pseudo-zoophily of such 
persons as Mr. Henry Bergh, for example. — Elliott Cones, Washing- 

OCCURRENCE OF THE OPOSSUM IN CENTRAL NEW YORK. Dr. 

W. H. Gregg of Elmira informs me that an opossum was last 
spring taken about 6 miles from the city, being the first specimen 
known to him to have occurred in that locality, which is certainly 
beyond the usual range of the species as commonly understood. 
—Elliott Cones, Washington, D. C. 

The Claw on the " Index " Finger of the Cathartid^. — 

December 7, 1881. 
To the Editors of the American Naturalist. 

Gentlemen: — I read with much interest Dr. Shufeldt's article in 
your journal for November hist, on the claw on the " index" 1 of the 
L athartida, to the existence of which he had previously called my 
attention when I had the pleasure of making his acquaintence in 
Washington last month. Dr.Shufeldt certainly deserves greatcredit 
for being the first to detect a structure, which has previously, so far 
I am aware, escaped the notice of all observers. I may add that 
since my return I have been able to confirm the truth of Dr. 
Shufeldt's statements on specimens of Cathartes aura and C. 



' ■ 



my possession. 



Allow me, as one perhaps more favorably situated than Dr. 
Shufeldt has been as regards the literature of ornithology, to call 
my friend's attention to Nitzsch's " Osteographische Beitrage zur 
Naturgeschichte der Vogel," published at Leipzig in 1881. In 
that 2 he will find an excellent account of the claw and phalanx 
•n question as it exists in many other birds. 

The digit of the Avian maims called " index " by Professor Owen is now univers- 

. the pollex. 

7 " Ueber das Nagelglied der Fliigelfmger, besonders der Daumen." pp. S9-97. 



i 4 -' 



General Notes. 



[February, 



Nitzsch does not seem to have observed it in the Catliarlidir, 
but found it in Haliin tuncuius alaudarius and 

some others of the Falconidae. It is very conspicuous in Pandion. 
In fact, the occurrence of such a claw is of very frequent occurrence 
in the class Aves, though by no means universal amongst them. 
Amongst birds in which it may be well seen, I may mention 
Struthio and Rhea, Cypselus, Caprimidgus, the Rallida and Panida. 
Such a claw must not be confounded, as has been done by some 
writers, with the long " spurs " covered by epidermic tissues, 
formed by outgrowths from the metacarpal elements, of most 
birds as Parra, Palamedea, Plectropterus, &c. In fact, the two 
may, as in Parra or Plectropterus, coexist. Believe me, yours 
very truly, W. A. Forbes, 

A new Distomum Parasite in the Egg-sacks of Apus. — While 
opening the egg-sack of an Apus lucasanus from Kansas, my atten- 
tion was attracted by a small cylindrical worm-like object attached 
to the walls of the interior of an egg-sack on the eleventh pair of feet. 
It is represented by the accompanying fig- 
ure, which gives enlarged sketches of the 
side and under surface. The worm is i^ of a 
millemeter in length, and T \ mm in thickness 
at the thickest part of the body, which is in 
the region of the sucker (s). Seen side- 
wise the body is moderately long and 
slender, a little curved and flattened on the 
concave side. The mouth (w) is situated 
near the end of the body, and is much 
smaller than the sucker (s). The anterior 
end of the body is not so much pointed 
as the posterior ; the latter is somewhat 
produced, the end even somewhat in- 
curved. The animal was white in color. 
This fluke may be called Distomum apodis. 
This is the first occurrence of any parasite 
on the members of this family ( Apodidce) 
A^nXSSZZ of Phyllopods, and so far as we are aware 
m, mouth; *, sucker. Much the first instance of the occurrence of any 
enlarged. parasftic worm in the Phyllopods in general. 

Living as it does in theovisack, it can hardly be called an internal 
parasite.— A 5. Packard, Jr. 

Additional note on the Egg Cases of Planarians ectopar- 
asitic on Limulus. — In the January number of this journal, by a 
curious coincidence, Dr. Gissler contributed a note covering in 
part the same ground as one by myself which appeared 




I desire to make a correction in regard to the 5 
-tubes alluded to by the former as occurring at the tif 



of 



1 882,] Zoology. 143 

the egg-capsules. These are in fact nothing more than killed dis- 
torted protozoa of the genus Epistylis or Zoothamnium, clusters 
of which I have frequently observed in the living condition on 
the ends of the egg-capsules in fresh material presenting almost 
precisely the appearance represented in Fig. 2 b c, of Gissler's 
note. They are present or absent according as opportunity may 
have been afforded for the protozoans to attach themselves, the 
oldest capsules and those from which the embryos had escaped, 
being the ones to which the Vorticellinae had most often affixed 
themselves. At the time my note was written I did not think it 
worth while to mention the occurrence of the protozoa which are 
very common, the stalked forms especially. So numerous are 
these, in places, that to estimate their occurrence at one hundred 
per square inch of horizontal surface, we find the population of a 
square rod to be nearly four millions (more exactly 3,896,800). 
From what I have seen in the Chesapeake, this estimate, in many 
localities, would be very low, from which it may be inferred that 
the importance of the part played by the protozoa in the economy 
of the world of life is, like that of the earth-worm, not yet appre- 
ciated at its right value.— >. A. Ryder. 

Notes on Some Fkesh-water Crustacea, Together with 
Descriptions of Two New Species.— Palamon ohionis Smith.— 
(Palcemon ohionis. Smith, S. I., Freshwater Crustacea, U. S. 640; 
Forbes, S. A., Bulletin Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist, No. 1, 5.) While 
seining for fishes in the vicinity of Vicksburg, Miss., during the 
past summer, I captured numerous specimens of this species. 
The largest specimens were taken in the open river with a 
small, fine-meshed, collecting seine. In some places they occur 
in enormous numbers. On the 4th of July we were in Louisiana, 
across the river from Vicksburg, seining in some ponds formed 
m the making of levees along Grant's canal. At a single 
draw of the net we brought out not less than a half bushel 
of these river shrimps. Considering their size and abound- 
ing numbers, they must constitute an important part of the food 
of the fishes of these waters. They are captured for bait, and 
are used to some extent for food ; and I can, from actual experi- 
ence, testify that they are not to be despised by the hungry hun- 
ter- My largest specimens agree exactly in size with those ob- 
tained by Professor Smith from the Ohio river at Cannelton, Ind. 
Many of the females were laden with eggs. The mandibles of this 
species, as in the case of many other crustaceans, are not perfectly 
symmetrical. The biting portions of the two mandibles are alike 
and tridentate. The triturating process of each is long and 
stands out at right angles to the body of the mandible. That 
ot the left mandible is truncated at nearly right angles ; that of 
the left is quite oblique, so that a dentated edge is presented to 
«*e other mandible. Both molar surfaces are tuberculated. 



144 General Notes. [February, 

Palesmonetes cxilipes Stimpson. — (Paleswonetes exilipcs Smith, 
S. I., loc. cit, 641 ; Forbes, S. A., loc. cit, 5.) I have collected 
this species in tributaries of the Tombigbee and Noxubee rivers, 
in Eastern Mississippi, in the Mississippi river at Memphis, in 
Pearl river at Jackson, and in the Chickasawha river at Enterprise, 
Miss. It is now known to occur as far north as Ecorse, Mich., in 
South Carolina and Florida, in Mississippi and in Illinois. 

Crangonyx lucifugus, n. sp. — This is a small, rather elongated 
species, that was obtained from a well in Abingdon, Knox county, 
Illinois. As befits its subterranean mode of life, it is blind and 
of a pale color. In length the largest specimens measure 
about 6 mm . 

Male. — Antennulae scarcely one-half as long as the body. The 
third segment of the peduncle two-thirds as long as the second; 
this, two-thirds the length of the first. Flagellum consisting of 
about fourteen segments. The secondary flagellum very short, 
and with but two segments. Antennae short, only half as long as 
the antennulae. Last two segments of its peduncle elongated. 
Flagellum consisting of but about five segments, and shorter than 
the last two segments of the peduncle taken together. 

Second pair of thoracic legs stouter than tlie first. Propodite 
of first pair quadrate, with nearly a right angle between the pal- 
mar and posterior margins. Palmar surface on each side of the 
cutting edge, with a row of about six notched and ciliated spines, 
one or two of which at the posterior angle are larger than the 
others. The cutting edge is entire. Dactylopodite as long as 
the palmar margin, and furnished along the concave edge with a 
few hairs. 

Propodite of the second pair of legs ovate in outline, twice as 
long as broad. The palmar mar illy into the 

posterior margin. The cutting edge of the palmar surface un- 
even, and having near the insertion of the dactyl a square projec- 
tion. The palmar surface also armed with two rows of notched 
and ciliated spines, five in the inner row, seven in the outer. 
Dactyl short and stout. 

Two posterior pairs of thoracic legs longest of all and about 
equal to each other. All the legs are stout and their basal seg- 
ments squamiform. 

Postero-lateral angle of first abdominal segment rounded ; of 
second and third, from obtuse-angled to right-angled. 

First pair of caudal stylets extending a little further back than 
the second ; these exceeding slightly the third. The peduncle of 
the first pair somewhat curve-!, with the concavity above, the rami 
equal and two-thirds as long as the peduncle. The peduncle of 
the second pair little longer than the outer ramus. Inner ramus 
nearly twice as long as the outer. Third pair of caudal stylets 
rudimentary, consisting of but a single segment. This somewhat 



1 882.] Zoology. 145 

longer than the telson, broadly ovate, two-thirds as broad as long 
and furnished at the tip with two short spines. 

Telson a little longer than wide, narrowing a little to the trun- 
cated tip, which is provided at each postero-lateral angle with a 
couple of stout spines. 

Female. — In the female the propodite of the anterior pair of feet 
resembles closely that of the corresponding foot of the male. 
The palmar margin of the second propodite is less oblique than 
in the second foot of the male, and does not pass so gradually 
into the posterior margin. It is also destitute of the jagged edge 
and the square process of the male foot. There are fewer spines 
along the margin. One of the spines at the posterior angle is 
very long and stout. 

This species appears to resemble C. tenuis Smith, but is evi- 
dently different. In that species, as described by Prof. S. I. Smith, 
the first pair of feet are stouter than the second, and have the pal- 
mar margin of the propodite much more oblique. The reverse 
is true of the species I describe. Nor do I understand from the 
description of C. tenuis that the posterior caudal stylets each 
consist of a single segment. There are some minor differences. 
From C. vitreus, judging from Prof. Cope's description in American 
Naturalist, Vol. vi, p. 422, it must differ in the caudal stylets. 
"Penultimate segment, with a stout limb with two equal styles," is 
a statement that will not apply to my species, whichever the " pe- 
nultimate " segment may be. 

Crangonyx tijurcus, n. sp. — General form and appearance those 
of the Western variety of C. gracilis. Length of specimens about 
9 ram . Eyes oval, black. Antennulae scarcely half the length 
of the body. First two basal segments of the peduncle about 
equal in length ; the first much the stouter ; the third segment 
about two-thirds as long as the second. Primary flagellum about 
twice the length of the peduncle, consisting of about twenty-four 
segments. Secondary flagellum scarcely as long as the basal 
segment of the primary flagellum, consisting of but two segments. 
Antennae about one-half as long as the antennulae. Basal segments 
short, the first provided with a prominent process, which appears 
to be perforated (the opening of a gland ?). Ultimate and penulti- 
mate segments of the peduncle elongated and equal in length. 
Flagellum shorter than the two distal segments of the peduncle 
and consisting of about eight segments. The antennae furnished 
•with about a dozen curious sensory organs ; three of these on 
each of the two distal segments of the peduncle ; the segments of 
the flagellum with one each, except the terminal three or four, 
which have none. These organs in alcoholic specimens resemble, 
u nder the microscope, a lane o! it. 01 oblanceolate leaf having a 
midrib and parallel veinlets running from this to the margins. 

Propodite of first thoracic foot subquadrate in outline ; a very 
mtle longer than wide. Palmar surface somewhat oblique, armed 



146 General Notes. [February, 

on each side of the cutting edge with about a dozen notched and 
ciliated spines. Two or three short, stout and serrated spines at 
the posterior angle. A number of stiff, slender hairs planted 
among the spines. Dactylopodite scythe-shaped, bent rather ab- 
ruptly near the base, then straight, and finally incurved near the 
tip. Propodite of second foot more elongated than in the first 
foot, and with a more oblique palmar surface ; armed with about 
fourteen spines along each side of the cutting edge. The first, 
second, and third abdominal segments have their postero-lateral 
angles drawn backward into a decided tooth. 

Of the three pairs of caudal stylets, the first extends backward 
beyond the second; the second beyond the third. The latter 
consists of a stout peduncle and a single ramus, which is about 
two-thirds as long as the peduncle and provided with a few slen- 
der spines. There appears to be no inner ramus, but there is 
to be seen on the inner side of the ramus present a process 
of the peduncle that represents, perhaps, the inner ramus. 
There is, however, no involution of the integument at the base of 
this process. Telson elongated, twice as long as broad, the sides 
nearly parallel. The posterior border is provided with a notch 
that extends nearly three-fourths of the distance to the base. 
Each prong is armed at the tip with from three to five spines. 

This species differs from C. gracilis more particularly in the 
form of the telson, and in the length of the outer ramus of the 
posterior stylets as compared with the peduncle. From C. anten- 
natum Packard (American Naturalist, 1881, p. 880), it differs in 
the form of the telson, and in the much greater size of the eyes. 
Found by myself about 1st of April, 1880, in a rivulet flowing 
down the limestone hills into the Noxubee river, at Macon, Miss. 
•Only four specimens were secured, all of which appear to be 

The three species, C. gracilis, C. bifitrcus and C. Incifugus 
present an interesting gradation in the forms of the posterior cau- 
dal stylets. In the first-named the outer ramus is twice the 
length of the peduncle, and the inner ramus is present, but rudi- 
mentary. In C. bifitrcus the outer ramus is but two-thirds as long 
as the peduncle, while it is doubtful whether there is anything 
whatever to represent inner ramus. In C. lucifugus both the outer 
and inner rami are absent, and the peduncle itself is much re- 
duced. — (To be Continued). — 0. P. Hay, Irvington, hid. 

Revival of Tardigrades after Dessiccation. — The truth 
of the occurrence of this phenomenon has been denied by various 
observers, and the appearances explained by Ehrenberg as due to 
the development of fresh specimens from eggs left by the animals, 
which die in the process. Professor Yung, however, considers 
that his observation of the process, in a single specimen of Mil- 
nesium, proves the correctness of the old opinion. The specimen 
was taken from a ditch, contained eighteen eggs, and manifested 



1 882.] Zoology. 147 



lively movements. It was left for five hours until quite dry, and 
all that could be seen of it under 350 diam., was a brown speck 
under the cover-glass. A drop of water was allowed to run be- 
neath the latter. Almost immediately after it had reached the 
remains of the Tardigrade, a fine pellicle was evident, surrounding 
the brown speck and manifesting the general outlines of the body 
and ova. The normal wall then appeared, enclosing the contents 
of the intestine ; the minutest details of the outer skin appeared ; 
after twenty minutes the mouth with its fingers and tube, the jaws, 
and the feet were fully developed. Subsequently the parts con- 
necting the jaws with the oesophagus came into view. No move- 
ments and no development of the ova were observed in the three 
hours occupied by these observations. The too close apposition 
of the cover-glass to the slide being now remedied, the animal 
was supplied plentifully with water, but, when .searched for the 
next day, could not be found, having probably departed in search 
of more comfortable quarters, for the algae which had surrounded 
it were disturbed, and neither the remains of the jaws and skin, 
usually found after specimens have died, nor eggs, were discov- 
ered. 

Variation in /Equorea forskalea.— Professor C. Claus, ac- 
cording to the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society of 
London, while giving an account of this Adriatic medusa, takes 
the opportunity of making some criticisms on Professor Haeckel's 
classification of the ^Equoridae. A careful study of this form has 
shown Claus that it is subject to extreme variation ; variations so 
great as to have led Professor Haeckel to make a number of 
genera and sub-genera for their reception. It is not possible to 
abstract a critical paper of this kind, and we must be content to 
direct attention to the following points. Claus finds that the 
color varies with age and sex; the young may well be called 
viirina, as Gosse called them; later on'blue pigment- granules may 
appear in the ectoderm, and especially in the gonads of the male, 
while the female may take on a more or less reddish coloration 
(the A. violacea of Milne Edwards). The radial canals vary in 
number from just over fifty to nearly eighty. The form and 
size of the mouth-lips depend on the state of contraction of the 
specimen, on its age, and on the breadth of its umbrella. Alto- 
gether, according to Professor Claus. Haeckel would seem to 
have afforded a very interesting proof of the origin of species by 
variation. 

Development of the Sterlet.— A resume of Professor W. 
Salensky's Russian paper on this subject appears in the Jour- 
nal of the Royal Microscopical Society. The segmentation of 
the egg is on the amphiblastula type; the gastrula, however, is 
an archigastrula. In th n, and in the primitive 

formation of its mesoderm, the sterlet resembles Amphioxus, but 



1 48 General Notes. [February, 

it differs from it in having the chorda dorsalis derived from the 
mesoderm, and not from the endoderm. There is no real differ- 
ence in the mesodermal layer of these two forms, and intermediate 
stages between the two conditions have been observed in Elas- 
mobranchs. So, also, the author thinks that the segmentation of 
the ovum presents a transitional arrangement between the bony 
fishes and Plagiostomes on the one hand, and the Cyclostomata 
and Amphibia on the other. 

Zoological Notes. — The view that the Brachiopods are shelled 
worms, which has been so fully discussed and insisted upon by 
Professor E. S. Morse, appears to be gaining ground. Drs. O. and 
R. Hertwig in their lengthy essay on the coelom theory agree 
with Gegenbaur that the Brachiopods have little more in com- 
mon with the molluscs than the possession of a shell, the latter 
being wholly different from that of ordinary bivalves, and that 
they have taken their origin from the stem of the worms, especial- 
ly the Chaetopods. It appears that two shells from Lake Tan- 
ganyika, in Central Africa, described in the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London, and, according to a note by Dr. C. 
A. White in Nature, generically identical with the Pyrgulifcra 
humerosa of Meek, from the Laramie group, an extensive brack- 
ish water formation in western North America ; these beds being 

transitional between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic series. In a 

paper recently read by M. Yung before the French Academy on 
the influence of the nature of food on sexuality, he states that he 
fed separate sets of tadpoles with fish, meat, coagulated albumen 
of hen's eggs, yellow of eggs, and with a mixed diet. These ali- 
ments do not appear to have had a very distinct influence on the 
sex ; but along with M. Born's experiments, those of M. Yung 
support the idea that a special diet afforded to young tadpoles 
from the time of leaving the egg, favors the development of a 
female genital gland. This is the reverse of that arrived at by 
Hoffman, who found that deficiency of nourishment resulted in 
the case of plants, in the production of an excess of males. In 
a recent memoir entitled " Metagenesis und Hypogenesis von 
Anrelia aurita," Professor Haeckel by keeping a number of speci- 
mens in his aquarium, has observed certain phenomena in the 
mode of reproduction, which deviate from those which usually 
occur. Beside-." \\v//r^> or tin ordin; try development by alter- 
nate generation, he observed a direct development which he calls 
hypogenesis. This is effected by the gastrula developing directly 
into an Ephyra ; the Scyphistoma and Strobila stages being sup- 
pressed. It remains to be seen whether this abbreviated mode of 
development occurs in a state of nature. Two large plates crowded 
with figures of generous size render the meaning of the text very 
clear. Indeed Haeckel's style is as clear and beautiful as his 
drawings and we wish fie papers were as easy 

to read. A ! ') i r > ' \ > i \a in t ca^ it M< no is! in ! 



1 882.] Entomology. 149 

Trinadad, is described in Nature. These queer creatures catch 

fish at night in a manner not very clearly made out. Dr. 

Kobelt, the malacologist, who has visited North Africa and Spain 
to study the mollusks of the two countries reports, says Nature, 
that it may be safely assumed that'the connection was not con- 
fined to the Straits of Gibraltar, but extended at least as far as 

the meridian of Oran and Cartagena. M. Kunstler has found 

a flagellate Infusorian very much like Noctiluca living in fresh 

water. It appears that 38 naturalists worked at the Roscoff 

sea-side laboratory during 1 881 against 27 in 1880. The num- 
ber of foreigners is eight. The French dredging expedition, in 

Le Travailleur, under the direction of A. Milne Edwards, has pub- 
lished a preliminary report. Many crustaceans, and star-fish, 
such as Brisinga, and other animals were found, these being 
Atlantic forms new to the Mediterranean. " In general the Medi- 
terranean is not to be thought a distinct geological province ; its 
inhabitants have probably come from the ocean, and their devel- 
opment and reproduction have been more active than in their 
place of origin. Some have been slightly modified. The more 
we get to know of oceanic productions off the coast of Portu- 
gal, Spain, Morocco, and Senegal, the more do differences from 

Mediterranean animals disappear.' '(Nature .) A species of fluke 

1 Distomum cirrio-crum) have been found by G. Zaddach in the 
crayfish, where they occur as blackish spots on the testes, and in 
greater numbers in the muscles of the hinder part of the abdomen. 
The author, says the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 
comes to the somewhat remarkable conclusion that in Distomum 
tsostomum, another fluke of the crayfish, the sexually mature forms 
succeed one another. 

ENTOMOLOGY. 1 

On Some Curious Methods of Pupation among the Chal- 
cidid/e. — {Concluded from tin v ' ' .vV/'.' 1 — The mines of 

Lithocolictis jitchclla Clem., at Washington, contain oftentimes a 
most interesting object, which I have never yet seen described. 
Imagine a short, slender chain of small, closely welded brown 
dipterous puparia and you will have the exact appearance. Such 
a chain I have often found in the center of a mine of the Litho- 
tolletis, supported by the silken threads which the larva of the 
[atter always spins prior to pupation. The number of individuals 
] n a chain is always quite constant never varying more than from 
ten to thirteen, and not a trace of any other occupant of the mine 
is to be seen, no matter how careful the examination may be. 

Finding many specimens in the course of a winter I racked my 
brains for a l< were. I had 

settled i 



my mind that they were dipt' 






150 General Notes. [February, 

no insect of that order having such habits. I thought of the gre- 
garious habits of Sciara, and wondered if I had not found some 
new form which carried the larval custom on into the pupa state. 
My friends were equally puzzled with myself— none had ever 
seen such an object before. 

One day I found that a number of small Chalcids had issued 
from one of the chains. This, however, did not shake my belief 
as I considered the Chalcids as simply parasites upon the origi- 
nal makers of the chain, and I waited with impatience for the real 
owner. However, more and more of the Chalcids issued, until at 
last every specimen I had collected, with the exception of those 
put away in alcohol, had excluded ten or a dozen of the parasites, 
and I had made up mind that I should have to wait till the next 
season before solving the problem, the idea never striking me that 
I had the solution right before my eyes. 

The next spring I bred from a mine of Gelechia pinifolia Cham., 
a few specimens of a closely allied Chalcid and, upon opening the 
mine from which they had issued, I found one of the familiar 
chains, in which, however, the individual " puparia " seemed more 
fused together, and an examination with a Tolles J^th showed a 
delicate membrane surrounding them all. This membrane the 
compound microscope showed to be the true skin of the Gelechia 
larva, but so stretched as to leave the sutures perfectly indistin- 
guishable and to be recognizable only from the spiracles and anal 
hairs. Now going back to my oak chains I found, of course, the 
same to be the case ; but the skin of the Lithocolletis larva had 
shrunken down into the crevices so tightly and its surface was so 
smooth that the resemblance to a string of puparia was perfect. 

Later I had the opportunity of examining a larva of Anarsia 
lineatella Zeller, parasited by an allied species, and the same ap- 
pearance resulted, greatly modified, however, by the larger size ol 
the host and the greater thickness of its skin. I remember see j 
ing somewhere a statement by Dr. Lintner, to the effect that he 
had bred a very interesting parasite from this Anarsia, and I 
hazard a guess that this was the species. I saw at once from this 
last larva that the appearance which had puzzled me so was after 
all only a modification of a phenomenon often met with in larger 
larvae, the minute size of the Lithocolletis larva and the extreme 
delicacy of its last skin combining to produce the curious effect. 

A somewhat similar appearance, caused by an allied parasite in 
the rather large larva of Gelechia gallce-solidaginis, is described by 
Professor Riley in his First Missouri Report. He calls the para- 
site popularly " the Inflating Chalcis," and figures the parasited 
larva at Fig. 5, Plate 2. 

Moreover, many attempts which were made last season to carry 
through the larva of Plusia brassiae were frustrated by a congeneric 
parasite with similar habits. The Plusia larva, up to the time of 
commencing to spin, appeared quite healthy, although perhaps a 



1 882.] Entomology. 151 

little sluggish. Then suddenly its torpor increased, and through 
the semi-transparent skin were seen hundreds of small white 
parasitic larvae. In two days at the most the host was dead, having 
perhaps partially finished its cocoon, while its entire body was 
completely packed with the parasitic larvae or pupae, each sur- 
rounded by a cocoon-like cell. A cross section of the host at 
this stage showed a regular honeycombed structure. After re- 
maining in the pupa state not longer than twenty days the Chal- 
cids commenced to emerge by the hundreds. My friend, Mr. 
Pergande, took the trouble to count the parasites which actually 
issued from one Plusia larva, and, to our utter astonishment, the 
number reached 2528! 

An interesting problem now presents itself as to the nature of 
the cocoon-like cell surrounding each Chalcid pupa in all these 
different hosts, from Lithocolletis up to Plusia. In the first place 
it is no silken cocoon, as is readily shown by the microscopic 
structure. Neither is it a membrane secreted from the general 
surface of the Chalcid's body, for but a single wall exists between 
two adjoining pupae. For the same reason it is notthe loosened last 
larval skin of the parasite. But one hypothesis remains, and that 
is that it is a morbid or adventitious tissue of the host, and this 
the histological structure of the cell-wall seems to show, as it is 
hyaline with a few simple connective tissue fibers running through 
it. Serious objections can also be brought up against this con- 
clusion; but it is a point which it will be difficult to absolutely 
settle without closely watching the actual process of formation. 

To return to our Lithocolletis parasite. I find the following 
note in Westwood, showing how even he was puzzled by what 
seems to have been a very similar object : 

" De Geer has figured a minute black species with dirty white 
legs, which he reared from minute cocoons attached together side 
by side, found in the burrow of the larva of one of the pear leaf 
miners. The figure has somewhat the air of an Enevrtus ; but the 
pupae are naked in that genus. Can it be a Platygaster? or is it 
one of the Eulophides as the antennae would seem to imply ?" (In- 
troduction, Vol. 11, p. 170, foot-note.) 

The italics are mine and the clause is emphasized from the fact 
that all the species to which I have referred above belong to the 
Encyrtid genus Copidosoma, of Ratzeburg, which, at the time 
Westwood wrote, was still included with Encyrtus. Westwood's 
mistake was in considering the cocoon-like objects as really 
cocoons, and this led him astray in his determination.—/:. 0. 
Howard. 

New Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 1 — -Almost every year 
the appearance of some insect or insects injurious to agriculture, 
Dl *t previously unknown in an injurious capacity, has to be re- 
| [ Abstract of a paper read at the Cincinnati meeting of the A. A. A. S., by C V 



1 5 2 General Notes. [February, 

corded. The present year (1881) has afforded several striking ex- 
amples, as Cra UttS, which has seriously injured 
pastures, and . which has proved destructive 
to clover in the State of New York. 

A new Pyralid has also very generally ravaged the corn plants 
in the Southern States. These new destructive species may either 
be ( 1 ), recently introduced species from some foreign country; 
(2), native species hitherto unobserved, or unrecorded, and new in 
the sense of not being described; (3), native species well known 
to entomologists, but not previously recorded as injurious. 

The author argues that in the two last categories, more particu- 
larly, we frequently have to deal with newly acquired habits, and in 
the second category with newly acquired characters that in many 
cases systematists would consider of specific value. In short, he 
believes, that certain individuals of a species that has hitherto fed 
in obscurity on some wild plant may take to feeding on a culti- 
vated plant, and with the change of habit undergo in the course 
of a few years sufficient change in character to be counted a new 
species. Increasing and spreading at the rapid rate which the 
prolificacy of most insects permits, the species finally becomes a 
pest and necessarily attracts the attention of the farmer. The 
presumption is that it could not at any previous time have done 
similar injury without attracting similar attention; in fact, that the 
habit is newly acquired. The author reasons that just as variation 
in plant life is often sudden, as in the " sport," and that new char- 
acters which may be perpetuated are thus created, so in insects 
there are comparatively sudden changes, which, under favoring 
conditions, are perpetuated. In this way characters which most 
systematists would consider as specific, originate within periods 
that are very brief compared to those which evolutionists believe 
to be necessary for the differentiation of specific forms among 
the higher animals. 

New Entomological Periodicals. — We are in receipt of a 
circular from M. Constant Vanden Branden, Rue de la Made- 
leine, 69, Bruxelles, Belgium, announcing the monthly publication, 
beginning with February 1st, 1882, of a "Revue Coleoptero- 
logique." This Review will be divided into five parts : 1. Bibliog- 
raphy ; 11. New species described during the past month (latin 
diagnosis and precise reference) ; in. Synonymical remarks ; iv. 
Necrology (if there be occasion for it); v. Sundry communica- 
tions (sale of collections and books). Subscription price 10 francs 
for foreign countries. We have also received the prospectus of the 
Wic net- lititomologischi Zeitung, a journal to be devoted to general 
entomology, and to appear in 1882. It will be published " chez le 
libraire de la cour I. R. et de l'Universite Alfred Holder:' and the 
editorial staff, which consists of Louis Ganglbauer, Francois Low, 
Josephe Mik, Edward Reitter and Franz Wachtl, is of a character 
to guarantee excellence. Price 8 marks. There is also a pros- 



1 8 8 2 .] A nthropology. 1 5 3 

pect of a new entomological journal from Paris, under the auspices 
of " La Societe Francaise d'Entomologie," a new society which 
is being talked of among certain members of the Societe Ento- 
mologique de France who find the old society too slow for them. 

Locust Probabilities for 1882. — In a letter from Missoula, 
Montana, written September 30th, Mr. Lawrence Bruner gave an 
encouraging report as to locust prospects. Starting from Ogden, 
Utah, he took the Utah and Northern railway to Melrose, Mon- 
tana, laying off at various points along the Snake river, and in 
Southwestern Montana. From Melrose the route lay through the 
Valleys of the Big Hole, Deer Lodge and Hellgate rivers, all of 
which are noted as rich agricultural districts. From Missoula, Mr. 
Bruner went down the Missoula river to its junction with the Flat- 
head river and thence on to the Spokane farming district. In ref- 
erence to his observations in Montana, Mr. Bruner states: "So 
far I am led to believe there are no locust eggs east of the Rocky 
range this season. There were a few locusts in the Hellgate and 
Missoula valleys, also some in the valley of the Bitter Root. 
They left toward the west and north. A few eggs were de- 
posited." 

Entomological Notes. — Mr. C. A. Briggs gives in the October 
number of The Entomologist (London, Eng.) an illustrated account 
of a hermaphrodite hybrid between Smerinthus ocellatus and 
Smcnnthus populi. 

Mr. J. Jenner Wier of Blackheath, S. E., London, has recently 
studied some large collections of Lepidoptera made by Mr. E. G. 
Meek in the Outer Hebrides which consist chiefly of gneiss rocks 
and granite, and which are treeless and rather barren of other 
vegetation. Out of 56 species he was struck with the coloration 
in many which deviated from the normal coloring, especially 
among the Geometrid;e which showed the gray color of the gneiss, 
having varied in the direction of the color of their environment. 

Mr. V. R. Perkins records the capture of Heliothis annigera in 
Gloucestershire, Eng., and remarks on its sitting head-down- 
wards. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 

Mr. Morgan's Last Work.— It seldom happens that a literary 
man lives to witness the completion of his labors. In the preface 
to Vol. iv., of the Contributions to North American Ethnology, 
upon the houses and house-life of the American aborigines, Mr. 
Morgan says : " As it will undoubtedly be my last work, I part 
with it under some solicitude ; but submit it cheerfully to the in- 
dulgence of my readers." After the usual delay of printing, the 
volume made its appearance just in time to be placed in the author's 
hands upon his dying bed. " He feebly turned the pages, and as 
leebly murmured, ' my book.' " The New York Nation, of De- 
1 Edited by Professor Otis T. Mason, 1305 Q. street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 



154 General Notes. [February, 

cember 22, and the Rochester Democrat- Chronicle of Dec. 18, 
contain brief sketches of the author's life and labors. 

The work before us is not altogether new to students of anthro- 
pology, portions of it having appeared in Johnson's Cyclopedia, 
the North American Revitw, and the first volume published by 
the Archaeological Institute of America. Nevertheless, there is 
here the added charm of maturer deliberation and a homogen- 
eous plan. Mr. Morgan's whole conception of domestic life 
among our aborigines grew out of his theory of their social or- 
ganization exhibited in the gens, the phratry, and the tribe. This 
is made manifest in the various chapters on the law of hospitality, 
communism in living, usages and customs respecting land and 
food, modern edifices, ancient structures, and even in those relat- 
ing to the mound-builders. 

The volume is profusely embellished and the illustrations are 
exceptionally fine. The Naturalist is very hard to please in 
this respect, and in giving unqualified praise to Vol. IV., passes 
no empty compliment to the officers of the Bureau of Ethnology 
who have superintended the work. 

The Calendar Stone. — Mr. A. W. Butler, Secretary of the 
Brookville Society of Natural History, Ind., takes exception to 
Mr. Palmer's conclusions respecting the Calendar Stone. Mr. 
Butler spent several weeks in the city of Mexico and examined 
carefully not only the stone itself, but all the surroundings. The 
sides and upper surface of the stone are beautifully sculptured 
and the carving is as old as that upon any of the other great 
remains. Mr. Palmer has also misinterpreted the import of the 
sculptures. The idea of its having been a millstone is preposter- 
ous, all grinding having been done with the metate stones. Mr. 
Palmer also falls into another error respecting the beheading of 
victims, all authors agreeing that their hearts were cut out and 
offered to their idols. This may not be the "Sacrificial Stone," 
but all evidence points in this direction. 

Stone Image Found in Ohio.— Some workmen, while ex- 
cavating the foundation of a machine shop at Newark, Ohio, came 
upon an image of a bear, six inches in height, in a sitting posture. 
It is made of a soft material found plentifully in the locality. The 
left paw rests under the ear, the light paw on the abdomen. 
Projecting from under the chin is the face of a woman. Below 
the right paw is the inverted face of a man. Near the image was 
a human skeleton and a conch shell. 

The American Antiquarian.— -With the October number the 
Antiquarian enters on its fourth volume, and Iron, the indications 
it is destined to live. Few persons know, however, what a great 
and unremunerative labor it is to sustain a periodical of this kind. 
The contents of the present number are as follows : 



Miller, O. D.— Dr. Brugsch-Bey on the origin of the Egyptians and Egyptian 

Smith, Mrs'. E. C— Mvths of the Iroquois. 

Welch, Dr. L. B., and J. M. Richardson— A description of Prehistoric relics found 

Avery, Professor John.— Polyandry in India and Thibet. 

The Correspondence, Editorial comments, Linguistic notes, 
and Recent Intelligence are by no means the least important part 
of the number. Dr. Brinton's article, to our taste, is the best con- 
tribution. A sentence or two will show the drift of the argument. 
" It would appear that the only resident Indians at the time of 
the discovery who showed any evidence of mound-building com- 
parable to that found in the Ohio valley were the Chahta-Musko- 
kee. I believe that the evidence is sufficient to justify us in 
accepting this race as the constructors of all those extensive 
mounds, terraces, platforms, artificial lakes, and circumvallations 
which are scattered over the Gulf States, Georgia and Florida. " 

Contributions here and there. — It seems to be an insuper- 
able difficulty to have all anthropological articles of our country 
published in one journal. The next best thing is to have one 
periodical that shall act as a ledger in posting up all items for the 
student. This the Naturalist fervently wishes to do, and in this 
note gives the titles of a few very important papers of this class. 

Abbott, Dr. C. C. In the Proceedings of the Boston Society 
of Natural History, Vol. xxi, January 19. 1 88 1, will be found an 
historical sketch o'f the discoveries of palaeolithic implements in 
the valley of the Delaware river. Supplementary' remarks by 
Mr. Henry W. Haynes, Mr. G. Frederick Wright, Mr. Lucien 
Carr, Dr. M. E. Wadsvvorth, and Professor F. W. Putnam are 
appended. 

Putnam, Professor F. W. Were ancient copper implements 
hammered or moulded into shape? Kansas City Rev., Dec. 
( The author holds that the aborigines did not cast copper.) 

Ballou, Win. Hosea. As scientific editor in The American Field, 
of Chicago, publishes quite frequently notes on anthropology. 

The Kansas City Re vino of Science and Industry. The editor, 
Mr. Thos. S. Case, has done some good archaeological work and 
never fails to give an original article and judicious selections with 
each number. 

The Monthly Index to Current Periodical Literature, Proceed- 
ings of Learned Societies and Government Publications, issued 
from the office of the American Bookseller, 10 Spruce street. 
New York, is absolutely indispensable to everv student who would 
keep himself posted upon what is doing in his peculiar field. 

Recent Popular Works. — We are called upon to mention the 

anything new ■ ■ ; , ropology, but because they show 

now deeply seated in all thoughtful minds are those questions 



156 General Notes. [February, 

which the anthropologist is daily busy with. I refer to Professor J. 
P. Lesley's " Man's Origin and Destiny sketched from the platform 
of Physical Sciences," published in Boston by George H. Ellis ; 
and " The League of the Iroquois and other Legends, from the 
Indian Muse," issued by S. C. Griggs & Co. of Chicago. The 
former is the second edition of a course of lectures delivered be- 
fore the Lowell Institute in the winter of 1865 and 1866. The 
work has long been before the public and has achieved a perma- 
nent success. The style is highly poetical, indeed it is at times 
painfully so. The burden of the argument is nowhere clearly 
stated, but the theme progresses by a series of surprises, a plan 
that is agreeable to the audience room, but not to the reader who 
wishes to digest. It is needless to state that Professor Lesley 
can tell us nothing new, either of man's origin or of his destiny. 

Mr. Hathaway's poem is an attempt to give in a series of 
pictures the story of the origin of the Iroquois confederation and 
especially all that relates to Hayowentha. We hail with delight 
any and every attempt to preserve in prose or verse the sacred 
lore of our aborigines. The Bureau of Ethnology at Washington 
has during the past two years collected a hundred or more new 
myths, which will be published in the contributions to North 
American Ethnology. 

Anthropology in Great Britain. — Trubner & Co. announce a 
work to be completed in ten volumes, entitled, " The Social 
History of the Races of Mankind." The ivth and concluding 
number of Volume x, of the Journal of the Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland gives us the following 
original papers. 
Biddoe, Dr. John. — On anthropological colour phenomena in Belgium and else- 

Rowbotham, —.—Certain reasons for believing that the art of music in prehistoric 
times passed through three distinct stages of development, each characterized 
by the invention of a new form of v iges InTariably 

succeeded one another in the same 01 the World. 

Milne, John.— 1 he Stone Age in Japan; with notes on Recent Geological changes 

Tylor, E. B.— Priident^Annual Address. 

Six pages of President Tylor's address are devoted to a very 
nattering review of Yarrow's " Mortuary Customs," and Col. 
Mallery's " Introduction to the study of the Sign Language 
among the North American Indians." 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 
A new genus of Tillodonta.— An interesting new form of this 
sub-order has been found in the Catathlcsus beds (probably the 
Puerco formation) of New Mexico. It differs widely from the 
two genera hitherto known, Ancki A -non. Owing 

to the absence of the superior dental series it is not possible to 
be sure which tooth is the canine. The inferior dental formula 



1 882.] Geology and Paleontology. 157 

may be therefore written. I. 2 ; C. 1 ; Pm. 3 ; M. 3 ; or I. 3 ; C. O; . 
Pm. 3 ; M. 3 ; or I. 3 ; C. 1 ; Pm. 2 ; M. 3. The first and second 
incisors are large and rodent-like, growing from persistent pulps ; 
the second are the larger. The third, or canines, are small and 
probably not gliriform. There is no diastema. The first premolar 
(or canine) has a compressed crown with two cusps placed trans- 
versely to the jaw axis, and has a complete enamel sheath, and 
probably two roots. The succeeding tooth is also transverse, and 
is two-rooted, judging from the alveolus. The first and second 
true molars are rooted, and the crown consists of two transverse 
separated crests, each partially divided into two tubercles. On 
wearing, the grinding surface of each assumes the form of a let- 
ter B with the convexities anterior. The last inferior molar is in- 
jured. The rami are short, and the symphysis deep and recurved. 
This genus may be named Psittacotlicrium. 

Psittacotkerium multf/ragum, sp. nov. — The base of the coronoid 
process is opposite the junction of the second and third true 
molars. The ramus is deep and moderately stout. The enamel 
of the first incisor does not extend below the alveolar border, at 
the internal and external faces, and does not reach it at the sides. 
It has a few wrinkles on the anterior face. The anterior enamel 
face of the second incisor is thrown into shallow longitudinal 
grooves with more or less numerous irregularities from the low 
dividing ridges. There is a deeper groove on each side of the 
tooth, and there are about a dozen ridges between these on the 
anterior face. Both cusps of the first premolar are conic, and the 
external is the larger. The second true molar is a little smaller 
than the first. The enamel of the premolars and molars is smooth, 

Probable length of dental series .0750 ; diameters of I. 1 : an- 
teroposterior .or 20, transverse 0066; diameters I. 2: anteropos- 
terior .0160, transverse .0115 ; diameters Pm. 1. : anteroposterior 
.0072, transverse, .0130; diameters of M. 11: anteroposterior .0090, 
transverse, .0090. Length of true molars .0038; depth of ramus 
at M. 11. .0360. 

The short deep jaws of this animal must have given it a very 
peculiar appearance, not unlike that of a parrot in outline. — E. D. 

A great deposit of Mud and Lava. — The Atlantic and Pacific 
R- R. traverses the Territory of New Mexico westward from the 
Rio Grande river, north of its center. For a great part of the 
distance between that river and the Arizona border, it passes over 
the plateau of the Sierra Madre, which chiefly consists in this 
region of mesas. The mountain ranges to the north are not in 
sight from the railroad, and those of the south are visible at a 
distance. The plateau is a large anticlinal one hundred miles in 
width, and consists of triassic and Jurassic beds. The - 



158 General Notes. [February, 

-formations are seen highly inclined, resting upon both the eastern 
and western flanks. The railroad engineers have availed them- 
selves of a line of drainage which cuts into the beds, forming a 
long valley extending east and west. Its water shed is about ten 
miles east of Fort Wingate,the streams on the one side flowing into 
the Atlantic, and on the other side into the Pacific oceans. They 
are called respectively the Puerco of the East and the Puerco of 
the West. Puerco means muddy, and the rivers are well named. 
The cliffs of jurrassic age on the north side of the valley are now a 
thousand feet in height near Fort Wingate, showing the enormous 
extent of the erosion. They consist everywhere of a soft red argilla- 
ceous, arenaceous rock, and includea layer of gypsum. This material 
is readily eroded by atmospheric agencies, and is carried down into 
the valley during each rainy season in enormous quantities. The 
lower levels for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles E. and W., 
and from ten to twenty miles N. and S. consist of a vast deposit 
of mud. Duringthe rainy season the streams are choked with it, 
and after the cessation of the rains, the borders of dried sheets of 
mud may be seen everywhere. Grass is buried up, but with many 
plants, in time, struggles through it. On the northern side of this 
valley, in the region of the extinct vent of San Mateo (Mt. Tavlor), 
a lava sheet covers the older mud deposit. It displays exactly 
the characteristics of the cooled lava of late eruptions of Mount 
Vesuvius. It lies in innumerable ropes and coils, and forms like 
heavy drapery, as though it had cooled but yesterday. In cooling 
it has cracked into huge cakes. Water has percolated through 
the fissures, and has, in some localities, removed a large part of 
the supporting mud bed. Of course a portion of the mud is left 
beneath the middle part of the block, forming a fulcrum. With 
advancing erosion below, the lava block tips up, and stands ob- 
liquely on its edge. Tracts of this kind form most forbidding 
regions, and are absolutely impenetrable to any but small ani- 
mals. Snakes appeared to be abundant in some localities passed 
by the train.— E. D. Cope. 

Invertebrate Fossils from the Lake Valley district, New 
MEXico.-Mr. S A. Miller, of Cincinnati, has identified the follow- 
ing fossils from the silver-bearing carboniferous limestone of Lake 
Valley, New Mexico: 

Strophomena rhomboidalis, Spin/era striata, S. novomchicana, 

n. sp., $ temeraria n. sp., Athyns lamellosa, A. planosulcata, Or- 

ta O. dalyana n. sp., u snmrcticu- 

'" .'/ ■ : '" .stulosa, R. tuta, n. sp., Plaivccras 

subca>s P ttosia„, Actin rinus dalyauns, n. sp. A \ L n %, A. 
hneatm r, n. sp., Nautilus ( Euomfh , n * Ca- 

maraphoria occidental^ n. sp., T- / n " sp F 7 tw0 

undetermined species of Bryozoa of the family Fenestellidse ; 
two. undetermined species of ZaphnttHs; a fragment of Ortho- 



1 882.] Geology and Paleontology. 159 

ceras ; two undetermined species of Platycerinus ; three undeter- 
mined species of Actinoceras. Mr. Miller remarks that the age of 
the rocks, if all the fossils are from one range, js that of the 
Upper Burlington or Lower Keokuk, but if of different elevations, 
they represent these two groups respectively. 

Some specimens are of interest as showing the nature of the 
process of deposit of silver in the limestone. A Zaphrentis and 
an ? Orihis in good preservation, are partially replaced by 
argentiferous iron, which retains their structual details. This 
shows clearly that the process is one of replacement of the lime- 
stone by a fluid holding the metals in solution, and not by injec- 
tion. This is also demonstrated by the undisturbed condition of 
the thin bedded limestone where traversed by veins of ore.— E. 
D. Cope. 

Insects of the Amyzon Shales of Colorado. — In the Bulle- 
tin of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories of Hayden, 
Mr. Scudder publishes a review of the geology and palaeontol- 
ogy of the above deposit. He observes: " The insects preserved 
in the Florissant basin are wonderfully numerous, this single 
locality having yielded in a single summer more than double the 
number of specimens which the famous localities at Oeningen, in 
Bavaria, furnished Heer in thirty years. 

" The examination of the immense series of specimens found 
at Florissant has not gone far enough to yield data sufficiently 
definite for generalizations of any value, or which might not be 
altered, or even reversed, on further study. It may, nevertheless, 
be interesting to give a running note of what has been observed 
in assorting the collection, and to make the single comparison 
with the Oeningen insect fauna which the number of individuals 
will furnish. 

"This is indicated by the following table, based on a rough 
count of the Florissant specimens, but which cannot be far 



a* ht. i a ::::::::::::::::::: 5 i # 



" The pla 
ceedingly n 

throu .i/th, 



160 General Notes. [February, 

published thirty-seven species in his Tertiary Flora, about two- 
fifths of which are considered identical with forms from the Euro- 
pean Tertiaries. "We have in all from ninety to a hundred spe- 
cies of plants recognized from these Florissant beds, of which half 
the species belong to the apetalous exogens. 

" The testimony of the few fishes to the climate of the time, is 
not unlike that of the plants, suggesting a climate, as Professor 
Cope informs me, like that at present found in latitude 35 ° in the 
United States ; while the insects, from which, when they are com- 
pletely studied, we may certainly draw more definite conclusions, 
appear from their general ensemble to prove a somewhat warmer 
climate. White ants are essentially a tropical family, only one or 
two out of eighty known species occurring north of latitude 
40 . In North America only three have been recorded north 
of the border of the Gulf of Mexico, excepting on the 
Pacific coast, where one or two more extend as far as San 
Francisco. Two species, both belonging to the second sec- 
tion, are found in the valleys below Florissant, in 39 north lati- 
tude. Florissant itself is situated 2500 meters above the sea, and 
the presence of so considerable a number of white ants embedded 
in its shales, is indicative of a much warmer climate at the time 
of their entombment than the locality now enjoys. Investigation 
of other forms increases the weight of this evidence at every 
step, for nearly all the species (very few, certainly, as yet) which 
have been carefully studied, are found to be tropical or sub-tropi- 
cal in nature. As, however, most of those studied have been 
selected for some striking feature, too much weight should not be 
given to this evidence." 

This subject will be discussed in a forthcoming volume of the 
Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories of Dr. 
Hayden. The illustrations of this work which we have seen are 
of unusual excellence. 

The Future of Geology. — Professor Ramsey, in his address 
before the British Association, said that in the British Islands the 
art of geological surveying has, he believed, been carried out in a 
more detailed manner than in any other country in Europe, a mat- 
ter which has been rendered comparatively easy by the excellence 
of the Ordnance Survey maps both on the i-inch and the 6-inch 
scales. When the whole country has been mapped geologically 
little will remain to be done in geological surveying, excepting 
corrections here and there, especially in the earliest published 
maps of the Southwest of England. Palaeontological detail 
may, however, be carried to any extent, and much remains to be 
done in miscroscopic petrology which now deservedly occupies 
the attention of many skilled observers. 

It is difficult to deal with the future of geology. Probably in 
many of the European formations more may be done in tracing 
the details of subformations. The same may be said of much of 



1 8 82.] Mineralogy. 1 6 1 

North America, and for a long series of years a great deal must 
remain almost untouched in Asia, Africa, South America, and in 
the islands of the Pacific ocean. If, in the far future, the day 
should come when such work shall be undertaken, the process of 
doing so must necessarily be slow, partly for want of proper maps, 
and possibly in some regions partly for the want of trained geolo- 
gists. Palaeontologists must always have ample work in the dis- 
covery and description of new fossils, marine, fresh-water, and truly 
terrestial ; and besides common stratigraphical geology, geologists 
have still an ample field before them in working out many of 
those physical problems which form the true basis of physical 
geography in every region of the earth. Of the history of the 
earth there is a long past, the early chapters of which seem to be 
lost forever, and we know little of the future except that it appears 
that " the stir of this dim spot which men call earth," as far as 
geology is concerned, shows " no sign of an end." 



Phytocollite, a new mineral from Scranton, Pa. — This name 
has been given 2 to a very curious, jelly-like mineral recently found 
near the bottom of a peat bog at Scranton, Pa. An excavation 
for a new court-house had cut through a peat bog, below which 
was a deposit of glacial till. Near the bottom of the bog, in a 
carbonaceous mud, or " swamp muck," there occur irregular veins, 
of varying thickness and inclination filled with a black, homo- 
geneous jelly-like substance, elastic to the touch. This substance 
becomes tougher on exposure to the air, and finally becomes as 
hard as coal. When thus dried, it is brittle, has a conchoidal 
fracture and brilliant lustre, and closely resembles jet. It is nearly 
insoluble in alcohol and ether, but is entirely soluble in caustic 
potash, forming a deep reddish-brown solution, from whence it 
can be again precipitated on the addition of an acid. It has a 
specific gravity of 1.032 and burns with a bright flame. After 
naving been dried at 21 2°, it has the follow " 
cording to the analysis of J. M. Stinson : 



56.^83 



yielding the empirical formula C 10 H^ O w . 

In its mode of occurrence and in general appearance, tl 
stance closely resembles Dopplerite, but differs from that 1 

l Edited by Professor Henry Carvill Lkw is, Ac a lemy of Natural Sen nc 
2 II. C. Lewis, Pro \mci Phihi S . Dec. 2, iSSl. 



1 62 General Notes. [February, 

in burning with flame and in its composition. Another jelly-like 
substance from a Swiss peat bog, differing both from Dopplerite 
and from the Scranton mineral has been described by Diecke. 

It is now proposed to group all these jelly-like minerals, pro- 
duced by the decomposition of vegetable matter, under the one 
generic name of Phytocollite {<por6v, xoila = " plant-jelly ") of 
ie three minerals now known would be varieties. 

Special interest is attached to these substances, in that they 
illustrate the first step in the transformation of peat into coal. 

Cossyrite. — Forstner 1 has given this name to a hornblendic 
mineral which abounds in the igneous rocks of the Lipari islands. 
It occurs in triclinic crystals closely approaching monoclinic 
forms. It has an easy cleavage in two directions, the included 
angle being 65 51'. Spec. grav. 3.75. It has the following 

SiO» Fe'O 3 APO 3 FeO MnO CuO CaO MgO Na»C> K 2 

43-55 7-97 4-96 32-87 1-98 .39 2.01 .86 5.29 .33 

Before the blowpipe it melts readily to a brownish-black glassy 

slag. It is partially decomposed by acids. It appears to be a 

variety of iron amphibole. 

Alaskaite.— A new sulphide of bismuth and lead from Alaska 
mine, Colorado, has been described by Dr. G. A. Konig. 2 It 
occurs as a pale lead-gray mineral of scaly structure and metallic 
lustre, which forms a more or less intimate mixture with quartz, 
barite, chalcopyrite, etc. It is soft, and has a spec. grav. of 6.878. 
In the closed tube it decrepitates and fuses. On charcoal gives 
characteristic coatings. It is soluble in sulphuric acid. It has 
the following composition : 

Bi Vb Ag Cu Fe Zn S Ba 

51.35 17.51 3. 5.38 1.43 .20 17.85 2.83 

The formula given is (Pb, Zn, Ag 2 , Cu 2 ) S 4- (Bi Sb) 2 S 3 . 

Pseudomorphs of Copper after Aragonite. — Domeyko has 
described some interesting cases of pseudomorphism of copper 
after aragonite observed in some Bolivian mines. He found 
hemitropic crystals of aragonite presenting all degrees of trans- 
formation into metallic copper, and showing every transition from 
crystals of pure aragonite to those of pure copper. 



Jacques and Cu . that by the 



,"93. Comp. Rend., i88r. 



1 882.] Mineralogy 163 

caoutchouc, the tin foil being connected to a galvanometer. By 
now compressing the crystal in a vise or otherwise, electricity is 
developed and may be measured by the galvanometer. The 
electricity developed is the opposite of that produced by heating 
a crystal, — that is to say, the extremity of the crystal which be- 
comes positive on heating, becomes negative on compression. 
On releasing the pressure, electricity of an opposite kind is pro- 
duced. The authors find that the production of electricity by 
pressure can only be obtained with hemihedral crystals having 
inclined faces. By combining a number of such crystals in a pile, 
they have invented a new apparatus for producing electricity. The 
amount of electricity developed varies for different minerals. 
They find, for example, that a section of quartz, cut perpendicular 
to the main axis, evolves more electricity than a similar section of 

Note on Gold. — There is a simple method for the detection of 
gold in quartz, pyrite, etc., which is not generally described in 
the mineralogical text-books. It is an adaptation of the well- 
known amalgamation process, and serves to detect very minute 
traces of gold. 

Place the finely powdered and roasted mineral in a rest tube, 
add water and a single drop of mercury ; close the test tube with 
the thumb and shake thoroughly and for some time. Decant the 
water, add more and decant repeatedly, thus washing the drop of 
mercury until it is perfectly clean. The drop of mercury contains 
any gold that may have been present. It is therefore placed in a 
small porcelain capsule and heated until the mercury is volatilized 
and the residue of gold is left in the bottom of the capsule. This 
residue may be tested either by dissolving in aqua regia and ob- 
taining the purple of Cassius with protochloride of tin, or by taking 
up with a fragment of moist filter paper, and then fusing to a 
globule on charcoal in the blowpipe flame. 

It is being shown that gold is much more universally distributed 
than was formerly supposed. It has recently been found in Ful- 
ton and Saratoga' counties. New York, where it occurs in pyrite. 
It has also been discovered in the gravel of Chester creek, at 
Lenni, Delaware county, Penna. In one of the Virginia gold 
mines wonderful richness is reported. $ 160,000 worth of pure 
gold having been taken from a space of three square feet 

A New Textbook of Mineralogy.— The mineralogists of 

.. " -"^ ":':-■ "■' ":; :"^ ^ ' 

tion of the physical, optical 'and crvstallographie characters ot 
minerals, and of the various delicate mean^ of investigation at 
the command of modern mineralogists. Under the head of 
Physical mineralogy an account is given of the latest discoveries 



1 64 General Notes. [February, 

in elasticity and cohesion. Among the optical characters of 
minerals described are double refraction, phenomena of thin 
plates, interference figures, optic axial divergence and method of 
measurement, determination of the plane of polarization, circular 
polarization, pleochrism, theoretical explanation of the characters 
of uniaxial and biaxial crystals, etc. 

It is to be hoped that this work may be translated into English 
for the benefit of the many students who feel the need of some 
such advanced textbook. 

Mineralogical News. — It is stated that Mt. Mica, Maine, 
has been purchased by a mining company and is being worked 
for tourmaline, cassiterite and mica. This locality has yielded 
a large number of interesting minerals, and has been especially 

famous for its beautifully colored tourmalines. Monazite has 

been found as minute tubular crystals, less than a millimeter in 
diameter, at Nil St. Vincent, near Brussels. It occurs in a crystal- 
line schist associated with rutile, tourmaline and zircon. The 

great beds of nitrate of soda which occur in the desert of Atacama, 
Chili, have been derived from the decomposition of underlying fel- 
spathic rocks. Vasite is an altered orthite found near Stock- 
holm. It has been proved that the jade or nephrite of Siberia, 

like that of China, is a compact variety of tremolite. An 

excellent method of separating from one another the minerals 
composing a rock, is to immerse the crushed rock in a very 
dense liquid of known specific gravity. The specific gravity 
of most of the minerals constituting rocks being between 2.2 
and 3, it results that by preparing a liquid whose density may 
be made to vary between those limits, the minerals may be readily 
separated. Such a liquid is a solution of iodide of mercury in 
iodide of potassium. A solution of borotungstate of sodium may 
also be employed, the latter having a specifie gravity of about 3. 

Native lead has been found in Idaho. Fahlunite occurs at 

McKinney's Quarry, Germantown, Penna. Vermiculite occurs 

in Japan. It is in short six sided prisms of a brownish color. 
When thrown upon hot charcoal, it expands longitudinally to 
many times its original length, twisting and writhing like a 
serpent, and is shown to passing travelers as a local wonder. It 
is also used as a medicine. In many of its characters it is similar 

to the variety known as Philadelphite. Out of 200 columns of 

Basalt from the Giants Causeway, recently measured, there were 
tetragons 3 per cent., pentagons 25 per cent., hexagons 50 per cent., 
heptagons 1 9 per cent., octagons 2 per cent. Microscopic investi- 
gations have revealed frequent impurities in the diamond. Organic 
matter, carbon and bubbles of gas are common impurities. Quartz, 
chlorite, pyrite and hematite have recently been found inclosed in 
diamonds. Small crystals of topaz have also been seen within 

diamonds. Cossa has shown that all apatite contains phosphate 

of cerium, lanthanum and didymium united with phosphate of 



1 882.] Geography and Travels. 165 

lime, and that there is no such mineral as cryptolite. The rare 
earths were recognized by means of spectral analysis and are 
present in all apatite. Their presence in the Canadian apatite has 
also been proved by chemical analysis. 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 1 

The Jeannette and the Search Expeditions. — A portion of 
the crew of the Jeannette arrived in two boats at the mouth of 
the Lena about the 17th of September last. They report that 
their vessel was crushed in the ice on June 23, 188 1, in N. lat. 
77° 15' E. long. 1 5 7 , about one hundred and fifty miles north- 
east of the New Siberian Islands. It appears that the Jeannette 
was caught in the pack on October 1, 1879, and drifted with the 
winds and currents up to the time she was abandoned. 

From the ReDort of Captain C. L. Hooper we learn that the 
U. S. revenue steamer CorwU? sailed from St. Michaels on July 
9th 1 88 1. She reached Herald Island on July 30th, and, a land- 
ing being effected, a thorough exploration of the island was made. 
The cliffs which render it almost inaccessible are about 1200 feet 
high. After much difficulty with the ice Capt. Hooper succeeded 
in reaching Wrangell Land, off the mouth of a river. The land- 
ing was made at about the locality where the supposed Plover 
Island has generally been designated on the maps and is in 
latitude 71 ° 4' N. and longitude 177° 4©' W. and is the most 
eastern part of Wrangell Land. It is forty-five miles from Herald 
Island and in clear weather is in plain sight from it. Wrangell 
Land was taken possession of in the name of the United States 
and re-named " New Columbia." No snow was found in the 
lowlands or hills though remains of very heavy drifts were ob- 
served on the distant mountain?. The river was named Clark ; 
it was seventy-five yardfc broad and twelve feet deep. The party 
proceeded four miles inland and from a high hill traced the course 
of the river northwards for about forty miles. Over twenty species 
of Arctic plants were found in bloom. Capt. Hooper believes 
that the sea between Herald Island and Wrangell Land is almost 
always closed ; the water is shallow and solid ice appears to re- 
main constantly frozen to the bottom. The Convin next visited 
Point Barrow which was found to be clear of ice. She arrived at 
Plover Bay on August 4 th, finding the Golden Fleece there. After 
an unsuccessful attempt to revisit Herald Island and Wrangel 
Land the Convin left the Arctic Sea on September 14th, and 
reached San Francisco on the 22d of October. 

The U. S. steamer Rodgers reached Plover Bay about August 
Hth and arrived at Herald Island on August 24th, where a 
landing was made. The south coast of Wrangell Land was 
reached after passing throught about twelve miles of loose ice on 






t Thom.i< Coins 



1 66 General Notes. [February, 

August 25th. The next day a good harbor was found and ex- 
ploring parties were sent out to examine the interior and the 
coast line. A mountain about 2500 feet high was ascended. 
Open water was seen in all directions except between the west 
and south-south-west, in which quarter a high range of mountains 
seemed to terminate the land. Two parties were sent out in boats, 
of which one followed the eastern and the northern shores until 
stopped by ice when the boat had to be abandoned and a return 
made on the land, while the other boat took the western shore 
along which it passed until stopped by the same ice, after passing 
the most northern point of Wrangell Land, where the position of 
the other party could be seen. Wrangell Land is thus shown to 
be an island about sixty miles in length. At the northern end 
there is a current running to the north-west at about six knots an 
hour. The Rodgers anchorage was in N. lat. 70 57' W. long. 
1/8° io'. It is situated to the south and west of Capt. Hooper's 
landing place at the mouth of Clark River. The Rodgers afterwards 
reached N. lat. 73 44' W. long. 17 1° 48' on September 19th. 
She expected to winter in St. Lawrence Bay. 

The U. S. steamer Alliance reached lat. 79 36', in the neigh- 
borhood of Spitzbergen, in September last. Captain VVadleigh 
found the ice extending far to the eastward and southward of the 
ordinary limit, and it was also much heavier. The Norwegian 
walrus hunters, who ordinarily go to Hinlopen Straits and even 
further on the north coast of Spitzbergen, did not this season get 
as far to the north and east as the Alliance. Wyde Jan's Water 
on the south-east was full of ice, which extended from Hope 
Island nearly to Cape Petermann, Novaya Zemlya. Captain 
Wadleigh says that the southerly position of the ice is accounted 
for by the last very severe winter, and the fact that during July 
and August the usual southerly winds did not prevail and force 
the ice northwards. Captain David Gray confirms this report in 
a letter given in the Royal Geographical Society's Proceedings, in 
which he states that the ice for the past two years has been 
almost stationary, notwithstanding that strong northerly winds 
prevailed. " The absence," he writes, " of southerly drift can only 
be accounted for by the lanes of water making amongst the floes 
being immediately frozen up again with the severe frosts, keeping 
the ice fixed together, and preventing any large waters being 
made to force the ice south. The ice has not diminished during 
the last two summers so fist as usual owing to the frosts covering 
the lanes and pools of water with bay ice, preventing the wash 
of the water from cutting into it and washing it away. Close ice 
melts very slowly; open ice soon disappears." 

The Lady Franklin Bay Expedition made the most rapid pas- 
sage through Melville Bay ever recorded and reached their des- 
tination one month after leaving St. John's, N. F. They stopped 
to take aboard natives, furs and dogs at Godhaven, Rittenbank, 



1 882.] Geography and Travels. 167 

Uppernavik and Proven. Dr. 0. Pavy joined the company at 
Godhaven. They sailed from Uppernavik through the middle 
passage to Cape York in thirty-six hours, and, though delayed by 
a fog for thirty-two hours, were only six days and two hours in 
reaching Lady Franklin Bay. They stopped at Cary Island and 
visited the depot of provisions placed there by Captain Nares in 
1875. They also visited Littleton Island, where they found the 
English Arctic mail, left by the Pandora in 1876; and the Polaris 
quarters at Life-boat Cove, where they discovered many relics, 
including the transit instrument belonging to that unfortunate 
company. They also stopped at Washington Irving Island and 
Cape Hawks to inspect depots established by Nares, and landed 
supplies at Carl Ritter Bay. No heavy ice was met until inside 
of Cape Lieber, eight miles from their destination. They entered 
Discovery Harbor on August nth, and when the Proteus left 
Lieutenant Greely had got the house erected and partly framed 
and three months' rations of musk cattle secured. About 140 
tons of coal were landed from the Pro/ens. The Proteus reached 
St. John's on her return voyage on September 19th. 

The Point Barrow party also safely reached their station early 
in September. The Golden Fleece returned to San Francisco on 
November 5th. The station is five miles from Point Barrow and 
is called Ooglalamie. The observatory was completed when the 
Golden FUece left on September 17th and the main building 
begun. Early in the spring Lieut. Ray hopes to explore the 
valley of the Coppermine and afterwards visit Kotzebue Sound 
where a vessel is to be sent with supplies. 

Arctic Exploration. — In a paper read by Professor George 
Davidson before the Geographical Society of the Pacific, Plover 
Island was described as a low pyramidal rock extending as a cape 
from the east end of Wrangell Land and connected by a low neck 
of swampy land covered with grass. 

The Russian expedition to the mouth of !he Lena, to establish 
one of the stations agreed upon by the International Polar Con- 
ference, will go bv rail to Nishni Novgorod, thence by sleigh to 
Perm, by rail to Yekaterineburg, by sleigh to Irkutsk where they 
are expected to arrive in January and stay until May, to complete 
their preparations. They will descend the Lena on a barge. 
Owing to a lack of funds the second Russian station in Novaya 
Zemlya will not be established at present. 

In a recent work " Die Temperatur Verhaltnisse des Russi- 
schen Reichs " by Professor Wild of St. Petersburg, the Siberian 
Pole of cold in winter is transferred from the neighborhood of 
Yakutsk to a point somewhat further north, King in the Arctic 
circle about E. long. 125 . At this center of maximum cold 
round which the isotherms lie in fairly regular ovals, the mean 
temperature in January sinks as low as — 54° F., the mean tem- 
perature at Yakutsk being 1 1° higher. 



1 68 General Notes. [February, 

The Athenaum states that "Captain J. W. Fisher, of the 
American whaler Legal Tender , reached San Francisco at the end 
of September from Point Barrow, and he reports that in August 
the ice barrier was over twenty miles north of the point, and was 
every day moving further northward. The steam whaler Bel- 
videre had gone much further to the east than the rest of the 
whaling fleet in an endeavour to reach the Mackenzie River, about 
450 miles east of Point Barrow. On her outward voyage the 
Legal Tender had on board Drs. Arthur and Aurel Krause, who 
had been sent out by the Bremen Geographical Society to under- 
take a journey in the coast districts and islands of Behring Strait 
and Sea, partly for the purpose of investigating the ethnology 
and marine zoology of Alaska. Capf. Fisher landed them at St. 
Lawrence Bay where they were to spend a fortnight, and then 
proceed to East Cape and the Diomede Islands. On returning to 
St. Lawrence Bay they proposed to work their way down the 
Siberian coast to Plover Bay. Capt. Fisher states that Mr. W. 
H. Dall, of the U. S. Coast Survey, has made a great mistake in 
his reports respecting the current in Bering Strait. During the 
whole summer a strong current sets northward through the strait 
and it is only in September or October that northerly winds affect 
it. Mr. Dall's observations, he says, extended only over a few 
days and were made in an eddy current under the lee of the 
Diomede Islands. Capt. Fisher further reports that off Point 
Barrow a current of three or four knots an hour sets regularly 
along the land to the north-east, but it does not extend for fifty 
miles off the shore." 

Geographical Notes. — A committee of the Royal Society con- 
sisting of Sir George Airy, Professor J. Adams and Professor 
Stokes, appointed to consider what " might yet be required in 
order to render the pendulum operations, which have been carried 
out in connection with the great trigonometrical survey of India, 
reasonably complete as an important contribution towards the 
determination of gravity all over the earth," have reported that it 
is desirable that "the Indian group of stations, which have already 
been connected with Kew, should be differentially connected with 
at least one chain of stations which are so connected with one 
another, and which have been employed in the determination of the 
figure of the earth." They refer to the suggestion made by 
Professor Peirce of the U. S. Coast Survey, that the same two 
pendulums that were swung in India should be used first at Kew 
and then at Washington. They say — "As Washington is, or 
shortly will be, connected differentially with a large chain of 
stations widely distributed in America and elsewhere, we think 
that the value of the Indian series would be decidedly increased 
by being connected with one of the American stations, such as 

Washington." It appears that as early as the sixteenth century 

plans had been formed by the Spanish for canals in Central 



1 882.] Microscopy. 169 

America between the two seas. A canal via the lake of Nicaragua 
was projected in 1548. Other explorations were made, for this 
purpose, in the Isthmus of Tehauntepec and the Isthmus of 
Panama. M. Alphonse Milne Edwards has recently been mak- 
ing investigations in the waters of the Mediterranean. During 
the seventy days ne was so engaged the greatest depth reached 
by sounding and dredging was 2600 metres. The bottom was 
found not devoid of living beings, species of low organization being 
found between depths of 1068 and 2600 metres. At an average 
depth of 250 metres the temperature was constant at 13 Cent. 
This explains the small development of life in the depths of that 
sea, the muddy bottom and the absence of rocks being also un- 
favorable to germination. The report also confirms the belief that 

the Mediterranean is a sea of recent formation. The English 

missionary Mr. Pearson has recently returned home from Uganda 
with a large amount of information concerning the country and 
the Victoria Nyanza. He has surveyed the western shore of the 
lake, taken many observations, and left a careful meteorological 
journal. He speaks highly of the general accuracy of Mr. Stan- 
ley's work and found that nearly all his latitudes were correct. 

■ The reinforcement of laborers for Mr. Stanley, numbering 

135. left Zanzibar for the Congo on October 20th. The Belgian 
Association has abandoned its proposed expedition to Nyangvve 
which was to have effected a junction with Mr. Stanley on the 

lower Congo. Petermann's Mittheilungen for November last 

contains a valuable paper by Ernest Marno on the Grass Barriers 
of the Nile. 

MICROSCOPY. 1 
A Hollow Glass Sphere as a Condenser for Microscopic 
Illumination. — A glass globe filled with water has long been 
employed by watchmakers and engravers for the purpose of con- 
densing the light upon their work'; it was also used by some of 
the early microscopists. Ledermiiller, in his " Mikroskopische 
Gemiith-und-Augen-Ergozung " (Microscopic Mind-and-eye-de- 
lights) 1763, gives a representation of his lamp and condenser; 
the latter is a globe without foot or neck, and is supported on the 
top of a square brass rod by six claws, the lamp being supported 
in the same way, both of them sliding into square holes at the 
opposite ends of a brass arm fixed on a stand. In the " Micro- 
graphia," Hooke gives a figure of his microscope and accessories, 
amongst them is a globe condensing the light on the stage of the 
instrument. This form of condenser was probably used by many 
of the old microscopists, but it appears soon to have fallen into 
disuse, as it is not mentioned by Adams in his " Micrographia 
Illustrata," 1771, or in his " Essays on the Microscope," 17S7. 
Possibly the opticians of the period did not care to introduce so 

This department is edited by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. Y. 



I jo General Notes. [February, 



simple and inexpensive a contrivance to their patrons (mine cost 
one and eightpence). 

I had looked upon the " globe condenser " as one of the relics 
of the past, and not worthy of resuscitation, until a short time 
ago when watching an artist engraving some fine shading on 
wood. I was struck with the sharpness and definition of the en- 
graved lines (about ■& inch apart). It at once occurred to me 
that this kind of illumination would suit the microscope. I there- 
fore borrowed it and tried it first with a }£ objective (a Ross 75 °) 
upon Pleurosig sing oblique light from the mir- 

ror; the striae came out very distinctly. I then removed the 
globe, and the striae vanished and required a more oblique ray to 
render them again visible. I next tried it on Synedra robusta, 
and resolved the striae into beads ; this I had not been able to do 
before with this objective. I next tried it with low powers ( 1 }i 
in., 1 in. and 2 / z objectives). I first used the f$, but forgot to 
alter the previous position of the mirror, and consequently ob- 
tained a " black field ;" the object I had placed upon the stage 
was Haliomma humboldtii ; I was surprised at the beautiful effect 
upon that form. It appeared as though illuminated by intense 
moonlight with a slight green tinge, and delightfully cool to the 
eye. I have since purchased a smaller globe (six inches in diam- 
eter) than the one I tried; the liquid with which it is filled is a 
dilute solution of sulphate of copper (about J / z ounce of saturated 
solution to one pint of water). The mixture must be filtered if 
ordinary water is used, the intensity of color is, however, some- 
what a matter of taste. The distance of the globe from the 
lamp should be about two or three inches ; from the globe to the 
mirror about eight to twelve inches. As the height of the globe 
cannot be altered, the necessary adjustments must be made with 

f CC) the lamp, e. g., if the mirror is at A, the lamp flame 
< B B V must be at C ; if at C, the flame must be at A. I have 

( A A J just received a letter from a friend to whom I recom- 
mended the illumination, in which he writes: "I am delighted 
with the black ground illumination, which is certainly softer and 
the definition sharper than any I have tried before. Have you 
tried it with polarized light? I think you would be pleased with 
it, there is such great softness of tint and such impenetrable 
blackness of field when the prisms are crossed. — F. Kitton in Science 

Arrestation of Infusorial Life. — Three years ago I brought 
with me to the Alps a number of flasks charged with animal 
and vegetable infusions. The flasks had been boiled from three 
to five minutes in London, and hermetically sealed during ebul- 
lition. Two years ago I had sent to me to Switzerland a batch 
of similar flasks containing other infusions. On my arrival here 
this year 120 of these flasks lay upon the shelves in my little 
library. Though eminently putrescible, the animal and vegetable 



1 882.] Scientific News. 171 

juices had remained as sweet and clear as when they were prepared 
in London. * * * * I took advantage of the clear weather 
this year to investigate the action of solar light on the develop- 
ment of life in these infusions, being prompted thereto by the in- 
teresting observations brought before the Royal Society by Dr. 
Downs and Mr. Blunt, in 1877. The sealed ends of the flasks 
being broken off, they were infected in part by the water of an 
adjacent brook, and in part by an infusion well charged with or- 
ganisms. Hung up in rows upon a board, half of the flasks of 
each row were securely shaded from the sun, the other half being 
exposed to the light. In some cases, moreover, flasks were placed 
in a darkened room within the house, while their companions 
were exposed in the sunshine outside. The clear result of these 
experiments, of which a considerable number is made, is that 
by some constituent or constituents of the solar radiation an 
influence is exercised inimical to the development of the lowest 
infusoria. Twenty-four hours usually sufficed to cause the shaded 
flasks to pass from clearness to turbidity, while thrice this time 
left the exposed ones without sensible damage to their transpa- 
rency. This result is not due to mere differences of tempera- 
ture between the infusions. On many occasions the temperature 
of the exposed flasks was far more favorable to the develop- 
ment of life than that of the shaded ones. The energy which 
in the cases here referred to prevented putrefaction was energy 
in the radiant form. In no case have I found the flasks ster- 
ilized by insolation, for, on removing the exposed ones from the 
open air to a warm kitchen, they infallibly changed from clear- 
ness to turbidity. Four-and-twenty hours were in most cases 
sufficient to produce this change. Life is, therefore, prevented 
from developing itself in the infusions as long as they are ex- 
posed to the solar light, and the paralysis thus produced enables 
them to pass through the night tunc without alteration. It is, 
however, a suspension, not a destruction, of the germinal power, 
for, as before stated, when placed in a warm room, life was in- 
variably developed. * * * It would also be interesting to 
examine how far insolation may be employed in the preserva- 
tion of meat from putrefaction.— Professor Tyndall before British 
Association, 188 1. 

SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
— The Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer for i88r, 
show that this Bureau was never in more efficient order, nor 
doing more to promote scientific as well as purely practical 
interests. For example Gen. Hazen reports that he has endeavored 
to bring this service into active sympathy and cooperation with 
the ablest scientific intellects of the country. "In this direction 
and in response to my request, the Natural Academy of Sciences 
ha s appointed an advisory committee of consulting specialists 



172 Scientific News. [February, 

with which I may confer as occasion demands. I take pleasure 
in acknowledging this courtesy as showing the establishment of 
more intimate relations between the scientific interests of the 
United States and the Signal Service." 

A Scientific and Study Division, was established January 
27, 1 88 1, for the purpose of scientific research and investigation 
into the laws of meteorology. Connected with this division are 
consulting specialists, who are employed as occasion may require. 
To this division also are referred all questions relating to standard 
measurements, altitudes of signal stations, and the preparation of 
tables for the reduction and the conversion of meteorological 
observations. 

During the past year stations of observation on the habits and 
ravages of the Rocky Mountain locusts or grasshoppers, were 
established in those sections that the experience of past years has 
shown to be most exposed to the ravages of these pests. These 
stations were at Omaha, Grand Island, North Platte, and Sidney, 
Nebr. ; Cheyenne, W. T. ; Denver, Colorado Springs, and Pueblo, 
Col. ; Ft. Sill, Ind. T. ; Ft. Elliott and all other stations on the 
United States military telegraph lines in northern, central and 
southern Texas, and those on the Northwestern military telegraph 
line in Dakota, and Montana. Where civilians were employed in 
making the observations, their services were voluntary and without 
compensation, the government bearing the necessary expenses for 
stationery and telegraphing. 

It is gratifying to state that not a single report of the ravages 
of locusts has reached this office, and their presence has been 
announced only at Grand Island, Nebr. ; Ft. Supply, Ind. T., and 
Ft. Elliott, Texas, but in no instance has any danger been reported. 

— In continuance of the biological explorations made by the 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, M. Alexander Agassiz spent 
portions of last March and April at the Tortugas and Key West. 
On the days when the weather was not favorable for work in col- 
lecting surface animals, Mr. Agassiz cruised among the reefs and 
examined carefully the topography of the different groups of 
corals characteristic of the Florida reefs, with reference to the 
light they threw on the share the different species of coral have 
in the formation of the reef, and he has collected data from which 
he expects to construct a map, showing the position of the differ- 
ent species of corals within the area occupied by the reef-builders 
of the Tortugas. It was found that the members of the surface 
fauna of the Atlantic coast are inhabitants of the surface of the 
Gulf stream, which are driven on the northern shores by the pre- 
vailing southwesterly winds during the summer and autumn 
months. Much of this surface work during March and April re- 
minded him of similar work done at Newport from the end of July 
until late in September ; but, of course, the number of specimens 
was far greater at the Tortugas, The surface fauna of the Gulf 



1 882.] Scientific News. 173 

stream can undoubtedly be best studied at the Tortugas, though 
important additions to our knowledge of it have been made at 
Charleston, S. C, and at Beaufort, N. C, and along the coast of 
New Jersey, of Rhode Island, and of Southern Massachusetts. 
It is remarkable that the beautiful purple floating shell (Janthina), 
which is so common at the Tortugas, should not find its way 
further north than off Cape Hatteras, in common with other sur- 
face forms. There are also found at the Tortugas a large number 
of pelagic crustacese in their larval stages, among them Phyllosoma 
and the nauplius stage of a Peneus, similar to that observed by 
Fritz Miiller; also multitudes of young Annelids, Molluscs, 
Actiniae, the planulae of several of the corals, Echinoderm em- 
bryos, and a host of young pelagic fishes, among which he men- 
tions the young of the flying fish and Leptocephali. For the 
study of the young stages of fishes and of Acalephs the Florida 
reefs present an unrivaled field of observation, but the number 
of pelagic Foraminifera was unexpectedly small. 

— A work on the Gymnotus, or electric eel, was presented to 
the Paris Academy the other day by M. Du Bois-Reymond. It 
gives the results of recent researches in Venezuela by Dr. Sachs, 
who went out some five years ago, at the suggestion of the Berlin 
physiologist, to study the creature in its habitat. Dr. Sachs had 
not completed the working up of his material for publication 
when, unhappily, he losthis'life on a glacier in the Tyrol, in 1878. 
His work has been extended by M. Fritsch, with the aid of 
numerous specimens and preparations of the fish brought home. 
Among other things, M. Fritsch has succeeded in proving, with 
all but certainty, the development of the electric organs from 
striated muscles by metamorphosis. Various obscure points have 
been elucidated. 

— Mr. Alfred G. Lock, F. R. G. S., of 16 Charing Cross, Lon- 
don, England, is preparing a book on gold mining, in which he 
desires to describe every process and every machine of recognized 
value in use, both in alluvial and quartz mining. He wishes also 
to treat fully of the mineralogical associations and geographical 
occurrence of gold in all parts of the world, and to give maps 
showing the geographical position of all the gold fields known to 
exist, the strike of the reefs and the rivers whose lands are known 
to be gold bearing. The United States being the greatest gold 
producer and its gold savin- machinery being the most elaborate, 
he desires to give it the prominent position in the book which its 
importance demands. He desires therefore to procure all papers, 
reports, photographs, or other illustrations of the subject. In all 
cases the sources of his information will be fully acknowledged. 

— The Providence Lithograph Company are about to publish 
the Chautauqua Scientific Diagrams. Series No. 1, Geology, to be 
edited by Professor A. S. Packard, Jr. Price $6. The series will con- 
sist of ten chromo-lithographic charts, 33 23 inches. The sub- 



174 Proceedings of Scientific Societies. [February, 

jects are mostly restorations of Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, 
Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary fossil plants and animals. 
While the series is designed for popular audiences, they will be 
found useful in colleges and high schools. 

— Edward Wethered, F. G. S.. of Hillylands, Weston Park, 
Bath, England, has become sub-editor of the Geological Record, 
for America, and he asks the cooperation of all geologists by 
sending to his address all pamphlets or reports, connected directly 
or indirectly with the geology of this country. His connections 
will commence with the volume for 1879, and he says that a great 
effort will be made to bring it up to the present time. 

— Dr. John W. Draper, the eminent scientist, and author of Hu- 
man Physiology, a History of the Intellectual Development of 
Europe, the History of the Conflict between Religion and Sci- 
ence, numerous memoirs on chemical and physical subjects, and 
a History of the American Civil War, died at Hastings-on-the- 
Hudson, Jan. 4, aged 71. He was born in England, May 5, 181 1. 

— Professor Arch. Geikie, Director of the Geological Survey of 
Scotland, has just been appointed Director-General of the whole 
of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, and also Director of 
the Geological Museum, Jermyn street, London. He will there- 
fore resign his professorship in the University of Edinburgh and 
make his residence in London. 

— Dr. Chr. G. A. Giebel, an eminent geologist and author of a 
work on bird-lice and other insects, died at Halle, Nov. 14. Pro- 
fessor P. G. Lorentz, a well known German botanist, author of a 
work on mosses, died at Concepcion, in Uraguay, aged 46. 

— Robert Mallet, whose researches on earthquakes have made 
his name well known, died in London, Nov. 5, aged 71. His 
Earthquake Catalogue was completed, says Nature, with the aid 
of his son, now Professor J. W. Mallet, of Virginia. 

— Professor J. E. Hilgard, after a term of service of thirty- 
four years as assistant, has been appointed Superintendent of the 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey ; a most fitting appointment. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

California Academy of Sciences, Nov. 4. — The announce- 
ment of the generous gift of $20,000 by Charles Crocker, Esq., 
recorded in the December Naturalist, was made. 

A paper by Professor Davidson, on the Transit of Mercury, 
accompanied with drawings, was then read, and Dr. Robert E. C. 
Stearns read a paper on " The Botanical Relations of Physnvithus 
albens: the structure of its flowers and their peculiarities as an 
insect trap." He referred to this plant as related to groups which 
possess various important economical characters, furnishing 
peculiarly fertile fields for investigators of pharmaceutical and 
organic chemistry. Dr. Stearns then exhibited many beautiful 
specimens of these flowers, each one of which had entrapped an 



1 882.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 175 

insect or moth of some kind, which it held firmly by the proboscis . 
They are found in many gardens adjoining San Francisco, are 
hardy and of rapid growth, having a white, sweet-scented flower 
suitable for ornamental purposes. It came originally from Buenos 
Ayres and is popularly called a moth-trap. It is a species of 
milk-weed. This plant belongs to a group which is related to the 
ornamental phloxes, the parasitic dodders, one form of which is 
destructive to our alfalfa, as it winds its fatal thread and strangles 
the plant by preventing the upward flow of the sap. The bind- 
weeds are popularly known by the sweet potato, also by jalap, 
scammony and other medicinal plants. Other related groups in- 
clude tobacco, mandrake, potatoes, and egg-plant ; also the olive, 
the common lilac and flowering ash. In all plants of this group 
the sap is milky, acrid and bitter ; also contains more or less 
caoutchouc. The roots are diaphoretic, emetic or cathartic. The 
inner bark yields very strong and fine fiber. One form is known 
in Ceylon as the cow plant, and yields a palatable sap, which is 
used by Cingalese as milk. It is supposed that these plants are 
fertilized by insects, and the insects are caught by their probosces, 
between the wings of the anthers while seeking for the nectar. 
Other insects, such as ants, beetles, etc., are often found in the 
nectary of these flowers, but not as prisoners. The paper was 
elaborately illustrated by blackboard drawings. 

Dr. Behr and Dr. Gibbons then spoke in further explanation of 
insect traps, and Dr. Behr read a paper on " The Part Played by 
Hawk Moths in the Economy of Nature." 

Dr. Arthur Krause and Mr. Aurelius Krause, of the Bremen 
Geographical Society, who have just returned from explorations 
in Siberia, were present and promised to address the Academy at 
a future meeting. 

Mr. Dieckmann, of Nicolaeskfy, Amoor river, an entomologist, 
said tigers were very plenty on the shores of the Okhotsk sea, 
and were found throughout Siberia with white bears. They have 
hair five inches long, and are larger than Himalayan tigers. They 
prey on large herds of reindeer, and remain far north all winter, 
where snow is four feet deep, never migrating far south. They 
also eat wild boars. Natives believe the bear to be influenced by 
the Good God, and tigers by the Evil Spirit. Five natives fre- 
quently lasso and catch bears alive, but always kill the tigers. 
He then described the native ceremonies at a bear feast, some of 
which were quite laughable. 

The matter of some lectures on islands of the South Pacific, 
by Captain Augustus E. Bruno, was referred to the Council for 
action, many members desiring to hear from Captain Bruno before 
his departure East, to lectur - k lore the P< abo ly Institute, Boston 
Society of Natural History and other scientific societies. 

Mr. Brooks then made some rem. 11 ks, giv in • the I ite news from 
the Rodders, and illustrated her track with an outline of the Coast 
of Wrangell Island. 



176 Selected Articles in Scientific Serials. [Feb., 1882. 

New York Academy of Sciences, Dec. 12. — The following 
papers were read : Additional notes on the geology of Staten 
Island, by Mr. N. L. Britton. Remarks on the Mammoth cave 
of Kentucky, by Mr. W. Le Conte Stevens. 

Dec. 19. —The following papers were read : On a peculiar coal- 
like transformation of peat, recently discovered at Scranton, Penn., 
by Professor H. L. Fairchild. On the means of giving accuracy 
to ventilation by steam, by Professor W. P. Trowbridge. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Dec. 21,1 881. — Mr. John 
A. Jeffries spoke on the spurs and claws of birds' wings, and Mr. S. 
H. Scudder on Tertiary fossil spiders, especially those of Florissant. 

Jan. 4, 1882. — Professor E. S. Morse compared the shells of 
New England Kjokkenmoddings with the present forms of the 
same species, and Miss M. H. Hinckley showed some struc- 
tural differences between our native tadpoles and their bearing 
on the classification of the species. 

American Geographical Society, Dec. 21. — Mr. W. E. Griffis 
lectured on Corea, the hermit nation. 

Jan. 10. — Mr. T. By. Myers read a paper entitled, Our acquisi- 
tion of French territory west of the Mississippi, in 1803. 

SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

Bulletin of the U. S. Geological and Geographical Sur- 
vey of the Territories, Vol. vi, No. 2, Sept. 19, 1881. — Anno- 
tated list of the birds of Nevada, by W. J. Hoffman. North 
American moths, with a preliminary catalogue of species of Ha- 
dena and Polia, by A. R. Grote. The Tertiary lake basin of 
Florissant, Colorado, by S. H. Scudder. Revision of the genus 
Sciurus, by E. L. Trouessart. Osteology of the North American 
Tetraonidae, by R. W. Shufeldt. Osteology of Lanius ludovici- 
anus excubitorides, by R. W. Shufeldt. Review of the Rodentia 
of the Miocene period of North America, by E. D. Cope. On 
the Canidae of the Loup Fork Epoch, by E. D. Cope. On a 
crayfish from the Lower Tertiary beds of Western Wyoming, by 
A. S. Packard, Jr. 

American Journal of Science, Jan., 1882. — Contributions to 
meteorology : mean annual rainfall for different countries of the 
globe, by Elias Loomis (map). Post-glacial joints, by G. K. Gil- 
bert. The connection between the Cretaceous and the recent 
Echinid faunae, by A. Agassiz. Classification of the Dinosauria, 
by O. C. Marsh. 

Geological Magazine, Dec, 1881. — Contributions to fossil 
Crustacea, by H. Woodward. 

Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft, Nov. 25. — 
Free-cell formation in the embryo-sack of Angiosperms, by F. 
Soltwedel. On the so-called compass-plant, by E. Stahl. Sketch 
of a system of Radiolaria based on a study of the Challenger 
Radiolaria, by E. Haeckel. 




Fig. i.— Scene in the Bad I 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xvi. — MARCH, 1882. — No. 3. 

THE TERTIARY FORMATIONS OF THE CENTRAL 
REGION OF THE UNITED STATES. 

THE principal Tertiary formations of the region between the 
Mississippi river and the Sierra Nevada are the following, as 
mainly determined by Dr. Hayden : The Puerco, the Wasatch, the 
Bridger, the Uinta, the White River, the Truckee, the Loup Fork 
and the Equus beds. Several of these are again distinctly subdi- 
vided, and in a few instances such divisions have been regarded by 
authors as of equal importance with those above mentioned ; as, 
for instance, the Green River portion of the Wasatch. But the 
evidence of vertebrate palaeontology is not as yet clearly favor- 
able to further primary subdivision than is indicated by the above 
names. In the following pages I will briefly describe the charac- 
ter and distribution of these formations. 

The general history of the succession of the Tertiary lakes of 
the interior of the North American continent and their deposits 
has been developed by the labors of various geologists, promi- 
nent among whom must be mentioned Hayden, Newberry and 
King. It may be synoptically stated as follows : 

The Laramie Cretaceous period witnessed a great difference in 
the topography of the opposite sides of the Rocky Mountain 
range. To the east were extensive bodies of brackish and nearly 
fresh water, with limited ocean communication, studded with 
islands and bordered by forests. On the west side of the range 
was a broad continent, composed of mostly marine Mesozoic 
rocks, whose boundaries are not yet well ascertained. Towards 
the close of the Laramie, the bed of the great eastern sea began 
to emerge from the waters, and the continent of the western side 
of the great range descended. The relations of the two regions 



i;8 The Tertiary Formations of the [March, 

were reversed ; the east became the continent, and the west be- 
came the sea. The latter, receiving the drainage of the surround- 
ing lands, was a body of fresh water, whose connection with the 
ocean permitted the entrance of a few marine fishes only. This 
was the great Wasatch lake, whose deposits extend from the 
upper waters of the Yellowstone far south into New Mexico and 
Arizona, between the Rocky mountains on the east and the Wa- 
satch range on the west. Its absence from the east side of the 
former range indicates the continental condition of that area at 
the time. The only locality where the Wasatch deposits are 
extensively deposited on the Laramie, is in the region interme- 
diate between the two districts in Wyoming Territory. Here the 
sediments of the former are seen to have succeeded those of the 
latter, and to have been coincident with an entire cessation of brack- 
ish conditions. Elevations of the continent northward and south- 
ward contracted the area of the great Wasatch sea, and perhaps 
deepened it, for at this time were deposited the fine limestones 
and silico-calcareous shales of the Green River epoch. There is 
no evidence that these beds had a greater eastern extension than 
that of the parent Wasatch lake. King has given distinct names 
to these ancient lakes. I think it better to pursue the usual 
course of using for them the names already given to their depos- 
its, as involving less strain on the memory ; the more as the num- 
ber of these lakes is being increased by numerous new discoveries. 
The only known region which it covered west of the Wa- 
satch range, is represented to-day by the calcareous strata in Cen- 
tral Utah which I have called the Manti beds. The exact equiv- 
alency of these is, however, not quite certain. Further contrac- 
tion reduced this area to perhaps two lake basins, whose deposits 
now form two isolated tracts in Southern Wyoming, and are known 
as the Bridger formation. Continued elevation and drainage 
caused the desiccation of these basins also, leaving only, so far as 
present knowledge extends, a body of water on the south of the 
Uinta mountains, in Northeastern Utah. The sediments of this 
lake form the Uinta formation, which is the latest member of the 
series now found in the region lying between the Rocky and Wa- 
satch mountains. 

About the time that the elevation of the present drainage basin 
of the Colorado river was completed, a general subsidence of 
level of the great region east of the Rocky mountains com- 



1 882.] Central Region of the United States. 179 

menced. Extensive lakes were formed in the depressions of the 
Laramie and older beds which formed the surface, which were 
probably connected over a tract extending from near the Missouri 
river to Eastern Wyoming and Colorado. Near the same time a 
similar body of fresh water occupied a large part of what is now 
Central Oregon and certain areas in Northwestern Nevada, accord- 
ing to King. The sediments now deposited constitute the White 
River formation, and the faunal distinctions which I have discov- 
ered to characterize the eastern and western basins have led me 
to employ for them the subdivisional names of White River beds 
for the former and Truckee (King) for the latter. It may have 
been during the early part of this period, or during the Uinta, 
that there existed two contemporary bodies of water, separated 
by a wide interval of territory. One of these extended over a 
considerable tract in Northern Nevada, and deposited a coal bed 
near Osino. A formation probably the same, has been found by 
Professor Condon in Central Oregon, underlying the Truckee 
Miocene beds. The other lake left its sediments near Florissant, 
in the south park of Colorado. This formation I have named 
the Amyzon beds, 1 from a characteristic genus of fishes which is 
found in it. It has been referred to the Green River formation 
by King, but in contradiction to the present palaeontological evi- 
dence, as it appears to me. 

The oscillations of the surface which brought the White River 
period to a close, are not well understood. Suffice it to say here, 
that after an interval of time another series of lakes was formed, 
which have left their deposits at intervals over a wider extent of 
the continent than have those of any other epoch. These con- 
stitute the beds of the Loup Fork period, which are found at 
many points between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky moun- 
tains, from Oregon to New Mexico, and over parts of the Great 
Plains of Colorado, Kansas, and northward, and in the valleys of 
the Rocky mountains. King has shown that the beds of this 
epoch are slightly elevated to the westward, thus proving that 
the elevation of the Rocky mountains had not entirely ceased at 
that late day. A probably continuous succession of lakes has 
existed from this period to the present time in ever-diminishing 
numbers. The most important of these later lakes were in the 
Great basin in Oregon, in Washington and in Nebraska, and their 
'American NATURALiiT, May, 1879. 



deposits enclose the remains of a fauna entirely dis 




: from that 
•a r of the Loup Fork period and of 
| «* more modern character. They 
Jj are known as the Equus beds. 
••> J! This fauna was probably contem- 
| £ poraneous with that which roamed 
*£ through the forests of the eastern 
£| portion of the continent, whose 
|T. remains are inclosed in the depos- 
. B its of the caves excavated from 
S Jj the ancient limestones. 
p. g - A more detailed account of the 
g o formations is now given, with the 
| | names of a few of the character- 



THE PUERCO. 



Tbi 






fur- 



| S sils, is known to belong to the 
a £ Tertiary rather than the Post-cre- 
j: ~° taceous series. It is regarded by 
$t Dr. Endlich as a subdivision of 
| g the Wasatch, but the characteris- 
es .2 tics of its fauna are so marked as 
* $ to constitute it a distinct horizon. 
| a The most southern locality at 
| g which it has been observed, the 
1 * one from which I named it, and 
g"J where its characters are distinctly 
§| displayed, is west of the Jemez 
„ ^ and Nacimiento mountains, in 
Z - New Mexico, at the sources of the 
£ § Puerco river. At this place its 
* « outcrop is about 500 feet in thick- 
's I ness, and has an extent of several 
&'3 miles on both sides of the river. 
!i § From this point the strike is 
« I northward, keeping at the distance 
_5 * g of a few miles to the eastward of 
escarpment of the Wasatch formation. It contracts in depth to 




1 882.] 



Central Region of the United States. 



the northward, and it extends to 
the south-west, beyond the over- 
lying Wasatch beds. 

It is well developed in Southern 
Colorado, where Dr. F.« M. End- 
lich 1 and William H. Holmes, 2 of 
Dr. Hayden's Survey, detected it 
in 1876. Its mineral character is 
there similar to that seen in New 
Mexico, and its thickness is much 3 
greater. On the Animas river it c^ 
is 1000 to 1200 feet; on the San ^ 
Juan river, near the Great Hog | 
Back, 700 feet. The general char- § 
acters of the formation are ex- 2 
pressed in the following descrip- ? 
tion, extracted from my report to g" 
Lieut. G. M. Wheeler. 3 | 

" South of the boundary of the o 
Wasatch, the varied green and £ J 
gray marls formed the material of §■ f? 
the country, forming bad land 3 J 
tracts of considerable extent and ° | 
utter barrenness. They formed g, ? 
conical hills and flat meadows, in- 2 
tersected by deep arroyos, whose 3 
perpendicular walls constituted a 
great impediment to our progress. 
During the days of my examina- 
tion of the region, heavy showers 
of rain fell, filling the arroyos » 
with rushing torrents, and display- £ 
mg a peculiar character of this s 
marl when wet. It became slip- ^ 
pery, resembling soap in consist- 3 
ence, so that the hills were 
climbed with difficulty, and on 
the levels the horses' feet sank at 
every step. The material is so 
easily transported that the drain- 

1 Annual Report U. S. Geol. Surv. Terrs., 



!l 



fjs** 



The Tertiary Formations of i 



[March, 



— 



great depth, and the Puerco river be- 
comes the receptacle of great quan- 
tities of slimy looking mud. Its 
unctuous appearance resembles 
strongly soft soap, hence the name 
Puerco, greasy. These soft marls 
cover a belt of some miles in width, 
jj and continue at the foot of another 
g, line of sandstone bluffs, which 
* bound the immediate valley of the 
| Puerco to a point eighteen miles 
« below Nacimiento. 
S "The Puerco marls have their 
principal development at this local- 
ity. I examined them throughout 
the forty miles of cutcrop which I 
observed for fossil remains, but 
succeeded in finding nothing but 
fossil wood. This is abundant in 
the region of the Gallinas, and in- 
cludes silicified fragments of dicot- 
yledonous and palm trees. On the 
Puerco, portions of trunks and 
limbs are strewn on the hills and 
ravines, in some localities the mass 
of fragments indicating the place 
where some large tree had broken 
up. At one point east of the river 
I found the stump of a dicotyled- 
onous tree which measured five feet 
in diameter." 

The fauna of this formation is 
different from that of the other 
Eocenes in the presence of a sau- 
rian, Champsosaurus, which is char- 
acteristic of the Laramie Cretaceous, 
and a marsupial Mammal (Ptilodus) 
which is a remnant of a type only 
known otherwise from the Juras- 
sic. Its characteristic genera are 
Catathlczus, a many-toed hoofed 
animal, Psittacotherium, a gnawing 
Tillodont, and various flesh-eaters 
with primitive teeth. Coryphodon 



1 882.] Central Region of the United States. 183' 

THE WASATCH. 

In lithological character, the Wasatch consists of a mixed 
arenaceo-calcareous marl, alternating with beds of white or rusty 
sandstone. The more massive beds of sandstone are in New 
Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming, 'at the base of the formation. 
The marls readily weather into the fantastic forms and canon 
labyrinths of bad-land scenery. The marls often contain concre- 
tionary masses of a highly silicious limestone, which cover the 
banks and slopes of the bluffs with thousands of angular frag- 
ments. It is characteristic of this formation that the marls con- 
tain brightly colored, usually red strata ; and in many localities 
the colors are various, giving the escarpments a brilliantly banded 
appearance. 

Petrographically this formation has two divisions, the Wasatch 
proper and the Green River beds ; the latter name having some- 
times been given to the entire formation as well as the former. 

Of the few vertebrate fossils known from the Green River 
division, some are identical with those of the Wasatch, while at 
least one genus of fishes is common to the Bridger. 

The Wasatch beds proper are much more widely distributed 
than those of the Green River. They appear first in the south in 
Northwestern New Mexico, and extend thence into the adjacent 
parts of Colorado. They are exposed over extensive areas of 
Colorado west of the Rocky mountains, and reappear in South- 
western Wyoming. They extend along the western portion of 
the Green River valley, whose northern portion they entirely 
occupy. On the eastern side of the Wind River mountains it 
has, according to Hayden, an exposure of from one to five miles 
in width for a distance of one hundred miles, from the source of 
the Wind river to the Sweet Water river. North of this point it 
fills the extensive basin of the Big Horn river to the borders of 
Montana. It does not occur east of the Rocky Mountain range. 
The thicknesses given by geologists are the following : 

Northwestern New Mexico (Cope). 

Red striped marls 15°° 

Reddish-brown sandstone 1000 



Rio San Juan, Colorado (Hoi 

Coarse yellowish sandstones, alternating with \ 

White and Yampa Reservations (Endlic 

Chiefly yellow and reddish sandstones, alternatii 



The Tertiary Formations of the [March, 

Bear River, Wyoming (Hayden). 



Variegated r 



The Green River division of the Wasatch is much less exten- 
sively distributed than the Wasatch proper. Its exposures are 
confined to the valley of Green river, particularly the regions be- 
tween its affluents both north and south of the Uinta mountains. 
In the Bridger basin it forms a wide rim around the Bridger 
formation, and is especially developed on Fontanelle creek and on 
Bitter creek, and the region to the south of it. I here found its 
thickness to be 1200 feet. 1 Farther south, in Western Colorado 
near the Yampa river, Dr. White gives its depth at 1400 feet. 2 
South of this, in Western Colorado, Dr. A. C. Peale 3 gives the 
united thickness of this formation and the Wasatch at 7670 feet ; 
but how much of this is to be referred to the Green River proper 
we are not informed. It does not appear to exist on the San 
Juan, according to Endlich and Holmes, and I did not find it in 
New Mexico. 

According to King, the deposits of the Green River formation 
rest unconformably on those of the Wasatch. 4 He also believes 
that it has a considerable extent west of the Wasatch mountains, 
over parts of Utah and Nevada. I have shown that the 
palaeontological evidence is opposed to the identification of 
these " Amyzon " beds with the Green River, and that they 
are probably of later origin. There is, however, a series of 
calcareous and silico-calcareous beds in Central Utah, in 
Sevier and San Pete counties, which contain the remains of differ- 
ent species of vertebrates from those which have been derived 
from either the Green River or Amyzon beds. These are Croco- 
dilns sp., Clastes sp., and a fish provisionally referred to Priscacara 
under the name of P. testudinaria. There is nothing to deter- 
mine to which of the Eocenes this formations should be referred, 

Annual Report U. S. Geol. Surv., 1873, PP- 436. 437. 
2 Annual Report U. S. Geol. Surv.. 1876, p. 36. 
'Annual Report, 1874, p. 156. 



1 882.] Central Region of the United States. 185 

but it is tolerably certain that it is to be distinguished from the 




1 86 The Tertiary Formations of the [March, 

Amyzon beds. In its petrographic characters it is most like the 

The writer first referred the Wasatch to the Eocene division of 
the Tertiary, it having been previously regarded as Miocene. 
(Proceedings American Philosophical Society, February, 1872.) 

The vertebrate fauna of the Wasatch is rich, and presents many 
peculiarities. Prominent among these is the presence of the 
strange Coryphodontidce, which reached a great development at 
this time. Also the Phenacodontidce, and the genus Hyraco- 
therium. These are the ancestral types of the hoofed mammals, 
and they were associated with numerous flesh-eaters of partly 
marsupial character. It is nearly identical with that of the 
Suessonian of Western Europe, which is at the base of the Eo- 
cene series. The fullest account of it is that which I have given 
in the Report of Captain Wheeler of Explorations and Sur- 
veys west of the 100th meridian, Vol. iv. 



" This is one of the more important of the groups among those 
that, in Western North America, are referred to the Tertiary 
period, especially as regards the vertebrate remains that have 
been obtained from its strata. It is most fully and characteristi- 
cally developed in the region known as the Green River basin, 
north of the Uinta mountains, only the south-eastern portion of 
the formation, so far as is now known, extending into North- 
western Colorado. In its typical localities it is found resting con- 
formably upon the Green River group, into which it passes with- 
out a distinct plane of demarkation among the strata. 

" Its molluscan fossil remains correspond closely with those of 
the Green River group, some of the species being common to 
both, all indicating a purely fresh condition of the waters in which 
the strata of both groups were deposited. At the typical locali- 
ties the group is composed in great part of soft, variegated, bad- 
land sandstones, a peculiar greenish color often predominating 
over the others, which are reddish, purple, bluish and gray. 
Limestone strata, marly and clayey beds, and cherty layers are 
not uncommon, and grits and gravelly layers sometimes occur." 

To the above general remarks of Dr. C. A. White I add, that 
the material of this formation consists of indurated clays more or 
less arenaceous, which display various degrees of hardness. The 
harder beds are, however, thin, and the intervening strata yield 
readily to meteoric influences. They are frequently quite arena- 

1 See American Naturalist, April, 1880. 



1 882.] Central Region of the United States. 187 

ceous, and rather thin beds of conglomerate are not uncommon. 
The colors that predominate are greenish-gray and brownish- 
green, with frequent ash-colored beds. The peculiar condition of 
hardness of most of the strata, render it one of the formations 
which most generally present the bad-land scenery ; it permits 
the erosive action of the elements without general breaking 
down, great numbers of fragments of the strata remaining in 
spaces between the lines of destructive action. The result is the 
extraordinary scenery of Black's Fork, Church Buttes and Mam- 
moth Buttes, of which mention has been made in various recent 
publications. 

The distribution of the Bridger formation is limited, and is, so 
far as I am aware, restricted to three areas, whose mutual connec- 
tion is as yet uncertain. Its principal mass is in the Bridger 
basin, which extends from the northern base of the Uinta moun- 
tains to the latitude of the mouth of the Big Sandy river north- 
ward. In this area it reaches a depth, according to King, of 
2000 or 2500 feet. A second district is also in Wyoming, and 
lies east of Green river, between Bitter creek and the northern 
boundary of Colorado, in what is called by King the Washakie 
basin. The depth of the formation there reaches 1200 feet. 1 The 
third region is in Western Colorado, where it loses much of its 
importance. Dr. C. A. White found it only 100 feet in thickness 
near the White river. 2 Dr. Peale found it near the Gunnison 
river, as he discovered vertebrae of Pappichthys, a genus which 
belongs to this horizon only; but he did not distinguish it from 
the underlying formations, so that I do not know its thickness at 
that point. South of this locality it is unknown. 

As pointed out by Leidy, this period is especially characterized 
by a peculiar and rich vertebrate fauna. This is of truly Eocene 
character, as I first showed, but it is distinguished from the 
Wasatch by various subordinate peculiarities. These are the 
presence of Dinocerata, and of the leading Perissodactyle genera, 
PalcBosyops and Hyrachyus, together with the absence of many 
types, as Coryphodon, Tceniodonta, etc. 

" Resting directly, but by unconformity of sequence, upon all 
the Tertiary and Cretaceous groups in the region surrounding the 
1 Annual Report U. S. Geol. Surv. Terrs., 1873 (1874), PP- 436-437- 
8 Annual Report, 1876, p. 36. 
Annual Report U. S. Geol. Surv. Terrs., 1874, pp. 157. 158. 



1 88 The Tertiary Formations of the [March, 

eastern end of the Uinta Mountain range is another Tertiary- 
group that has received the name of " Uinta group " from Mr. 
King, and " Brown's Park group " from Major Powell. It is pos- 
sible that this group was deposited continuously, at least in part, 
with the Bridger group, but at the places where the junction be- 
tween the two groups has been seen in this region, there is an 
evident unconformity, both of displacement and erosion. 

" The group consists of fine and coarse sandstones, with fre- 
quent layers of gravel, and occasionally both cherty and calcare- 
ous layers occur. The sandstones are sometimes firm and regu- 
larly bedded, and sometimes soft and partaking of the character 
of bad-land material. The color varies from gray to dull reddish- 
brown, the former prevailing north of the Uinta mountains and 
the latter south of them. 

" The only invertebrate fossils that are known to have been dis- 
covered in the strata of this group are some specimens of a Physa, 
very like a recent species. Therefore, invertebrate palaeontology 
has furnished no evidence of its assumed Tertiary age and lacus- 
trine conditions of its deposition. Its fresh -water origin, however, 
seems unquestionable, because of its intra-continental position, its 
limited extent, and the fact that none but fresh-water deposits are 
known in this part of the continent that are of later date than the 
close of the Laramie period." 

To these remarks of Dr. White I add, that several species of 
Vertebrata have been obtained from this formation by Professor 
Marsh, who has determined from it a few genera of Tertiary and 
Upper Eocene character. Such are, of Mesodonta, the genus Hyop- 
sodus and of Ungulata, the Perissodactyle form Amynodon. 

THE WHITE RIVER. 

The material of which the beds of this formation are composed 
in their eastern division, are calcareous clays and marls, alter- 
nating with a few unimportant strata of light-colored sandstone. 
They are white and gray, with occasionally a pink and red, and 
sometimes greenish tinges. The beds of the western deposit in 
Oregon, consist of a more or less indurated mud, which is, 
according to King, of trachytic origin, which is rarely hard, and 
frequently rather soft. Its predominating color is light green, 
but is frequently olive and light brown. The depth of the formation 
on the White river of Nebraska is, according to Hayden, 1 about 1 50 
feet; and on Crow creek, Colorado according to King, 2 300 feet. 
Sixty miles east of Crow creek I estimate its thickness as some- 
P . 153. 



The Tertiary Formations of the 



[March, 



190 

what greater. The Truckee beds of Oregon have, according to 
Marsh, a depth of from 3000 to 4000 feet, and King estimates the 
j deposit exposed in the Hawsoh 

, Nevada, at 2300 feet. 1 
deposit exposed 
in the region of the Cajon pass, 
Southern California, is suspect- 
ed, by King, to belong to the 



% J 



H 



6 The fauna of this epoch is 

1 widely different from that of the 

"g Eocene in its more modern char- 

E acteristics. These are the pres- 

1 ence of various types of Rodentia, 
•S of true Carnivora, of Dicotylidse, 
il Elotherium, Oreodontidce, Poebrc- 
4 therium and Rhinocerontidce. All 
o the especially Eocene groups are 
£ absent, except Leptictidce and a 
g few Hycenodontid<z. These give 
E it a more ancient character than 
o the Miocenes generally, so that 
J it is frequently referred to as 
« " Oligocene." 

% The following diagram repre- 

«* sents without much detail, the 

*? section in Eastern Colorado, 

^ along the Horse Tail creek, from 

2 the Chalk bluffs southward. 



At both localities the lower 

beds carry the bones of the 

' gigantic Menodontidcs, Meno- 

^~JJ k Y dus in Nebraska, and Symboro- 

5 I y don with Menodns in Colorado. 

S . g ' 1 But few other types occur in 

3 | 5 this bed in Colorado, the great 

lumber of genera and species being found in bed B, in which 

: did not discover any fragments of Chalk otheriida among a large 

»L. c p. 423; i.e., p. 4'S. 



1 882.] Central Region of the United States. 1 9 1 

quantity of remains of Ungnlata, Carnivora, Rodentia, etc. The 
lithology is as follows : Bed A is a white calcareous soft clay 
rock, breaking into angular fragments. Bed B has a similar 
mineral character, with frequently a red color of different obscure 
shades. Bed C is a sandstone of varying persistence. Bed D 
is a white argillaceous rock like that of bed A. Fossils are less 
numerous than in bed B, and included no Symborodons nor 
other Menodbntidcs. 

The eastern area of this formation is the true White River 
epoch of Hayden ; the western deposits form the Truckee epoch 
of King. I named this formation the Oregon, but Mr. King's 
name is the older and must be retained. 1 

According to Professor Condon, the Truckee formation of 
Oregon, on the John Day river, rests unconformably on the lami- 
nated beds, containing Toxodinm and fish remains, which, as I 
have suggested on a previous page, may be an extension of the 
Amyzon shales. These in turn rest on a formation of hard lami- 
nated beds, which contain an abundance of Catamites, which 
doubtless belong to the Triassic or Jurassic period. The Truckee 
beds are, like the true White River, overlaid by the Loup Fork, 
and this in turn by heavy beds of basalt. 

The fauna of the Truckee presents some characters which dis- 
tinguish it from that of the White River. These are, the absence 
of Hycenodon t Leptictidce and Ischyromys, and most of the Meno- 
dontidce, and the presence of several genera of Canidiz, Nimravidce 
and Rodentia. Many genera, and apparently several species, were 
common to the two epochs. 



This formation has now been studied in many widely-separated 
localities in the region west of the Mississippi river. It was dis- 
covered by Dr. Hayden, whose collections furnished the basis of 
Dr. Leidy's determination in 1 85s. 2 It was next observed by 
myself in Colorado in 1873, 3 and twenty-one species were deter- 
mined ; and in the following year I identified the Santa Fe marls 
of New Mexico, already observed by Dr. Hayden, with the same 



8 Bulletin of the U. S. Geol. 



192 The Tertiary Formations of the [March, 

horizon. 1 Messrs. Hayden and King have discovered it west of 
the Wasatch range* in Utah and Nevada, and Marsh has observed 
it in Oregon. Messrs. Dana and Grinnell found it occupying the 
valley of Deep river in Montana, and Professor Mudge any my- 
self have seen it in Northern and Western Kansas. There is a 
near lithological resemblance between the strata at these local- 
ities, and the fauna presents a common character as distinguished 
from those which preceded and followed it; but sufficient care 
has not always been exercised to distinguish its upper members 
from the Eqmis beds above them. The latter contain a distinct 
fauna. 2 

According to King, about .1500 feet of beds are included in 
this formation. 

The water-shed between the South Platte river and the Lodge 
Pole creek, Colorado, is composed superficially of formations of 
the Loup Fork epoch, of Hayden. On its southern side is an 
abrupt descent in the level of the country, which generally pre- 
sents the character of a line of bluffs varying from 200 to 900 
feet in height. This line bends to the eastward, and extends in a 
nearly east and west direction for at least sixty miles. 

The upper portion of this line of bluffs and buttes is composed 
of the Loup Fork sandstone in alternating strata of harder and 
softer consistency. It is usually of medium hardness, and such 
beds, where exposed, on both the Lodge Pole and South Platte 
slopes of the water-shed, appear to be penetrated by numerous 
tortuous friable silicious rods and stem-like bodies. They resem- 
ble the roots of the vegetation of a swamp, and such they may 
have been, as the stratum is frequently filled with remains of ani- 
mals which have been buried while it was in a soft state. No 
better preserved remains of plants were seen. 

This formation rests on a stratum of white friable argillaceous 
rock of the White River epoch, as represented in Fig. 7. 

The lithological characters above described are precisely those 
presented by the same formation in New Mexico. 3 

Mr. King employs the name Niobrara for this formation, but 
Dr. Hayden's name 4 was introduced many years previously. The 

*Ann. Rep. Chief of Engineers, 1874, 11, p. 603. 

2 See Bulletin U. S. Geol. Surv. Terrs., iv, p. 389, and v, p. 47. 

3 See Report Lieut. G. M. Wheeler's Explorations west of iooth Meridian, Vol, 
iv, p. 283. 

*See Dana's Manual of Geology, edit. 1864, p. 511. 



1 882.] Central Region of the United States. 193 

new name has also the disadvantage of being already in use for a 
horizon of the Cretaceous, which is well distinguished palaeon- 
tologically. 

Some genera of Rodentia are common to this formation and 
'the White River (Steneofiber, Paheolagus ) y but its fauna is well 
distinguished by the presence of Camelidce with a cannon bone, 
three-toed horses with cementum in the molars, Antelope with a 
burr of the horns (Cosoryx) and Mastodon. 

I have divided the Loup River formation into two divisions on 
palaeontological grounds, 1 under the names of the Ticholeptus bed, 
and the Procamelus bed. The former occurs in the valley of Deep 
river, Montana, on the White river in Northern Nebraska, and in 
Western Nebraska, where it has been found by Mr. Hill. Its 
fauna presents, in Montana, a mixture of fossils of the Procamelus 
horizon; while in Nebraska, according to Hayden, its typical 
genera are accompanied by White river Mammalia. In the for- 
mer region, Ihppotherium, Protohippus and Bfastomcryx are min-. 
gled with genera allied to- Leptauchcma and with Mciycochcrrus. 
In Nebraska, Leptauchenia is said to be accompanied by Ischyro- 
mys, Palceolagus, Hyracodon and even Oreodon, genera which do 
not extend to the Procamelus bed. There is, however, a question 
in my mind whether this collocation is entirely correct. It is bed 
D of I layden's section in Leidy's Extinct Fauna, Dakota and 
Nebraska, p. 20. 

The material of the Ticholeptus horizon is a more or less friable 
argillaceous sand; not so coarse and gritty as the Procamelus bed, 
nor so calcareo-argillaceous as the White River. 

The Procamelus bed is extensively distributed. It is found in 
Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada and 
Oregon. 

THE EQUUS BEDS. 

I can give little information respecting the depth and strati- 
graphy of the beds of this period as they occur on the plains 
west of the Mississippi river, for although sections of them as they 
occur in Nebraska and elsewhere have doubtless been published 
by authors, their palaeontological status has not been determined 
for the localities described. My own knowledge of the deposits 
is based on localities in California and Oregon. In Nebraska they 
have probably been confounded with the Loup Fork beds. They 

1 Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Tens., V, pp. 50-52. 



194 The Tertiary Formations, etc. [March, 

represent the latest of all the Tertiary lakes, and include a fauna 
which consists of a mixture of extinct and living species, with a 
few extinct genera. 

I have received fossils of this age from Idaho, Washington, 
Oregon and California. The most important locality in Central 
Oregon is from thirty to forty miles east of Silver lake. 1 The 
depth of the formation is unknown, but it is probably not great. 
It consists, first, of loose sand above, which is moved and piled 
into dunes by the wind ; second, of a soft clay bed a few inches 
in thickness; third, by a bed of sand of one or two feet in depth; 
then a bed of clay mixed with sand of unknown depth. The 
middle bed of sand is fossiliferous. In Northern and Middle 
California the formation is chiefly gravel, and reaches a depth, in 



Fiu. H. — Sand hills, Northwestern Nebraska, from Hayden. 

some localities, of several hundred feet. Here, as has been proven 
by Whitney, it contains human remains, associated with Masto- 
don, Equns, Auchenia, etc. I have obtained Mylodon from the 

Traces of this fauna are found over the Eastern United States, 
and occur in deposits in the caverns excavated in the Lower Silu- 
rian and Carboniferous limestones, wherever the conditions are 
suitable. This deposit is a red or orange calcareous mud, varied 
with strata of stalagmite and gypsum. Remains of the fauna are 
found in clay deposits along several of the Atlantic rivers, as the 
Delaware and Potomac. 
'See American Naturalist, 1878, p. 125. 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. 195 

It is probable that the formation in the western localities men- 
tioned is mostly sand. Near Carson City, Nevada, it consists of 
a light-buff friable calcareous sandstone. 

This is the Upper Pliocene of King and the Post-pliocene of 
various writers.. 



A PATHOGENIC SCHIZOPHYTE OF THE HOG. 1 

BY PROFESSOR H. J. DETMERS. 

ABOUT twenty-five years ago Professors Brauell and Pollender 
in Dorpat, Russia, made an important discovery, which, 
though at first not considered as of much significance, soon led 
to investigations, the results of which have already revolutionized 
the aetiology of contagious and infectious diseases. Brauell and 
Pollender, and soon afterwards also Dr. Leisering in Dresden, 
discovered in the blood of man and beast, affected with anthrax 
or splenic fever, an infinite number of exceedingly fine, appa- 
rently solid, almost transparent, straight and motionless, rod- 
shaped bodies (cf. Virchow's Archiv. fur Pathol., Anat. und 
Physiol., und fur Klinische Medicin, XI, 2). They called them 
staebchenfoermige Koerpev (Bacilli), but left it undecided whether 
the same bear a casual connection with the morbid process, consti- 
tute a product of the same, or are merely accidental. Still, find- 
ing these Bacilli in every fatal case of anthrax, Brauell and Pol- 
lender considered their presence as something characteristic, and 
as of great diagnostic and prognostic value. As early as i860 
the relation of these Bacilli to anthrax formed a topic of discus- 
sion in the annual meeting of the Veterinary Society of the 
Grand Duchy of Oldenburg. Later investigations, but especially 
those by Davaine, Koch, Cohn, Pasteur, Toussaint, and more 
recently by Dr. Hans Buchner, in Munich, have demonstrated be- 
yond a doubt that these Bacilli, first discovered by Brauell and 
Pollender of the Imperial Veterinary School of Russia at Dor- 
pat, and first known as Brauell and Pollender's staebchenfoermige 
Koerper, constitute the real and sole cause, and also the infec- 
tious principle, of that terrible disease known as anthrax or 
Milzbrand to the Germans, charbon to the French, and anthrax 
or splenic fever to the English. About the same time, or soon 
after Brauell and Pollender published their discovery, other simi- 
1 Read before the Chicago Academy cf Sciences. 



196 A Pathogenic Schizophyie of the Hog. [March, 

lar microscopic bodies were found, not only in the blood and 
morbid products in contagious diseases, but also in a great many 
other things, particularly in putrefying, decomposing, and fer- 
menting substances, in pus, secretions of wounds, in the mucus 
of the mouth, etc. All this, however, is well known, and as I do 
not intend to give a history of the discoveries in regard to these 
minute bodies, comprehended under the generic name of Schizo- 
phytes, nor dwell upon the investigations made by many European 
and some American scientists for the purpose of ascertaining the 
true character and the relation of those Schizophytes to conta- 
gious and so-called zymotic diseases, I will only make one further 
remark, and then briefly relate what I have seen and ascertained 
myself. I mentioned the discovery of Brauell and Pollender as 
a fit introduction to what I shall have to say, and also for the 
purpose of correcting certain erroneous statements in American 
literature, which ascribe the first discovery of Bacillus anthraas 
to Davaine, and to other French investigators. For a long time 
it remained a puzzling question how certain Schizophytes, found 
in certain diseases in the blood, exudations, and other animal 
fluids, etc., can constitute the cause' and infectious principle of 
those diseases, while other Schizophytes, apparently identical, or 
at least very similar in appearance, and of almost universal occur- 
rence, are known to be perfectly harmless. To illustrate, it will 
only be necessary to mention the great similarity between Bacillus 
anthracis and Bacillus s ■ 7.,'V, two of the best known Schizo- 
phytes. This question has been solved by the researches of Dr. 
Hans Buchner in Munich (cf. his monography " Ueber de Experi- 
mented Erzeugung des Milzbrand Contagiums aus den 
Heupilzen, und ueber die Entstehung des Milzbrandes durch 
Einathmung, Muenchen, 1880"). Dr. Buchner, by repeated 
and continued cultivations in solutions of meat extract, with 
and without an addition of peptone and sugar, succeeded 
in converting Bacillus anthracis into Bacillus subtilis ; 36 
generations made the former harmless, and about 1 500 gen- 
erations converted the same into a veritable hay-bacillus or 
Bacillus subtilis. Vice versa, by continued and repeated cultiva- 
tions in fresh blood Dr. Buchner also succeeded in changing a 
harmless Bacillus subtilis into an exceedingly malignant Bacillus 
anthracis, which, introduced into the organism of a healthy ani- 
mal by inoculation, in every instance caused sure and speedy 



1 88 2.] A Pathogenic Schisophyte of the Hog, 197 

death. But as all this is on record, published in works and peri- 
odicals just as accessible to my readers as to myself, or perhaps 
more so, as my present residence is in a country town, I shall not 
dwell upon it any longer. 

It is now fourteen years ago, when so-called Texas fever was 
decimating the cattle in Central Illinois, the peculiarities of that 
disease, the characteristic morbid changes, the long period of in- 
cubation, and particularly the manner in which the disease was 
said to be communicated by Texas cattle to native animals, led 
me to think that some microscopic organism, endowed with life 
and power of propagation, and subject to changes and metamor- 
phoses, must constitute the cause and the means of infection. I 
communicated my views to the Hon. John P. Reynolds, then 
Secretary of the Illinois State Board of Agriculture, and now 
Chief Grain Inspector of Chicago. My communication, written 
in verypoor English, and coming from an unknown person living 
in a country town in Northern Illinois, was published in two Chi- 
cago papers, but did not procure me an opportunity to make an 
investigation. Still, even if it had, the investigation, very likely, 
would not have resulted in anything. In the first place, I had 
neither the means to procure, nor the necessary experience to 
use, a first-class microscope, and moreover doubt whether, at that 
time, fourteen years ago, an instrument was in existence in Amer- 
ica that could have successfully coped with the question. Our 
first-class homogeneous immersion objectives were not known 
then. My suggestions to Hon. John P. Reynolds, whether known 
or unknown to them, I do not know, were partially carried out, 
or acted upon, by Professor Gamgee and his associates, and by 
the Commissioners of the State of New York (cf. New York Agri- 
cultural Report of 1867), but no satisfactory results were obtained. 
The New York Commissioners even went so far as to send some 
bile to Professor Hallier in Jena, who, of course, found and culti- 
vated a great variety of fungi, and left the whole thing in a more 
confused state than it ever was. At any rate, the whole investi- 
gation, as far as the aetiology of Texas fever is concerned, did 
not throw much light upon the subject. 

A little over three years ago I was requested by the late Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, Hon. Wm. G. Le Due, to investigate a 
very fatal disease of swine, known to the farmers as hog cholera, 
and from the reports of the Department of Agriculture as swine 



198 A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. [March, 

plague. I procured a No. 8 Hartnack stand, with three eye- 
pieces and three Hartnack objectives, a I inch, a % inch, and a 
four-system \ inch, with correction and immersion. Of course, 
such an instrument was not at all what was needed, but it was the- 
best I could get, and, to tell the truth, the best I was then able to 
handle. It soon revealed the presence of microscopic organisms 
— Schizophytes, or, if preferred, Microbes or Bacteria — in the 
morbid products of the disease, and in the blood of the diseased 
and dead animals, but its definition and its magnifying power, 
about 800 diameters, were not sufficient to show the character- 
istics of the Schizophytes, and to distinguish the same under all 
circumstances from other bacteria similar in size. Consequently 
I made several, under the circumstances excusable, errors. If 
the light happened to be very good and well adjusted, a 
micrococcus chain appeared as a moniliform rod, and if the 
light was not very good, as I am sorry to say was very often 
the case, a Micrococcus chain could not be distinguished 
from a rod-shaped Bacterium or a Bacillus. All this was 
very much of a drawback ; still I became soon convinced 
that in the morbid products of the disease and in the blood 
of the diseased and dead hogs, I had to deal with a specific 
Schizophyte, which does not occur in the blood, etc., of other 
animals not affected with swine plague, and is entirely different 
from Bacterium termo, because I observed whenever putrefaction 
set in, and Bacterium termo made its appearance, my swine plague 
Schizophytes commenced to disappear, and disappeared in about 
the same ratio in which Bacterium termo increased in numbers. 
Being unfortunately not sufficiently familiar with the classification 
of Schizophytes, and the distinguishing characteristics of micro- 
cocci, bacteria, bacilli, etc., as laid down by Cohn and others, the 
inadequacy of my microscope caused me to commit a blunder, 
for which I have to apologize. Professor Klein in England, in 
his investigation of swine plague, also found a Schizophyte, which 
he called a " Bacillus:' Not knowing then, as I do now, that his 
bacillus, seen with better instruments than that at my command, 
was an intruder, and not at home where found, and having no 
doubt whatever that he had seen the identical Schizophyte which 
I saw and found in every case of swine plague, I proposed the 
name Bacillus suis. As soon as Cohn's classification of Schizo- 
phytes fell into my hands I saw my mistake, and endeavored to 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. 199 

correct the same in my next report to the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture, two years ago, in as plain language as I can command ; 
but not knowing at that time the spuriousness of Professor Klein's 
bacillus, I did not say anything about it. Still, a colaborer — it 
will not be necessary to give his name — does not appear to be 
satisfied, misconstrues my language, and yet insists that I call the 
swine-plague Schizophyte a Bacillus suis. But enough of this. 
It widely differs from a bacillus as denned by Cohn. One of its 
most characteristic features consists in its forming zooglcea-masses 
or coccoglia, which, according to Cohn, a bacillus never does. It 
also does not form straight and motionless rods, nor is its effect 
directly poisoning, or causing decomposition, like that of Bacillus 
anthracis, but mostly, if not entirely, brought about in a mechan- 
ical way, by its mere presence, and by a withdrawal from the 
animal organism of such elements as are needed for its existence, 
its metamorphoses, and its propagation. To put it in a few words, 
it acts- like a veritable parasite. I discarded the name Bacillus as 
soon as I discovered my mistake, and have simply called it Swine- 
plague Schizophyte or Swine-plague Microbe, leaving it to others, 
better versed in the classification of Schizophytes, to give it an 
appropriate name. 

About two years ago I obtained the means, a large Beck's stand 
and aTolles' T V homogeneous immersion objective, which enabled 
me not only to make a more thorough investigation, but also to 
distinguish, as to shape, form, size, and undergoing-changes, the 
swine-plague Schizophytes from other Schizophytes classed under 
the various heads of Micrococci, Bacteria and Bacilli, and par- 
ticularly from those which invariably make their appearance in 
all animal fluids and tissues when putrefaction or decomposition 
is setting in. Still, the amplification to be obtained by eyepiecing 
without any loss of definition — about 925 to 1000 diameters — 
proved to be insufficient. Certain characteristics, which I had 
reason to suppose are existing, and of which I could obtain only 
occasional glimpses, could not be seen, or were to be seen only in* 
an imperfect manner. I therefore requested Mr. Tolles to make 
for my special work an objective which, if possible, would give as 
good and sharp definition with an amplification of 1 500 diame- 
ters as the T V in my possession with 925. Mr. Tolles has nobly 
responded, and it is but just to say that the objective he made, 
nominally a <fr t but in reality close up to a T V, is not only equal, 



200 A Pathogenic Schhophyk of the Hog. [March, 

but in some respects even superior to a magnificent T V homoge- 
neous immersion objective of Zeiss, which I was fortunate enough 
to procure last spring. It, the Zeiss objective, is a trifle higher than 
a &, These two objectives, the T V Tolles, and the T V Zeiss, have 
been almost exclusively used during the last year. The T V of Tol- 
les gives, with the No. 2 eyepiece, according to length of tube 
and collar correction, from 1356 to 1525 diameters. 

The Swine-plague Schizophytes present themselves in three, 
and probably in four, or even five, different forms. As to the three 
different forms I am certain, as to the fourth and possibly fifth 
I will not be so positive. The form to begin with is that of a 
very minute spherical body, a micrococcus of o. 7 to o. 8 ft in 
diameter. It is invariably present in the blood and blood serum, 
in all morbid products and exudations, and in such morbid tis- 
sues as can be conveniently examined with high power objectives 



o : o_ ^2_2 

r; 4, do. do. parting; 5, do. do. pasted joint with *U- 
:<-; 7, blood corpuscles. X 1525 object- 



while fresh. It probably is not necessary to state that the micro- 
cocci of Swine-plague, being spherical, do not present any char- 
acteristic difference from other micrococci, occurring in other 
substances, if the latter happen to be of about the same size as 
the former. Still, differences can be observed, if the micrococci 
are kept under the microscope for some time — a few hours — at a 
suitable temperature. The Swine-plague micrococci soon form 
'zooglcea-masses or aggregate in clusters and become imbed- 
ded in an apparently viscous substance. While thus imbedded 
they soon commence to duplicate by growing in two oppo- 
site directions, and at the same time becoming contracted in 
the middle. This contraction gradually becomes plainer and 
plainer, and increases in the same degree in which the micro- 
coccus is growing in length, till finally the latter presents the 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. 201 

appearance of two closely connected spherical bodies without any 
visible partition, and somewhat resembles the shape of a figure 
8. At this stage the now bispherical micrococcus is about 
twice as long as its transverse diameter, or measures about 1.5 m. 
In the interior of each spherical body a somewhat darker sub- 
stance, or a kind of a nucleus can be observed. This duplication, 
or process of division, which occurs in a large number of micro- 
cocci at the same time, it seems, finally breaks the glia, or the 
viscous mass, which apparently holds the micrococcus cluster 
together; the micrococci, many, or perhaps most of them now 
bispherical, and some yet single, become free and make their exit. 
Whether the glia constitutes the pabulum needed to effect this 
growth and duplication, and is gradually consumed, cr whether 
5 to hold the micrococci together, and breaks 
become too large or too vo 




cow which died of Texan fe 



not able to decide. These zoogloea-masses occur and can be 
found, though seldom in large numbers, in the fresh blood and 
blood serum ; and are very numerous, and often very large in the 
morbid tissues, the exudations, particularly the lung exudations, 
and blo'od extravasations, and in the morbid products in general. 
I never found them absent. The bispherical, and also the single 
micrococci, when freed from their glia, do not cease to multiply 
by fission ; on the contrary, the process of division proceeds with 
great rapidity, provided the temperature is not too low. At an 
ordinary temperature, say about 70 to 75 °, a double or bispheri- 
cal micrococcus is often changed into a small chain of two double 
micrococci, connected endways, in less than 5 minutes. While 
the process of division is thus going on, and the single cells of 
such a bispherical micrococcus are becoming double by a longi- 
tudinal growth, and becoming contracted in the middle, the orig- 



202 A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. [March, 

inal contraction between the secondary cells also gradually in- 
creases and becomes deeper, till it finally appears like a separa- 
tion, and then the end walls of both cells appear to be closed; 
the connecting neck cannot be seen, and the cells, now two bi- 
spherical micrococci, seem to merely touch each other. The 
single micrococci, too, become double or bispherical, and those 
already double gradually increase to chains of various length, 
and not dissimilar in appearance to a chain of an old-fashioned 
watch. These micrococcus-chains I consider as the third form 
spoken of. The same, however, hold together only temporarily, 
or for a short time, and then break up into larger or smaller 
joints, each joint consisting of one or more bispherical micro- 
cocci. When these chains separate or break up, the separation 
is not a sudden nor a rapid one ; on the contrary, the bispherical 
micrococci which are about to separate appear to become at first 
more loosely connected with the rest of the chain ; do not seem 
to be in as close a contact with the adjoining portion as before ; 
a small space between them becomes visible ; still there is evi- 
dently yet a connection, because the movement of the separating 
joints, although apparently independent, are limited to a swinging 
to and fro. The space, however, gradually widens, till finally a sep- 
aration takes place, and each link or joint goes its way. If the 
light is very good and well adjusted, and the human eye in first- 
rate condition, an objective like my Tolles' T V or Zeiss' T V will reveal 
the existence of an exceedingly slender thread, a flagellum, which, 
gradually lengthening and finally snapping apart, constituted the 
connecting link or medium between the separating joints. I have 
repeatedly seen it as a post-flagellum when the joint or bispheri- 
cal micrococcus was slowly moving, but so far have never seen 
one at both ends. It may here be remarked, I have n^ver seen 
any single micrococci separating from such a chain or its joints, 
consequently the single or spherical micrococci must have an- 
other source or origin ; but there is little hope that the latter will 
ever be fully revealed, unless our makers of objectives — men like 
Tolles, Zeiss, Powell and Leland, and others — will succeed in 
producing objectives which will give as good and sharp defini- 
tions, with an amplification of 2500 or 3000 diameters, as their 
best ones now in existence are giving with 1200 or 1500 diam- 
eters. Still, there is a multitude of other much larger Schizo- 
phytes, and concerning them our present means are about suffi- 



1 882.] On Certain Aboriginal Implements, etc. 203 

cient to observe what cannot be seen in regard to the very minute 
swine-plague Schizophytes. Therefore, a little more than what 
is really known about the latter may almost safely be inferred 
from analogy. But I will not enter into speculations, and, at any 
rate, first state what I have seen. Sometimes in perfectly fresh 
blood serum and in fresh lung-exudation, and almost always in 
blood serum and lung-exudation 12 to 24 hours old, and also in 
the mucus and morbid products of a diseased piece of intestine, 
peculiar-shaped Schizophytes can be found. The same are rod- 
shaped, but have at one end, or sometimes towards the middle, a 
very bright granule, which strongly refracts the light, and conse- 
quently is more dense than the rest of the bacterium. It is of 
about the same diameter as the rod itself. This granule is sur- 
rounded or enveloped by a zone or ring — possibly a membrane — 
which is less dense, and much less light-refracting. The whole 
rod, therefore, if this granule is situated at one end, as is usually 
the case, presents the shape of a club, or rather that of a short 
stick with a bright round knob at one end. It is a so-called 
Helobacterium (Billroth), and the bright and dense or light- 
refracting granule is a so-called lasting spore (Dauerspore of Bill- 
roth). 

(To be continued.) 



ON CERTAIN ABORIGINAL IMPLEMENTS FROM 
NAPA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. 1 



THE figures herewith presented illustrate a collection made by 
A me in October, 1881, on the top of Howell mountain, in 
Napa county. 

The mortars are exteriorly rude unworked stones, generally of 
much harder quality than most of the country rock in the neigh- 
borhood. Fig. 1 is the most symmetrical of the five specimens 
collected ; in this respect it is the least characteristic ; otherwise 
so far as diameter and depth of the concavity are considered, it is 
a fair type of all. 

I was unable to find a single specimen, or even a fragment, 

'Read before the California Academy of Sciences, October 19, 1SS1. 



204 On Certain Aboriginal Implements [March, 

where the exterior had been shaped. The cavities in all of the 




The foregoing figure (2) is a fairly typical specimen of this class 
of mortars. It was found in nearly the same locality as the sub- 
ject of the preceding figure. 



1 882.] From Napa County, California. 205 

It is not probable that such shallow mortars were used for the 
pulverization of acorns or pine -nuts, or any other of the principal 
articles which constituted the bulk of the aboriginal cuisine. 

This supposition is further supported by the fact of the great 
number of mortar holes which may be seen in the outcroppings 
of the permanent or fixed rocks in the immediate neighborhood. 

The territory from which the material under review was ob- 
tained, embraces an area of some two hundred acres ; for the 
greater part a fertile intervale or small valley surrounded by hilly 
ground which merges by moderately inclined or gentle slopes 
into the general level. This intervale is about a mile in length, 
if measured between the extreme points, though probably not 
one-fourth of a mile in width at the widest place. When the 
present owner purchased it, it was for the most part a willow 
swale about midway of its length; where on the easterly side the 
slope descends to the intervale, are several perpetual, running 
springs of most excellent water. These springs are only a few 
rods apart. In convenient proximity outcroppings of volcanic 
pudding-stone occur, which are full of mortar-holes of various 
sizes, from four inches in diameter and depth to twelve inches in 
diameter and depth. None of the mortar-holes in the fixed rocks 
are as shallow as those in the portable mortars figured above 
from which we may infer that these latter were used for some 
special rather than for general purposes, perhaps for the grinding 
of paint or medicine, while the fixed mortars were used for gen- 
eral purposes like the pounding of acorns, nuts, &c, &c. Of 
these latter it is often the case that the larger holes are united at 
the top and for an inch or more down, through close proximity 
and abrasion, through constant use the intervening wall or side at 
the top breaking through. As the springs are more numerous 
and better situated at this middle station, which by way of dis- 
tinction may be called station A, so also are the mortar holes 
more numerous, though the latter are also met with at or near 
the extreme points or ends of the intervale, which runs in a gen- 
eral way northerly and southerly. The northerlypoint may be 
indicated as station B, and the southerly as station C. 

Pestles were collected at all of these stations. Some arc hardly 
more than symmetrical cobble-stones, while others are of the 
usual pestle-form. None of them are nicely finished, and like 
the mortars are exceedingly simple and rude. 



206 icments [March, 

The nearness of the outcropping country-rock to the spring.' 
and to the chief articles of food, operated, quite likely, to prevent; 
that degree of development in stone working which is found in, 
such implements among the relics of nearly related and geo- 
graphically approximate tribes. 

There was no imperative necessity, nor anything to be gained 
by the careful and laborious finishing of portable mortars where 
the material requiring trituration was abundant and close at hand, 
making a permanent settlement possible, where otherwise only a 
temporary camp could be made, dependent for duration upon the 
extent of the mast or nut-harvest or acorn-crop. 

The mortars herewith figured, with, as before remarked, only 
the capacity of a common saucer, are in stones which weigh 
from thirty to fifty pounds. If these had belonged to a tribe 
within whose domain the acorn and nut-bearing trees were widely 
scattered, and thereby compelled to be more roving in their 
habits than the tribe which inhabited the region herein described, 
the mortars would probably have been smaller in bulk and conse- 
quently lighter in weight. To perpetrate a hibernicism, a portable 
acorn mortar of corresponding size and weight as related to 
capacity, would not be portable. Where the food conditions are as 
above indicated, the mill would of necessity have to be carried to 
the grist, instead of the grist to the mill ; this would compel the 
carrying of pulverizing implements, and lead not only to a reduc- 
tion in the weight of such utensils, through finishing the exterior 
by cutting away every superfluous pound of stone, but also to 
the careful selection of pieces of stones or cobbles of a more 
compact and solid quality, so as to combine the greatest strength 
with the least weight. 

This also explains why mortars and pestles are so frequently 
met with in places near which the evidences of an aboriginal 
camp or settlement do not exist. 

That the tribe which inhabited this Howell mountain locality 
were not as expert in this class of stone working as those even of 
the not distant Calistoga and Knight's valley region, the Ash-o- 
chi-mis, or Wattos, is proven by the mortars collected by me at 
the last named place in August, 1879 \ f° r though the lot of half 
a dozen included one specimen hollowed in a rough stone, of the 
same general type as those figured in this paper, it also embraced 
specimens worked in well selected cobbles, and one hollowed in 
end of a section of a basaltic column. This latter as well as the 



From Napa County, Calif oi 



20- 



rough-stone one of the Knight's valley collection, are in the Mu- 
seum of the University of California. 

Obsidian in pieces and chips are abundant at each of the sta- 
tions, though more so at A than the others. The number of 
arrow-heads, and fragments of arrow-heads, collected principally 
at A, numbered about two hundred, of which one-third were 
found by my companion, Mr. A. L. Roach, of Indianapolis. A 
few were obtained by other parties. With occasional exceptions, 
the arrow-heads were in the rough stage of manufacture, awaiting 
critical selection and finishing by experts in this line, probably 
the veteran Nimrods of the tribe. 




by the 
'-makers of this region ; none other was detected 
among the debris or remains of their long abandoned workshops. 
On the opposite side of Napa valley t in a hill not far from the 
town of St. Helena, obsidian is found in great abundance, and it 
improbable that from that locality the supply was obtained. About 
one-third of the arrow-heads were found at station B; the forms 
of these are shown in the above figures. 



208 On Certain Aboriginal Implements [March, 

Of number one but two specimens were found ; number two is 
another exceedingly rare form, of which the specimen figured is 
the most perfect, only three or four fragments of this, in addition 
to that figured, were detected. Mr. Roach obtained a single speci- 
men rather more complete than the above. This form, which is 
scarcely met with in most California collections, presents the very 
highest skill in arrow-making art. Number three is perhaps the 
most abundant form, while four, five and six are numerous ; 
seven is also seldom met with, and is very delicately and nicely 
worked. 

A single bead was detected by Mr. Roach at station C. At 
this southerly station the mortar (Fig. i) was found. 

The general region herein referred to must have been a para- 
dise to the red man, so far as his needs and aboriginal comfort 
are concerned. Acorns of several species of oaks, pine nuts, 
hazel nuts and manzanita berries were probably as abundant in 
former times as now, and it is altogether probable that game of all 
kinds was far more abundant than at the present day ; in fact all 
of the requisites for the sustentation of a numerous aboriginal 
population. 

If the community which existed here was at 



aesthetic perceptions, the scenery must have added largely to the 

As to the particular tribe which constituted that community, I 
have been unable to learn. 

Since this mountain valley became the property of the present 
owner, I was informed by his wife, that a few years ago there 
came along, one day, an old Indian, who told her that when he 
was a boy he lived here with his tribe, and he had now come 
back to see once again the place where his childhood was passed. 
" He went up and away over the hills." 

Stephen Powers, 1 in his " Contributions to North American 
Ethnology," places this region within the geographical area of 
the Wintuns, one of the great groups of Northern Californian 
Indians, which included numerous tribes. I would particularly 
call the attention of all interested in this line of inquiry, to this 
important and interesting volume. 

The nearest adjacent tribes were the Napas, the Caymuses, the 
Calajomanas, the Mayacomas, the Ulucas and the Mutistals. 2 

: U. S. Geog. and Geol. Survey, Powell, Vol. in, text and map. 
2 Baacruft's Native Races of the Pacific States, Vol. I, p. 363. 



1 882.] From Napa County, California. 209 

Howell mountain as well as the country beyond, known as 
Pope's valley, form a region full of attractions for the lover of 
nature, whether a devotee of science or art. The mountain has 
an elevation variously stated at from 1500 to 1800 feet above the 
sea ; from favorable points a magnificent panorama is presented, 
extending to Mt. Diablo in the south, and covering the whole 
valley of Napa and the westerly mountain ranges which fence in 
the pleasant valleys between their ridges. The atmosphere is full 
of health, and the scenery full of inspiration. On every hand, at 
every turn of the road, right or left, are pictures full of beauty, 
refreshing to the soul and delightful to the eye. Towering pines, 
often two hundred feet in height, the Douglass spruce, full of 
grace and beauty when young, and standing grim, valiant and 
erect with outstretched and sometimes naked arms when old— as 
if prepared to wrestle with the storm ; sturdy madronas with 
broadly buttressed bases holding firm to earth, with clean-barked 
branches widespreading to the sky; noble oaks whose port and 
bearing are full of stately grandeur. These form but a part of the 
sylvan deities in whose majestic presence adoration mingles with 
admiration ; these and humbler forms of vegetation, with rock 
and earth and mountain, are the elements here combined in pic- 
turesque harmony, a perpetual feast of beauty, changing only in 
the morning and evening to put on new splendor in the changing 
light, and revealing new graces and fresh charms of color and of 
form. Amid such scenes the California red man, indigenous and 
to the region born, lived, roamed, hunted and passed away, to be 
followed by paler faces of exotic lineage, who travel over the long 
unused and obscure trail, seeking among the chips and stones 
abandoned by the way, the story of those who made them. 

Lack of time prevented investigations elsewhere than at 
Howell mountain ; Angroin's farm is a good point for a base, as 
well as for recreation, and here more might be done. Pope val- 
ley, just over the ridge, should also be explored. It offers great 
inducements to the ethnologist, the artist and all others who love 
nature, or who seek for release or rest away from the tumult of 
traffic and the town. 



AS the good ship Solent, of H. M. Royal Mail Service, is slowly 
steaming into the main harbor of Barbados, a small flotilla 
of boats gradually accumulates around her. Boats of all sizes, 
of many colors, and in variable conditions of seaworthiness, con- 
tain a motley crew of black oarsmen. While following alongside 
of the steamer these enterprising substitutes for hackmen keep 
incessantly shouting, with many gestures : 

" Mastah ! mastah ! here's de boat for ye ; take ye right in ; go 
wid de boat of Christopher Columbus ; come right 'long, now." 

Christopher Columbus is appropriately clad in linen trousers, 
which once may have been white. The capacious folds of a sea- 
green " duster " envelops his manly form, and a gray beaver hat 
with a broad mourning band surmounts his stately figure. 

" Shut up dar, you black nigger," chimes in a thick-set darkey 
of the most pronounced type ; " don't go wid dat fellow, mastah ; 
come wid your own little snow drop ! " 

It is refreshing to note under the sub-tropical sun even this 
energy of competition. While passengers are listening to the 
alluring words of numerous boatmen the ship has anchored and 
everything is made ready for transfer to the shore. A short time 
must still elapse before the baggage and its owners can be placed 
into the tossing boat, and meanwhile a new scene presents itself. 
Rapidly approaching is a skiff propelled by the arms of a strong 
man. Within it are three or four boys and young men supplied 
with only a minimum of wearing apparel. Resting a few yards 
from the steamer the -mysterious young darkeys make known the 
object of their visit : 

" Trow down sixpence, mastah ! trow him in de watah, far out; 
trow him far out!" 

Compliance with this apparently unreasonable request imme- 
diately proves them to be expert divers. With eager eyes and 
an attitude of intense excitement they closely watch every move- 
ment of the passengers who may be standing at the rail. A slight 
splash may be seen in the water, at once followed by that of four 
human bodies. Often the coin is recovered even before its last glit- 
ter has faded into the dull gray of the water. It is a rare case, in- 
deed, that any sixpence should escape their eyes. Although oc- 



1 88 2.] Barbados. 211 

casionally a shark's fin may be seen in close proximity, the divers 
ply their vocation without paying any attention to the rapacious 
animal. Not until either the patience or small change of pas- 
sengers has been exhausted will ,the dripping youths take their 
departure, seeking fresh fields for their novel enterprise. 

Finally the baggage and personel of some particular party is 
safely stowed away in a rickety boat, which bears the name 
" Pearl of the Ocean " emblazoned in yellow letters on a pale 
green ground, and the pull for land is begun. Rowing along and 
between'the various craft which lie anchored here, the breakwater 
is at last passed and the boat glides smoothly along to one of the 
wharves. Generally the steamers anchor nearly a mile out, and 
a fine view of the harbor is afforded during the shoreward trip. 
The breakwater is a solid stone structure, extending outward for 
some distance. All boats and smaller ships enter within the shel- 
ter it affords and there discharge cargoes. As vessels are con- 
stantly arriving and departing, the scene here is one of great in- 
terest. 

Bridgetown, on the leeward side of the island, is the capital of 
Barbados. Steamers of various lines stop within its harbor, ex- 
changing freight and passengers. Dozens of lounging darkies, 
famous for their insolence, line the landing places, and protest to 
be most anxious to serve every new-comer in any capacity what- 
soever. Disinterested as this excessive polfteness and attention 
appears to be at first glance, it is soon changed to disappointment 
and loudly expressed anger when a successful competitor among 
them has secured a satchel or trunk and marches off in triumph. 
That much reviled class, so prominent in our more civilized coun- 
try, the hackmen, would certainly blush at their own bashful- 
ness and maidenlike shyness could they but join the band of 
vociferating darkies on the docks of Bridgetown. With the pro- 
verbial inconsistency of the children of this world, the rejected' 
candidates turn their wrath upon the unfortunate stranger who. 
has given offence by not employing the entire tribe. Recovering 
speedily, however, a new victim is attacked and the same scenes- 
are rehearsed. Bridgetown is not well supplied with hotels, and 
the wanderers usually congregate at the hostelry where Mr. 
Kingsley is said to have met with so inhospitable a reception upon 
his arrival at night. 

The island of Barbados, most prominent among the Windward 



212 Barbados. [March, 

Group, was discovered early in the seventeenth century by Portu- 
guese seafarers. It was taken possession of by British subjects, 
and settlements were started in 1625. Since that time it has 
been ruled under the British flag. Until 1627 the island was 
the property of the Duke of Marlborough, then was transferred 
to the Duke of Carlisle, and in 1652 was attached under colonial 
charter to the British crown. During the two and a half centuries 
that have passed over this flourishing colony its inhabitants have 
developed an independent, self-reliant character. Dissensions 
from the opinions of the home government, interior disturbances 
by insurrection of the colored population, earthquakes and hurri- 
canes, have failed to disturb the proud, hospitable spirit of planters 
" to the manner born." In 1816 the most dangerous revolt of 
the negroes laid in waste more than sixty plantations in four days. 
At present the protection of life and property, by adequate pro- 
visions, is made an object of special consideration, and serious 
trouble is no longer apprehended. 

Geologically speaking, the island is coralline in origin and rises 
to an elevation of about 800 feet above sea level. Gentle slopes, 
admirably fitted for a high degree of cultivation, characterize its 
general appearance. Seen from the sea the bright green cane- 
fields, separated from each other by roads of glistening whiteness, 
produce the impression of one great garden. This, indeed, is not 
lessened when traveling across country, where one estate joins 
the other, where dozens of sugar-mills in sight betoken the indus- 
try and prosperity of planters. But little timber remains on the 
island, having been removed for various economical purposes. 
" Parishes " represent the subdivisions of the total area, and a 
population of about 170,000 inhabitants testifies to the density of 
settlement. 

Bridgetown contains about 50,000 souls. Narrow, irregular 
streets indicate the older portions of the town. Fine villas and 
country houses are located in the suburbs. Small wooden huts 
shelter large families of negroes, while but a short distance off, 
perhaps, may be the dwelling of an European, who has surrounded 
himself with everything that good taste and continental habits 
may require. Large gardens, indicating well developed horticul- 
tural ideas on the part of owners, surround the villas. Often the 
luxurious vegetation completely hides the dwelling from view, 
with a climate so admirably adapted to plant life, it is not surpris- 




Ted in profusion over broad grounds 
ts influence can hardly fail to affect i 
among the structures of the towi 



214 Barbados. [March, 

Building." An excellent material for architectural purposes is 
obtained by simply quarrying the coralline rock. It is readily 
dressed, well adapted to withstand the effects of the moist cli- 
mate, and is of dazzling whiteness. Trying as this latter property 
may be under a tropical sun, the effect is certainly imposing. 
Within the Government Building are located the legislative, judi- 
ciary and. postal departments. The colonial parliament holds its 
sessions there, and often the pfcud spirit of the " true-born Bar- 
badian " has found vent in impassioned speech, defending the 
colony from real or fancied encroachments upon its colonial 
rights and prerogatives on the part of the home government. 
Able minds have there espoused the cause of their native island, 
and more than once has the introduction of home-measures been 
withdrawn in consequence. In all matters, however, not pertain- 
ing directly to the colony, its citizens are intensely loyal. Fre- 
quent visits to the homes of their childhpod, as well as the edu- 
cation of sons at the Alma Mater which once sheltered their 
fathers, tend to sustain the bond which distance and separate inte- 
rests might gradually weaken. The executive is represented by 
a Governor, who is appointed from Great Britain, and to whom 
legal and other assistance is afforded by the Attorney General, 
the Colonial Secretary, and officers specially appointed. " Gov- 
ernment House" is his residence. It is surrounded by grounds 
which must appear charming to the northern eye. Luxuriant 
tropical plants, fostered by the hands of skilled gardeners, a taste- 
ful distribution of flowers, shrubs and trees render the park one 
of great beauty. Within the mansion the visitor meets with 
apartments typical of the tropics. Large, high rooms, spacious 
halls, and a subdued elegance at once denote comfort and judi- 
cious. consideration for sanitary arrangements. The Governor of 
Barbados has under his charge several other British islands of 
the Windward Group. Although each one is relatively indepen- 
dent, this partial centralization of executive authority is produc- 
tive of good results. Difficulties can thus be more readily 
adjusted, and the similarity of interests assures cooperation. 

Strikingly in contrast with the sable hue and light colored gar- 
ments of the natives are the bright scarlet coats of English troops. 
A garrison of 800 men is kept at Bridgetown. By their presence 
the more or less turbulent spirit of the negro population is sub- 
dued and the power is at hand to check any sudden insurrection. 



1 882.] Barbados. 215 

Picturesque among the "Red-coats" is the uniform of native 
East Indian troops, several companies of which are quartered 
here. Turbans replace the cap or helmet, wide trowsers and leg- 
gings the more civilized pantaloons. Of strong build and finely 
formed, these troops certainly present the appearance of a foe 
not to be despised. The policy of retaining men of totally dif- 
ferent nationalities is one which, in case of emergencies, must be 
productive of good results wherever applicable. 

Higher educational institutions are represented at Bridgetown 
by Codington College. It is patronized by the sons of planters 
and merchants, and has furnished a number of men of consider- 
able local prominence. The building is beautifully situated 
amidst tall palms and groves of flowering trees which only a 
tropical sun can produce. 

Great interest is manifested by the inhabitants in religious 
matters. The leading denomination is the Church of England, 
but others are not wanting, notably the Wesleyan. Every 
" parish " has one or more churches, and Sunday is observed 
throughout with a rigor which would do justice to an old puritan- 
ical settlement. As is found to be the case elsewhere, so here, 
the colored population enters most zealously into the services. 

Consistent with the character of the economic features of the 
island, is that of the settlers at the main port. Society in Barba- 
dos does not present many classes. Planters and merchants lead 
in wealth, while the government officials form a separate division 
distinguished for education and wide experience. Growers of 
produce are independent, and the complement is made up by 
workmen and not a few idlers. It is a noticeable feature that on 
the estates women are far better workers than men and are more 
reliable. Although a man may have no objections to pulling a 
heavy boat for several miles in a broiling sun for the compensa- 
tion of but a few shillings, he would be indignant if requested to 
work in a canefield at regular and perhaps higher wages. Many 
of the colored women are tall, well-built, and they move through 
the streets in a stately manner, certainly never in a hurry. This 
effect is greatly enhanced by the long trains of their white or 
light-colored dresses, with which they conscientiously sweep the 
dusty streets. 

Interesting material for study on evolutional development may 
be found in the growth of a small girl to the dignity of wearing 



216 Barbados. [March, 

a long white dress. No doubt, each successive step is to them of 
the same importance as to their more favored sisters of northerly 
climes. Covered with but the scantiest apology for a garment, or 
sometimes elaborately attired in nothing but a string of beads 
around the neck, the smallest members of the household attend 
to playing in undisturbed happiness. They are well treated by 
all and cry by far less than the average country children of our. 
own homes. Entirely at liberty, they roam into the fields, secure 
a prize in the shape of a huge sugar-cane, and enjoy themselves 
in gradually chewing up several feet of it. As they grow up their 
wearing apparel improves. It would be difficult to draw the line 
sharply at which the most pronounced metamorphosis takes place. 
By the time they have arrived at an age of comparative usefulness, 
either at market or in the sugar-house, they have risen to the ex- 
alted position of wearing long dresses. While working or walking 
in the country a "reef " is taken in the dress below the waist. 
Huge earrings and bracelets begin to ornament the dusky skin 
and a tastefully draped turban of flashy color protects the head 
from the rays of a hot sun. The hair is plaited in short, stiff 
braids and is ornamented with beads and ribbons ; a necklace, 
sometimes more than one, is added ; rings with precious glass 
stones adorn the fingers, and the young woman is ready for an 
evening promenade. Her good figure and general ornamentation 
may attract the attention of some stalwart young boatman, and a 
deepening of color in the dark brown cheeks betrays the blush 
which his loudly expressed admiration has called forth. 

An inconvenient narrowness of sidewalks in town forces pedes- 
trians into the street. There may be found a motley accumulation 
of donkeys, men, women and children. Once in a while a team 
drawn by six mules wends its way through the crowded thorough- 
fare, causing a decided swerving and sudden scattering of the 
mass of humanity. Here, as on the plantations, women take a 
leading part in active work. While a great, overgrown darkey 
may be perched on the top of a cart and allow himself to be 
drawn by a donkey scarcely larger than a Newfoundland dog, a 
woman will walk alongside, staggering under a heavy load which 
she carries on her head. It is amusing to see the accuracy with 
which these women balance on their heads large wooden trays 
filled with fruit or vegetables. Both hands free to manage the 
folds of their ample, flowing dresses, they pass along with heads 



1 882.] Barbados. 217 

held high, ever ready for trade or for friendly gossip with some 
acquaintance they may chance to meet. 

On Friday Bridgetown puts on its gayest colors. This day is 
devoted to the planters. From all parts of the island they enter 
the town, they buy and" sell, exchange views and opinions with 
neighbors whom they see but once a week, and finish the day 
with a quiet rubber of whist or brandy and soda at their club- 
rooms. To them the news or the day is important, the fluctua- 
tions of the market value of sugar and its side-products become 
living figures. They have founded a " Commercial Exchange," 
where the latest dispatches and quotations are open to inspection. 
On this day, too, the " Ice House " becomes an important estab- 
lishment. Essentially — in spite of the title — this is a restaurant. 
It is always supplied with ice, with the freshest and best viands, 
and with various luxuries as to which it seems to have the exclu- 
sive control. Every three months a shipload of ice arrives from 
Boston at Bridgetown. With it come fresh meats, vegetables, 
beer in casks, oysters in the shell (when in season), and other 
articles of food destined to tempt an islander whose thermometer 
usually ranges from 76 to 92 degrees. 

For a long time Barbados has been one of the important sugar- 
producing islands. Every article of value is mentally compared 
with sugar ; the weather is of no importance whatever, except so 
far as it may improve or injure crops, and the telegraphic news 
most eagerly read relate to the sugar market. To a stranger the 
singular unanimity of ideas upon this subject cannot but appear 
first ludicrous, then very much the reverse. Thorough cultiva- 
tion of every available portion of the island, careful management 
and judicious treatment of both the growing canes and the cane- 
juice have resulted in a high average yield per acre and a total 
sugar production of about 60,000 tons a year. Molasses and rum 
are both manufactured as additional products and are exported in 
large quantities. Ginger is extensively cultivated and forms quite 
an important item in the trade. Driving over the smooth, white 
roads, fields of sugar cane are entered immediately after leaving 
the confines of the town. Prominent in the landscape are the 
gaunt arms of numerous windmills. Strangely as they may seem 
out of place at first, their appearance soon has a certain charm and 
awakens reminiscences of countries far removed from the tropics. 
Regular, constant winds render the mills a valuable and economi- 



2IS 



Barbados. 



[March, 



cal adjunct to the manufacture of sugar. Located upon rising 
ground, they furnish power for crushing the canes, thus extracting 
the juice. From this latter crystalized sugar is obtained by 
methods of boiling, more or less complex. Briefly reviewing the 
process of sugar manufacture, it may be s stated as follows : The 
canes are cut, stripped of their blades, carted to the crusher, and 
the juice expressed. From there the latter is led into vats where 
an addition of lime assists clarification. It then passes to a series 
of kettles and is boiled down to a definite density. After being 
taken from the last pan the mass is allowed to cool and in part 




Row of Noble Palms. 

crystalize. As soon as the proper time arrives it is either filled 
into hogsheads and the molasses allowed to drain off, or the latter 
is removed in centrifugal machines. The article thus derived is 
directly marketable, but must be refined before acquiring the 
whiteness and firmness which the American retail consumer 
desires. 

On the estates the planters with their families live in patriarchal 
comfort. Absence of means of rapid communication, the unfor- 
gotten usages of the mother country, and their innate kindness, 
render them the most courteous and hospitable of hosts. Sur- 



1 882.] Barbados. 219 

rounded by fields which soon will yield golden fruit, and working 
with an energy which wind, weather or a fluctuating market im- 
pose, they lead a regular life, interrupted only by questions of 
local government, and by attempts at sanguinary revolt on the 
part of idle or dissatisfied negroes. On high points, exposed to 
view, for long distances may be seen staffs with movable arms or 
other indicators. They serve as telegraphic signals, and a men- 
acing attitude on any one plantation will soon be known all over 
the island. Thanks to good management, however, occurrences 
such as formerly devastated many plantations are becoming more 
infrequent from year to year. 

Few places, perhaps, can be found which at one glance display 
so much quiet scenic beauty and at the same time so fully illustrate 
the power of man as expressed by his industry. Groves of ma- 
hogany trees, the slender, graceful form of the noble palm, the 
clearly cut shore line, and the blue sea beyond, are combined with 
highly cultivated fields and subservience of wind and water to the 
will of man. 

The products of Barbadian industry are mainly the middle 
grades of sugar, which are largely exported to England. It seems 
strange to note, in view of this latter fact, that supplies and other 
materials are drawn from the United States to a great extent. 
American meats, canned fruits and vegetables, and even horses 
and mules, are met with everywhere. Owing to the climate, stock 
degenerates very rapidly, and neither serviceable animals nor good 
meat is raised on the island. An exception to this rule must be 
made in favor of the donkeys, however. Although of sorry ap- 
pearance and presumably ready to lean up against the nearest 
post for support, these animals are capable of a prodigious amount 
of work. Disproportionate as the size of the little brutes and 
their loads may seem, they trudge steadily along, requiring only 
occasional physical admonition on the part of their drivers or 

On account of the thorough cultivation of the island but few 
wild fruits are found, and in consequence the table of the work- 
ing classes is not the most varied one. Salt fish, bread and 
sugar cane form the staples. Codfish is imported in large quan- 
tities, and some of the native fish are prepared in a similar manner. 
Nearly every man, woman or child, returning from the fields, 
carries a long succulent cane. Often a small boy may be seen 



220 Barbados. [March, 

attached to one end of a cane twice as long as himself, munching 
away lustily; the hard rind is gradually overcome, and the juice 
furnishes him his favorite nourishment. In addition to the nutri- 
ment obtained in this manner, such process of demolition furnishes 
an excellent means for passing the time. Few scenes are more 
ludicrous than seeing half a dozen lazy darkies, of various sizes, 
lying in some shady corner while munching long cane-stalks with 
the utmost solemnity. Poor as the fare may be, the people seem 
to require no better. In part, the indolence of the colored popu- 
lation may be explained by the climatal conditions of the island. 
Though rains are frequent and cooling breezes are not wanting, 
the mean temperature is such as to require but very scant clothing. 
Children are clad at a ridiculously small expense, and shoes are 
luxuries unknown until the female wearer blossoms into stately 
maidenhood. By this means one great incentive to work — the 
supply of clothing for the family — is reduced to a minimum. A 
few pence per week are ample to keep body and soul together, 
rum can be stolen, and both may be acquired with but little 
labor. 

Among the native fish the " flying fish " ranks high as an 
article of food. At certain seasons it may be quite rare, and 
again appear in abundance. (In March, 1880, flying fish were 
selling at four cents per hundred at Bridgetown). Duiing our 
stay we decided to indulge in the sport of catching them, which 
had been represented to us as an highly enjoyable pastime. A 
small fishing boat was accordingly chartered, together with a 
skipper and two men to assist him. Early one morning, long 
before sunrise, four of us, respectively " England," " Nova Scotia," 
" Scotland " and " America," stood out to sea. With the usual 
forethought a sumptuous lunch had been packed into several bas- 
kets, rifles and shotguns were taken along to destroy sharks and 
secure seabirds. Fishing tackle and nets were supplied in abun- 
dance ; also bait. Not many parties, perhaps, have started with 
more complete equipments. Our old, gray-haired skipper stood 
at the helm with imposing gravity while three poles were put up 
in the boat, and to each of them was attached a rag of triangular 
shape. Everything was shaky, the seats were very narrow, and 
our sporting accoutrements occupied by far the greater portion of 
available space. A brisk breeze, which had been blowing from 
the start, began to freshen up, the waves were gradually growing 



1 882.] Barbados. 221 

higher, and within the first hour we were all comfortably drenched. 
This part of the programme seemed in keeping with the expedi- 
tion, and we silently congratulated ourselves upon so auspicious 
a beginning. Before long, however, the sea continued making 
efforts to stow away a portion of its surplus water in our boat, 
and all hands were requested to " bail out." By means of hollow 
calabashes this feat was accomplished. After having gone out 
to sea about twelve miles sails were lowered and we lay tossing 
about and waiting for fish. All around us we could see the bright 
bodies of flying fish flash out from the crest of a wave, pass with 
great rapidity for some distance over the water, and then drop 
down again. Eventually a few curious individuals arrived, appa- 
rently to inspect the sides of our boat. During their examination 
they encountered sundry hooks, quietly opened their capacious 
mouths and allowed them to float in. One or two " flops " when 
brought on board, and they settled down, seemingly resigned, in 
the water at the bottom of the boat. This sport was surely grow- 
ing exciting— but slowly. Thanks to the outward trip and the 
constant motion of our boat — thanks, too, to our elaborate break- 
fast, which had consisted of a glass of water — we four ancient 
mariners were beginning to experience a feeling which a novice 
on board of a ship might designate as " faint." An inexplicable 
want of energy, a certain absent-mindedness as to the fascinations 
of fishing, and a decided disinclination to attack our lunch bas- 
kets, became painfully noticeable. In order to revive our sunken 
spirits somewhat (we will generously accord him the benefit of a 
lingering doubt) this august individual ordered the bait to be 
brought out. It was brought out. A basket of loose workman- 
ship was filled with fragments of flying fish, which might have 
been alive two weeks before ; at the time, however, they were 
very dead. This basket was hung over the side of the boat into 
the water. Evidently the fish appreciated the perfume which thus 
was spread far and wide, for they came in large numbers within 
easy reach of our nets. Whether it was the overpowering joy pro- 
duced by our success, or whether it was grief at the sudden end- 
ing of so many fish lives, full of youth and full of promise, we 
must allow posterity to decide. It is enough' to say that " Novs. 
Scotia," "Scotland" and "America" ignominiously collapsed, 
and "the further proceedings interested them no more." Occa- 
sionally a cold, wet fish would alight on the pale face of one or 



222 Courtship and Marriage among the Choctaivs. [March, 

the other, but beyond a mild protest no action was perceptible. 
After a sufficient number of fish had been stowed away in the boat 
by " England " and the natives, the latter proceeded to do full 
justice to three-quarters of our elaborate lunch. Once more the 
sails were set and we sped homeward. Wave after wave passed 
over the dancing boat until finally the shore was reached. Wet, 
not hungry, trying to look cheerful, but nevertheless with a cart- 
load of fish to speak for us, we arrived at our hotel near noon. 
Strange as it may appear, it proved to be a rash undertaking, for 
some time to come, to mention " flying fish " within hearing of 
three certain sportsmen. 

Barbados has become a prominent health resort, more particu- 
larly for fever patients from more southerly regions. For many 
years the island has been free from serious attacks of epidemic or 
endemic diseases. South of Bridgetown, a suburb, Hastings, is 
located, where good sea-bathing and comparatively cool air can 
be enjoyed. The climate is necessarily enervating, and any stimu- 
lant of such character is a welcome change. Many of the planters 
and merchants have traveled extensively, and their experiences 
in foreign countries have borne fruit in their own colony. 

Once more the gauntlet of officious porters and boatmen must 
be run, as the southward steamer has anchored offshore. Laden 
with trophies from the island, with coral shells and other equally 
bulky souvenirs, the traveler finds himself reslored to his tempo- 
rary floating home, and 

" The ship drove past * * * 



COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE AMONG THE CHOC- 
TAWS OF MISSISSIPPI. 



THE two thousand Choctaws still living in their ancestral homes 
in Mississippi, retain, in all their pristine vigor, many of the 
usages of their ancestors. Among these are the methods em- 
ployed in conducting a courtship and the marriage ceremony. 

When a young Choctaw, of Kemper or Neshoba county, sees 
a maiden who pleases his fancy, he watches his opportunity until 
he finds her alone. He then approaches within a few yards of 
her and gently casts a pebble towards her, so that it may fall at 



1 882.] Courtship a?id Marriage among the Choctaw s. 223 

her feet. He may have to do this two or three times before he 
attracts the maiden's attention. If this pebble throwing is agree- 
able, she soon makes it manifest; if otherwise, a scornful look 
and a decided "ekwah " indicate that his suit is in vain. Some- 
times instead of throwing pebbles the suitor enters the woman's 
cabin and lays his hat or handkerchief on her bed. This action 
is interpreted as a desire on his part that she should be the sharer 
of his couch. If the man's suit is acceptable the woman permits 
the hat to remain ; but if she is unwilling to become his bride, it 
is removed instantly. The rejected suitor, in either method em- 
ployed, knows that it is useless to press his suit and beats as 
graceful a retreat as possible. 

When a marriage is agreed upon, the lovers appoint a time and 
place for the ceremony. On the marriage day the friends and 
relatives of the prospective couple meet at their respective houses 
or villages, and thence march towards each other. When they 
arrive near the marriage ground — generally an intermediate space 
between the two villages — they halt within about a hundred yards 
of each other. The brothers of the woman then go across to the 
opposite party and bring forward the man and seat him on a 
blanket spread upon the marriage ground. The man's sisters 
then do likewise by going over and bringing forward the woman 
and seating her by the side of the man. Sometimes, to furnish 
a little merriment for the occasion, the woman is expected to 
break loose and run. Of course she is pursued, captured and 
brought back. All parties now assemble around the expectant 
couple. A bag of bread is brought forward by the woman's rela- 
tives and deposited near her. In like manner the man's relatives 
bring forward a bag of meat and deposit it near him. These bags 
of provisions are lingering symbols of the primitive days when 
the man was the hunter to provide the household with game, and 
the woman was to raise corn for the bread and hominy. The 
man's friends and relatives now begin to throw presents upon the 
head and shoulders of the woman. These presents are of any 
kind that the donors choose to give, as articles of clothing, money, 
trinkets, ribbons, etc. As soon as thrown they are quickly 
snatched off by the woman's relatives and distributed among 
themselves. During all this time the couple sit very quietly and 
demurely, not a word spoken by either. When all the presen 1 
have been thrown and distributed, the couple, now man and wife, 



224 Editors' Table. [March, 

arise, the provisions from the bags are spread, and, just as in civ- 
ilized life, the ceremony is rounded off with a festival. The festi- 
val over, the company disperse, and the gallant groom conducts 
his bride to his home, where they enter upon the toils and respon- 
sibilities of the future. 



EDITORS' TABLE. 

EDITORS : A. S. PACKARD, JR., AND E. D. COPE. 

The utterances of Professor E. DuBois Raymond, at the 

recent celebration of the birthday of Leibnitz, in Berlin, 1 should 
have a clearing effect on the intellectual atmosphere of the evo- 
lutionists. Professor Raymond exhibits in a marked degree the 
invaluable quality of intellectual self-control, one which is some- 
times wanting to brilliant thinkers. It is perfectly natural for the 
pioneer, in penetrating a new and unexplored region, to advance 
with too great celerity, and without giving himself the requisite 
time to discover the obstacles that may lie in his course. Some- 
times it has happened, that, bringing up at the edge of an unex- 
pected precipice, he has made the most astounding leaps, and 
has been compelled to lay to and repair damages for sometime 
thereafter. 

A good many evolutionists have been floored by a serious 
interruption to the continuity of their "high priori" road, and not 
a few of them do not yet know just what has hurt them. That 
such an evanescent and unsubstantial condition as consciousness 
should have the gravity necessary to throw a triumphant army of 
advance into confusion, could hardly be suspected. Does not 
one of the leaders say that consciousness is to the progress of 
evolution, what the whistle is to the engine, that makes a good 
deal of noise but does none of the work ? And another says, " If 
the ' will ' of man and the higher animals seems to be free in con- 
trast with the ' fixed' will of the atoms, that is a delusion provoked 
by the contrast between the extremely complicated voluntary 
movements of the former and the extremely simple voluntary 
movements of the latter !" A slight difference of opinion, indeed ! 
One authority tells us that consciousness does nothing, and the 
other will have it that it does everything, rising even to the auto- 
nomic dignity of a " will " for atoms! They agree in believing 

1 See translation in Popular Science Monthly for February, 1882. 



1882.] Editors' Table. 225 

consciousness to be a form of force ; but they differ in that the 
first authority thinks it is all dissipated, while the other holds it to 
be a link in a continuous chain of metamorphoses equivalent to 
every other link. If this be so, and the continuity be unbroken, 
what iron-clad fingers must these doughty soldiers have, who by 
merely putting pen to paper open the mouths of so many cannon, 
inaugurate so many conflagrations, and explode so many maga- 
zines. Verily we should have a new anatomy of this five-barreled 
mitrailleuse, through whose chambers flash such world-moving 
forces. As to the source of all this power, well says Drysdale, 
that if the brain of man contains stored such tremendous potency, 
its escape should, on his leaving this earthly abode, blow the top 
of his head entirely off. 

As usual, truth lies between these extremes; furthermore, a 
very fundamental truth has been neglected by both sides of the 
question. Says Raymond, ** More temperate heads betrayed the 
weakness of their dialectics in that they could not grasp the dif- 
ference between the view which I opposed, that consciousness 
can be explained upon a mechanical basis, and the view which 
I did not question, but supported with new arguments, that con- 
sciousness is bound to material antecedents." This position has 
been maintained by various writers, among them Professor All- 
man, 1 and some of the editors of this journal. But Professor 
Raymond has not found it to be acceptable to his nearest cotem- 
poraries. He says, " The opposition which has been offered to my 
assertion of the incomprehensibility of consciousness on a me- 
chanical theory, shows how mistaken is theidea of the later phil- 
osophy, that that imcomprehensibility is self-evident. It appears 
rather, that all philosophizing upon the mind must begin with 
the statement of this point." In stating this point some years 
ago, we used the following language : 2 " It will doubtless become 
possible to exhibit a parallel scale of relations between stimuli on 
the one hand and the degrees of consciousness on the other. Yet 
for all this it will be impossible to express self-knowledge in 
terms of force." And again, 3 "An unprejudiced "scrutiny of the 
nature of consciousness, no matter how limited that scrutiny 
necessarily is, shows that it is qualitatively comparable to nothing 
else. * * From this standpoint it is looked upon as a state of 
matter which is coeternul with it, but net coextensive." 

A second self-evident proposition is the following: There is no 
equivalency or correlation, between the force expended in the 
maintenance of conscious states, with the energy displayed in 
those acts which result from those conscious states. Parallel re- 
lations between ordinary forces are seen in cases of release. 



226 Editors' Table. [March, 

Thus the force that applies light to the fuse is little comparable to 
the explosion of the blast. The force required to raise the sluice 
is small compared with that which runs the mill. Still less is 
the relation of the force expended in planning a campaign to that 
required in executing it ; or, of that used in directing a body of 
laborers to that expended by the laborers themselves. This is 
easily understood, but it is not so generally perceived by some of 
the correlators, that a process of exactly the same kind takes 
place in the mechanism of the acts which transpire within the 
animal organism. The amount of the primitive force may be 
very minute, for several releases may separate the thought from 
the ultimate result. 

In the cases above mentioned the mind only serves as a release 
to the muscles which act, before the latter in turn release still 
mightier forces. But these facts do not permit the supposition 
that the original conscious state is not an equivalent of forces 
both antecedent and subsequent. For without the decomposition 
of arterial blood and the oxygenation of tissue, consciousness 
could not exist, and the beginning would not begin. 

A third self-evident proposition is this: Movements determined 
by sensations cannot be compared to those which are not so de- 
termined. The former move towards the locality of pleasure, and 
away from the locality of pain. The latter move in the direct 
ratio of the product of the masses, and in the inverse ratio of the 
square of the distance. In the former case there is no equivalency 
between the force of the originating stimulus and the resulting 
act, and energy is generally gained in the process; in the second 
case the correlation is exact, and if there be any difference be- 
tween the energy of the cause and that of the effect, that which 
has been dissipated by the way can be accounted for by proper 
search. But the biologist has much to do with a large class of 
designed movements, or acts, which are not performed in con- 
sciousness, and it is these which are likely to produce a confusion 
in the mind in regard to the relation between the movements o. 
living and non-living masses. Thus a class of writers compare 
the hunger of the lowest animals to the affinities of chemical sub- 
stances, etc., a supposition clearly inadmissable on physical 
grounds alone. The easiest solution of the problem lies in the 
well known ease with which conscious acts become automatic 
and unconscious, so soon as the structural lines which give direc- 
tion to the force have become organized. Consciousness thus 
appears as the creator of designed movements, and the resulting 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 227 

RECENT LITERATURE. 

Balfour's Comparative Embryology. Vol. 11, Vertebrates. 1 — 
After finding the first volume of this work so useful, accurate and 
suggestive, we were prepared to welcome the appearance of the 
second volume, which certainly fulfills the high expectations 
formed after reading and frequent reference to the first. Our 
anticipations are fully met, and the entire work for the first time 
places in the hands of the student a reliable and critical account 
of the general mode of development of members of each great 
class of the animal kingdom. The facts have been gathered and 
compiled from a great variety. of sources, for the literature of em- 
bryology has multiplied excessively since i860, the larger pro- 
portion of articles and memoirs having, indeed, been published 
within the last decade. 

The first third of the volume is devoted to a general account of 
the development of each class above the Arthropods, with which 
the last volume closed — i.e., the groups Cephalochorda, containing 
the single genus Amphioxus ; the Urochorda or Tunicata, and 
the Vcrtcbrata. This part of the volume contains a good deal of 
original matter contributed by the author and a few other embry- 
ologists, together with the most recent results of embryological 
studies, so that we will glance at some new points which meet 
one's eyes in the early pages. 

The peculiarities in the development of the Teleostean egg, says 
Balfour, can best be understood by regarding it as an Elasmo- 
branch egg very much reduced in size. " It seems, in fact, very 
probable that the Teleostei are in reality derived from a type of 
fish with a much larger ovum." 

The lamprey is regarded as the type of a degenerated but prim- 
itive group of fishes, whose development, however, does not throw 
any light on its relationship. If so, we do not see why the author 
places it in his classification or phytogeny above so special and 
recent a group as the bony fishes. He then says that " the simi- 
larity of the mouth and other parts of Petromyzon to those of the 
tadpole probably indicates that there existed a common ancestral 
form for the Cyclostomata and Amphibia. Embryology does not, 
however, add anvthing in the anatomical evidence on this subject." 
On the other hand, he does not assent to Dohrn's view that the 
lampreys have descended from a relatively highly organized type 
of fish. 

Had space been allowed we would like to have had fuller state- 
ments concerning the later stages of the lancelet, as well as 
of the ascidians. Concerning Myxine no reference is made to 
Steenstrup's paper, wherein the eggs are figured. Neither is a 
paper on Amphioxus in this journal (Jan. and Feb., 1880), by H. 
J- Rice, and containing new facts and drawings, noticed. 

** Treatise on Comparative Embryology. By FRANCIS M. BALFOUR. In two 



228 Recent Literature. [March, 

We have in this work, for the first time in connected form, the 
comparative embryology of the Ganoids, the researches of Salensky 
on the sturgeon, and of A. Agassiz on the gar-pike, supplemented 
by those of the author, assisted by Professor W. K. Parker and his 
son, W. N. Parker, giving us a good idea of the development of two 
principal types. In the sturgeon the segmentation of the yolk is 
complete, but the embryo does not become folded off from the 
yolk in the manner usual in Vertebrates, while the relation of the 
yolk to the embryo is unlike that in any other known vertebrate. 
Before hatching the embryo has, to a small extent, become folded 
off from the yolk both anteriorly and posteriorly, and has also 
become, to some extent, vertically compressed. Owing to these 
changes, it resembles somewhat the embryo of a bony fish. Ac- 
cording to Parker, in older larvae a very rudimentary gill appears 
to be developed on the front walls of the spiracular cleft, while 
the gill-papillae of the true branchial arches are of considerable 
length. There is a suctorial disk, with slender papillae, which prob- 
ably ultimately become the barbels, and a corresponding but tem- 
porary one arises in the gar-pike. 

In the gar-pike, besides the discoveries, as respects the later stages, 
made by A. Agassiz, the segmentation is total; but the early stages 
of the embryo show a remarkable resemblance to those of bony 
fishes. Both the head and tail become early folded off from the 
yolk, as in bony fishes. The yolk in the gar forms a special 
external yolk sack, instead of an internal dilatation of part of the 
alimentary tract as in the sturgeon, and besides, in the gar it is 
placed behind instead of in front of the liver, as in the sturgeon. 
A knowledge of the mode of development of the Ganoids is, of 
course, most important, since from them the Amphibia are sup- 
posed to have been derived. But, as Balfour observes, there are 
no very prominent Amphibian characters in the development of 
either type, otherwise than a general similarity in the segmentation 
and formation of the germ-layers. So that no light is thrown by 
embryology on the origin of the Amphibia. In considering the 
development of the Amphibia a good deal of stress is laid on the 
resemblance between the mouths of the tadpole and the lamprey, 
and Balfour thinks that these are not merely the results of more or 
less similar habits. Says Balfour : " In dealing with the Ganoids and 
other types arguments have been adduced to show that there was 
a primitive vertebrate stock provided with a perioral suctorial 
disc; and of this stock the Cyclostomata are the degraded, but at 
the same time the nearest living, representatives. The resem- 
. blanccs between the tadpole and the lamprey are probably due to 
both of them being descended from this stock. The Ganoids, as 
we have seen, also show traces of a similar descent ; and the re- 
semblance between the larva of Dactylethra, the Old Red Sand- 
stone Ganoids and Chimaera probably indicate that an extension 
of our knowledge will bring to light further affinities between the 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 229 

primitive Ganoid and Holocephalous stocks and the Amphibia." — 
(To be continued.) 

Gill's Recent Progress in Zoology, for the years 1879 
and 1880. 1 — Few indeed of the numerous students of zoology 
in this country have time or opportunity even to glance at the 
work done each year by English-speaking naturalists, and still 
fewer are able to become acquainted with the work of foreign 
naturalists except through notices in scientific journals. To all, 
therefore, the present pamphlet, written as it is by one who by 
long study of the subject is well qualified to undertake such a 
work, will prove most valuable, 

After noting that the prominent feature of zoological progress 
during the period reviewed has been the discovery of numerous 
deep-sea types, and criticising the ordinal classification of Fishes 
and Birds put forward by certain zoologists, Dr. Gill proceeds to 
give a short separate account or abstract of papers containing dis- 
coveries of importance. 

Among the subjects treated of are the following relating to 
invertebrates : Anal respiration ; the effects of variously colored 
light upon the development of ova ; the effects of starvation upon 
the human system, from the studies of surgeons during the late 
famine in India ; the Pheodaria, a new group of Rhizopods allied 
to the Radiolaria, but constituted a class by Haeckel, who enu- 
merates more than 2000 species ; the discovery of medusae in 
brackish and even in fresh water ; a new order of Holothuroids 
(the Elasmopodd)\ a curious ophiuroid. with asteroid characters, 
found near Madagascar; the ( Jrthonectids ; Polv^oniius and its rela- 
tionships; parasitic Planarians and Nemerteans; the relations of the 
Chaetognaths and of Peripatus; the resemblance between the eyes 
of Limulus and of Trilobites ; aborted development in decapod 
Crustacea; Scolopendrella; the phosphorescence of glow-worms ; 
the relations of the Polvzoa ; the range in depth of living Brachi- 
opods; worm-like mollusks {Xeomcnia and Proneomenid); the 
regeneration of parts in Gastropods ; Gastropteron ; recent Pleu- 
rotomariids ; the dentition of the Marginellidse ; the relation of 
the arms and siphons of cephalopods to structures found in gas- 
tropods ; and recently described North American Cephalopoda. 

Among the vertebrates Dr. Gill, as might be expected both 
from the general direction of his own labors and from the exten- 
sive work performed upon our coasts by the Fish Commission, 
devotes most space to the Pisces. The principal works published 
upon this branch are noted, and mention made of the numerous 
workers who have described new species, anatomized known spe- 
cies, or discovered fossil forms. Then follow notices upon the 
ongin of sounds produced by fishes; the functions of the air- 
bladder ; the temperature of fishes; the ovaries of teleosts ; the 

ThtoD^G? * R ' emt Pr °-* reSS in - Za ^ yt f * r %£.* r ' l8?<? a " dlS8 °' By 



230 Recent Literature. [March, 

flight of flying fishes ; the affinities of the fossil Platysomidce and 
PalceoniscidcE, and of Pleurae anthus ; and the sexes of eels. Among 
new discoveries are noted two species of Pleuronectida? (in the 
sense given to the term by Dr. Gill) without pectorals upon the 
blind side ; the genera Icosteus and Icichthys, curious soft-boned 
California fishes, which have been constituted a " family" by Pro- 
fessor Jordan ; Lopholatihis, a new economical fish ; the Rock-fish 
of California, and a deep-sea Sebastes found off Inosima. Japan. 

The activity of ornithologists has produced numerous faunistic 
works, notably upon the birds of Papua and the adjacent islands, 
and several families have been monographed. After notes upon 
the Odontornithes, Archaeopteryx, and the extinct parrot of 
Bourbon, Dr. Gill turns to the mammals, commencing, as in other 
groups, by enumerating the features of progress. Then follow a 
condensation of the views of various naturalists on the progeni- 
tors of mammals ; a synopsis of Marsh's work on Jurassic Mam- 
mals ; notes on the discovery of new Monotremes and Marsupials 
in New Guinea ; on a plague of rats which occurs in Parana 
(Brazil) at intervals of thirty years ; on the habitat of Lopkumys 
imhausi; on the gestation of the elephant and length of life of 
the hippopotamus ; and lastly, a short account of Professor Cope's 
articles upon the extinct cat-like animals of America 2nd the 
relations of the horizons of extinct Vertebrata in Europe and 
in North America. 

Dr. Gill utters a warning, by no means without reason, against 
the use of the word *' order " to define groups which have less 
value than the sub-orders of mammals, and is especially severe 
upon Dr. Sclater for the recognition of two sub-classes and twenty- 
six orders in the homogeneous class of Birds. It would be well 
for all systematists to remember the warning, and to remember 
also that -the same criticisms apply to the undue multiplication of 
families and genera. Nor does our author neglect the opportu- 
nity of throwing another stone at Dr. Giinther for the mistaken 
conservatism which impels that excellent ichthyologist to retain 
the Cuverian orders of the Teleosts, to include sharks and Chi- 
meroids in the same order, and in various other ways to ignore 
broad morphological facts. 

Thorell's Spiders of Malaysia and Papua. 1 — A third 
part of this extensive work has just been received. It forms a 
bulky and handsomely printed work of 720 pages, but without any 
plates. It forms volume xvn. of the Annals of the Civic Museum 
at Genoa, one of the most active scientific societies in Europe, 
and is another evidence of the scientific awakening now pervading 
the kingdom of Italy, and which is undoubtedly due largely to 
the freedom and political progress of the Italian nation resulting 
from the loss of the temporal power of the Pope. The collections 
which form the base of the present descriptions were those made 

*St*Ji sui Regni Mated e Papuani. Fer T. Thorell. III. Genoa, 1881. 8vo. 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 231 

by Professor O. Beccari at Amboina and by this explorer, who 
went in company with D'Albertis to New Guinea, together with 
collections from other parts of the Malay Archipelago. Dr. Tho- 
rell prefaces his work with valuable remarks on the geographical 
distribution of the spiders of this region and gives a full account 
of what has been done in the field by his predecessors. 

The Distribution of North American Fresh Water Mol- 
lusca. 1 — Professor Wetherby's endeavor, in this interesting article, 
is' to trace the causes which have led to the great differentiation 
of the fresh-water mollusks and to distinguish the various" faunae. 
The Limneidae, circumpolar in their distribution, are most abun- 
dant in the lake region of the Archaean lands, and are essentially 
lacustrine, although a kw are fluviatile. The Unionidae are most 
abundant in the region drained by the Ohio, and the typical Ohio 
forms are continued across the Mississippi to the Rocky Moun- 
tains and southward to Texas, but in vastly diminished numbers. 
South of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi, both within and 
without the Ohio drainage, many of the Unionidae are evi- 
dently closely related to Ohio types, but along with them, princi- 
pally in small mountain streams, occur species which have a very 
different facies, and belong to a different fauna. Such are U. 
spinosus and U. collinus, the only spinous Uniones. 

The Strepomatidae first appear in New York, and are almost 
confined to the district occupied by the peculiar Unionidae just 
mentioned. They do not cross the Mississippi, and are chiefly 

The Unionid genus Anodonta is abundant with the Limneidae 
of the Archaean lake regions, and plentiful over the northern 
part of the region occupied by the Uniones, but gives way south- 
ward to Unio. Most of the described species of Anodonta and 
Unio are mere varieties, and even Dr. Lea has to confess that he 
can find no satisfactory anatomical differences in the latter genus, 
yet there are many types that must be called species. 

Reviewing these facts, Professor Wetherby concludes that the 
Limneidae form the oldest fauna, and that the typical Ohio forms 
spread from the Palaeozoic lands of the Northern States, and are 
older than those found in the Mesozoic and Tertiary regions of 
the South. 

These latter he refers to a Palaeozoic ancestor whose home was 
in the western archaean region. 

All fresh-water mollusks were originally lacustrine, adapted 
themselves first to the change from salt to fresh water, and after- 
wards to the more rapid change caused by the elevation of moun- 
tain ranges, and the conversion of lakes into flowing water. 
Hence the most striking and peculiar forms are found in the 
mountain streams of newer regions and have not yet had time to 

l Onthe Geographic,?! Distribution of Certain Fresh Miter W/usts of North 
America. By A. G. Wkthkrby, A. M. Jour, t'mem. S >c. Nat. Hist., July, 1SS1. 



232 Recent Literature. [March, 

spread. All the species, originating in the head-waters, propa- 
gated down-stream, and thus arose the overlapping of faunas, and 
probably the disappearance of many faunae as peculiar as is that 
of the Alabama, which contains, besides some distinctive Unios 
and a singular Goniobasis, two Strcpomatid genera, Schizostoma 
and Tulotoma, with thirty species, none of which were found 
elsewhere. 

Zittel's Handbuch der Pal/EONtologie. 1 — This standard 
and fresh work on general palaeontology is slowly appearing in 
numbers, the present one beginning the treatment of the Mollusca. 
One important feature of the present number are the two hun- 
dred excellent wood-cuts of fossil Lamellibranchs. The orders, 
families and leading genera are briefly described and the typical 
species mentioned. The systematic portion is succeeded by a 
brief section on the distribution of Lamellibranchs in geological 
time. It appears that of all fossil mollusks the Lamellibranchs con- 
stituted a fourth part in the palaeozoic period, in the Jura and 
chalk periods one-half, and in the Tertiary period a third part. 

Martin and Moale's How to Dissect a Chelonian 9 . — This 
little book is the first of a series designed to form a handbook of 
vertebrate dissections. The directions given are meant for use 
in connection with lectures, and the reading of a good text-book 
and some knowledge of human osteology on the part of the dis- 
sector is assumed by the author. The species dissected is the 
red-bellied, slider terrapin ( ' Pseudcmys rugosa). After stating 
the zoological position of this terrapin in general terms, taken, 
with slight modifications, from Huxley, the student is then led to 
examine briefly the general external appearance of the animal, 
and then clear, succinct, and, we should think, sufficiently full 
directions how to dissect the creature are given. The method 
pursued is not comparative, but special ; we should look for the 
introduction of the comparative method in the succeeding parts. 
No illustrations of the soft parts are given. A frontispiece is 
devoted to good figures, showing the different parts of the skull. 
The book is useful, and one which is needed. 

Packard's Zoology, Third Edition 3 . — The changes made in 
this edition consist mainly in the correction of errors, the results 
of suggestions and criticisms from naturalists and teachers. Among 
the changes and additions are references to Ryder's Symphyla, 



Leip/i-. I 
II. N i:\vi 



' for High Schools i 
New York, Henry I 



1 88 2.] Recent Literature. 233 

which is regarded as a sub-order of Thysanura, while the recent 
views of Semper and Moseley as to the formation of coral reefs 
are briefly referred to. The index has been altered to correspond 
with changes in the text. 

Verrill's Cephalopods of the Northeastern Coast of 
America 1 . — This is a memoir of 267 pages.with 44 plates, upon the 
species of Cephalopods which have been collected upon the Atlantic 
coast of the United States, mostly within a few years, by the 
United States Fish Commission and the United States Coast Sur- 
vey. It is a monographic account of these animals, accompanied 
by most excellent plates from drawings by Mr. Emerton. While 
the bulk of the work is devoted to careful descriptions of the 
species, the gross anatomy of a number is given and illustrated, 
and the habits of some of the common species described. Besides 
the descriptions of gigantic squids and the excellent drawings 
illustrating them, the point of most interest brought out by the 
author is the description of the cone discovered by Mr. W. H. 
Dall in MoroteutJiis robusta Verrill. It is figured on PI. xxnr,and 
thus described by Professor Verrill : " This genus will have, as 
known characters: A long, narrow, thin pen, terminating posteri- 
orly in a conical, hollow, many-ribbed, oblique cone, which is 
inserted into the oblique, anterior end of a long, round, tapering, 
acute, solid, cartilaginous terminal cone, composed of concentric 
layers and corresponding to the solid cone of Belenuiites in posi- 
tion and relation to the true pen." 

This is a most interesting discovery, for we arc now able to 

which have usually been homologized with the pen or bone of 
cuttle-fishes. The Moroteuthis is a gigantic calamary, but the 
ordinary Belemnites may have been closely related in form to our 
hooked calamary, and a cone three inches long may have been 
worn by individuals not over two feet long, and not differing 
essentially in form from our common Ommastrephes. The cone 
is present or absent apparently in quite closely allied forms. We 
wish the author had made a little more of a subject of so much 
palaeontological interest. 



Langley. 4to, pp. 3 



Recent Literature. 

ation Scientifique de 1 
. iamo, pp. 212. P 

de l'energie dans le spectre solaire normal. Pa 



imo v, royal 8vo, pp. 696, maps. Mexico, 1 
I Observatory. 

The Superficial Geology of British Columbi 
. Dawson, D.Sc, F.G.S. 8vo, pp. 16. Exi 



Proceedings of United States National Museum. 8vo, pp. 30. U. S. Gov. Print- 
ag Office. Washington, Dec, 1881. From the society. 
The Formation of Gold Nuggets and Placer Deposits. By F. Eggleston, Ph.D. 



Trans. Amer. Inst. Mining Engineers. New York, 1881. From the secretary. 

The available tonnage of the Bituminous Coal Fields of Pennsylvania. By H. 
M. Chinee, M.I) . A-Ut. Geological Sim-ev Penna. Svo, pi, 10, cuts. From Trans. 
Amer. Inst. Mining Engineers. New York, 1881. From the author. 

Glacial Erosion. By Geo. H.Stone. 8vo, pp. II. From the Proceedings of the 
ralHistory. Portland, 188 1. From the author. 

The Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Vol. iv, No. 2. 8vo, pp. 
64, 3 plates. Buffalo, 1882. From the society. 

The Brain of the Cat (Felis domestica). I. Preliminary account of the gross 
anatomy. By Burt G. Wilder, M.I > Svo, pp. 2S. 1 plate,. ' American Philosophi- 
cal Society, read July 15, 1SS1. Philadelphia, 11S1. From the author. 

Some notes on American Land Shells, No. 11. By A. G. Wetherby. 8vo, pp. 
13. Journal of '! ry. Cincinnati, Dec, 1881. 

From the author. 

The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Vol. iv, No. 4, Dec. 

Contributions to North American Ethnology. Houses and House-life of the Ameri- 
can Ah .rigines. liy Lewis II. Morgan. : -, cuts and fig- 
ures. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geol. and Geog. Sin v. of Rocky Mountain 

Boletin de Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa. 2d serie, No. 3. Lisboa, 1880. 
8vo, pp. 204. From the society. 

Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique. Tome vingt-troisieme. 
Bruxelles, 1880. 8vo, pp. 154, 1 plate. From the society. 

Informe acerca de las Cepas de los Kstad.s-Unid .s de America consideradas bajo 

' \i cKcmi. Diput.icion de liarce- 
Barcelona, 1881. 8vo, pp. 185. 
nLtere de I' Agriculture et du Commerce. Direction de 1' Agriculture. Com- 
1. Lois,d flloxttL Paris, [881. Svo, pp. i34» 

IP " 

L-. 
ciation. 8vo, pp. 79-102. From the author. 

I »rida. By William IL Ashmead. [Paper No. 1.] 

1 the Monthly I'roc. Ent. Sec. A. N. S., May, 18S1, pp. ix-xx.From the author. 



Forestry for Indiana. By Dr. J. A. Warder. From the Transactions of the In- 
diana Horticultural Society for 1880. 8vo, pp. 7. From the author. 

An essay on Timber Planting in Ohio. By Dr. John A. Warder. Columbus, 

1. Remarkable change in the color of the hair from light blonde to black in a 

with unusually prelonged anuria. 2. (.'.. ,;ted successfully 

by Pilocarpin. By D. W. Prentiss, A.M.,'M.D. Philadelphia, 1881. 8vo, pp. 15. 

Address at the eighteenth session of the American Pomological Society held in 
ciety. Published by the society, 1881. From the author. 

Entomologisk Tnlknit pa fr.ranstaltande af entomologiska fo renin gen i Stock- 
holm atgtven af Jacob Sp anberg. and I, Haft 1 and 2. Stockholm, 1881. From 

La Phylloxera en Suisse durant l'annee. 1880. Rapport du departement federal 

Notesurl'horticulture en Algerie. Par N. V.-Ch. Joly. From Journal de la 
Soc. d'Hortic, 3e serie, III, 1881, p.- 261-271. Paris, 1881. From the author. 

:s du Departe- 



Herault. 67"ie Sunee, Janvier. Aout, 1880. 



Synopsis of the Catocala? of Illinois. By G. H. Fi 

en, Illinois Xormal University. Carbond'ale, Illii 
the author. 

Tenth Report of the State Entomologist on the noxious and beneficial Insects of 
the State of Ellin . mas, Ph.D., t t 1- t m 1 

ogist. Springfield, 1881. 8vo, pp. 238. From the author. 

■ ' . 

Department of the Interior. United States Geological and Geographical Survey, 
I. V. Hayden, U. S. ( Jcologist-in-charge. Hull, of the U. S. Geol. and Geog. 

202, 4 plates. From the Interior Department. 

Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for the year 1880, Parts I 



GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 1 
GuRDONIA PUBESCENS L'HeR (FRANKLINIA ALTAMAHA MAR- 
SHALL).— This tree, so far as I can learn from the records, has not 
been found in the uncultivated state since 1790, when Dr. Moses 
Marshall saw it near Fort Harrington, on the Altamaha river, in 
Georgia.- It was first discovered by John Bartram in the course 
of his travels (as botanist to the king) through the Carolinas, 
Georgia and Florida in 1765. His son William, then only a lad, 

'Edited by Prof. C. E. Bessey, Ames, Iowa. 

'See his letter to Sir Joseph Banks, p. 563, in Darlington's " Memorials of Bartram 



236 General Notes. [March, 

accompanied his father in his travels. Afterwards, in 1773, Wil- 
liam Bartram undertook, in the interests of Dr. Fothergill, of 
London, a journey through the same region. His book of travels 
was published in London in 1794. He states that he found it as 
he journeyed southwards in the summer of '73 near Fort Barring- 
ton, where he had seen it ten or twelve years previously as he 
traveled with his father. After concluding his travels, which ex- 
tended as far west as the Mississippi, and occupied several years, 
he returned to Fort Barrington in the autumn of 1778, to collect 
and send off seeds, roots, etc., of such plants as he had seen in his 
way. He there found it again in mature fruit, and states that he 
saw " two to three acres covered with the tree." The seeds col- 
lected by the Bartrams were distributed in this country and in 
Europe, and the trees growing from these seeds are all that we 
have left of the original discovery a hundred years ago. 

In March last I was requested by Professor C. S. Sargeant, who 
is in charge of the Forestry Department of the Tenth Census 
work, and also agent for the American Museum of Natural History 
in New York, to make an effort to rediscover the long lost tree, 
wood specimens of which were wanted to complete the series of 
forest trees of the United States for the Government, and also 
for the museum ; to investigate its habits in the wild state, and to 
learn more of its geographical range. For that purpose I made a 
visit to Darien about the middle of March. At that time my only 
guide to the locality was the simple reference in our botanical 
books— "found at Fort Barrington, on the . Utamaha." I supposed 
at first it was to be sought for in the river swamp, but on consulting 
Mr. Bartrams Travels and learning more of the topography of the 
country I became convinced that it was not in the river swamp, 
it was to be looked for but in the flats and pine land branches. 

Barrington stands on the north side of the Altamaha and about 
16 miles from Darien, where the river has bluffs on its northern 
banks, thus throwing the whole swamp on the south side. The road 
from Darien, the same as it was a hundred years ago, passes mostly 
through damp, flat pine woods, until within about three miles of 
the fort, where commences a succession of dry and rolling sand 
hills, which extend up to the river. The site of the old fort is still 
to be seen, with its ditches and embankments marking the outlines. 
It retains the old name, and is now known as one of the ferry 
crossings of the Altamaha river. 

I went up to Darien in company with a friend, traveling the 
same old road which the Bartrams' and Marshall had used. We 
made diligent search on the way, but could not find it. This sea- 
son of the year was unfavorable for the search for an unknown 
tree, as leaves, flowers and fruit had all disappeared. During the 
summer my friend, who has good knowledge of the flora of that 
region, went up three times—in June, July and September-— 
making careful examinations along the road and the flats and 



1 882.] Botany. 237 

branches near by, but failed to find it. He saw an abundance of 
G. lasiantluis and Pinckneya pitbcns in bloom, but the object of 
our search could not be found. I made a recent visit to Darien 
in November. We went together again, making the fifth visit to 
the supposed locality. The following paragraph from William 
Bartram's account of his discovery of this tree furnishes the clue 
by which I was guided in my search. After detailing the events 
of his journey southward from Philadelphia to Darien he says : 
" I set off early in the morning (from Darien) for the Indian trading 
house on the river St. Mary, and took the road up the north-east 
side of the Altamaha. I passed through a well-inhabited district, 
mostly rice plantations on the waters of Cat Head creek, a branch 
of the Altamaha. On drawing near the fort I was delighted at 
the appearance of two beautiful shrubs in all their blooming graces. 
One of them appeared to be a species of Gordonia.but the flowers 
are longer and more fragrant than those of the Gordonia lasian- 
thus. 

Now this paragraph gives a clue to the situation. 1st. As he 
journeyed from Darien, it was, of necessity, on the nqrth side of the 
river; 2d. "As I drew near to the fort." This is ambiguous, and 
may mean a few hundred yards, or even two or three miles, in a 
ride of 16 miles ; 3d. The tree was evidently in sight from the 
road, and probably not far off, so as to be readily seen by any one 
passing that way; 4th. It was growing in company with another 
showy, flowering shrub. This other flowering shrub was most 
probably Pinckneya pubens (which was finely in bloom in June 
and July when my friend went up). The only other showy, flow- 
ering shrub which I saw in that region was G. lasiantluis, and as 
Bartram knew that very well, the probability of its being Pinck- 
neya is increased. 

Now about two miles from the fort, and just at the' commence- 
ment of the sandhills, the road passes between two pine land 
branches within 40 or 50 yards on either side, spreading out into 
flats which approach almost up to the road. Here was an abun- 
dance of Pinckneya on both sides, in fact the principal growth, 
and also the on 1 spa 1 is seen f rom 'he road bet:: en Darien and 
the fort. I suppose, at a rough estimate, there may have been " two 
or three acres covered with the tree," as Mr. Bartram states. They 
are so near the road, and so conspicuous when in bloom, as to 
arrest anyone's attention, and especially one who was looking out 
for new plants. All the indications seemed to point to the spot- 
as the one where the F rauklmia was discovered. If, as I suppose, 
Pinckneya was the accompanying shrub, it reduces it almost to a 

stopped here, and my friend'and I made a close and exhaustive 
search on both sides of the road. We saw plenty of G. lasian- 
thus, and I gathered seed vessels of Pinckneya, but Franklinia 



238 General Notes. [March, 

there we rode on towards the fort, and then returned from the fifth 
unsuccessful search. 

Whilst in Darien I met Mr.Cowper, a son of Hon. J. Hamilton 
Cowper, who was well known some forty years ago among scientific 
men for his culture and refined hospitality, and for the great inter- 
est he took in the natural sciences. Mr. Cowper informed me 
that his father had collected in his grounds all the trees and shrubs 
indigenous to that section of the country, but did not have Gordo- 
nia pubcscens among them; that he himself had been hunting for 
it for several years past, having been up frequently to Barrington 
looking both in the river swamp, on the south side, and in the 
woods and branches on the north side. I also heard whilst there 
that a collector of seeds from some Northern house had come on 
from Florida to hunt for the Gordonia near Barrington, and that 
he was also unsuccessful. 

What are we to think of all this ? The two Bartrams and Moses 
Marshall saw it 100 years ago, without any doubt, for the trees 
growing from the seeds which they distributed give conclusive 
proof of its existence at that time, and in considerable quantity, 
in that locality. Since then it has been lost, even to the people 
of that region, and, as far as I can learn, has never been seen else- 
where. Was it confined to that single locality, and has it become 
extinct ? This supposition is scarcely admissible without very 
strong proof. I confess I am at a loss for any explanation of its 
disappearance. I have thus given a minute and detailed account 
of my unsuccessful efforts, in the hope that it may assist any future 
explorer to solve the mystery o\ iha. — ■//. U r . 

Ravenel, Aiken, S. C, Jan. 6, 1882. 

Diatrype disciforms (HorT) Fr. — It has been noted that 
the American specimens referred to this species differ somewhat 
from the common European type, though the difference has not 
hitherto been considered sufficient to warrant a specific distinction. 
European specimens from Cooke, Winter, De Thiimen and Plow- 
right are on beech, but, according to Fries, it occurs also, though 
more rarely, on oak and birch. American specimens in Rav. 
Fungi Car. and F. Americani are on Magnolia glauca, on the 
dead trunks and branches of which it seems to be very common 
from Southern N. J. to Florida. It is the form on Magnolia of 
which I wish to speak. In the spring of 1875 I sent specimens of 
this fungus to Baron de Thiimen, who distributed them in his 
Mycotheca Universalis (No. 359), and afterwards in the Bull, of 
the Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. vi, page -95, published it as Diatrype 
dhciformis Fr. v.ir. tnagnolue Thm., noting that it differed in its 
smaller disk and indeterminate ostiola from the European form. 
Some years ago I had noticed that occasionally a magnolia trunk 
would be found on which the specimens of this fungus all pre- 
sented a concave disk, depressed even below the general surface 
of the bark with white, dot-like punctures marking the place of the 



1 882.] Botany. 239 

ostiola, and differing so much from the ordinary form that it might 
readily be taken to be a different species. The asci and sporidia, 
however, did not differ from those of the more common form. 

In the autumn of 1874 a single magnolia trunk was found 
thickly covered with what was taken to be an old Diatrype, with 
the disks covered with little circular orange-red tremelloid caps 
of the same size as the disks and hiding them completely from 
sight. This was at that time supposed to be a species of Tre- 
mella,but it did not show the internal structure of that genus, nor 
could it be referred to any described species. So the matter re- 
mained till last November, when, on a collecting trip in the swamp, 
I again found a magnolia trunk covered with the little orange-red 
tremelloid disks. On removing one of these carefully with the 
point of a knife, behold the concave disk of Diatrype disci formis (?) 
with the white dot-like punctures marking the place of the osti- 
ola! On further examination it was found that on some parts of 
the trunk the tremelloid disks had already fallen away, laying 
bare the white punctured stroma of the Diatrype. Another speci- 
men on the same trunk had still further developed into the well- 
known form of D. disciformis var. magnolia. On looking further 
there were found a dozen or more trunks, all heaving specimens 
covered with the tremelloid disks as above described, showing 
plainly the various stages of development and demonstrating be- 
yond the shadow of a doubt that D. disciformis var. magnolue has 
in the young state its stroma covered with the aforesaid tremelloid 
disks. I could not at first see why I had not noticed this before, 
as the magnolia and the Diatrype in question are very common : 
but this may be due to the fact that the little tremelloid disks do 
not long endure, but soon turn black and fall off 

The origin of the fungus is beneath the epidermis, which is soon 
ruptured and thrown off, revealing the red disk, which soon rises 
up even with or a little above the surface of the bark, soon after 
which, as already stated, it also falls off, revealing the true disk of 
the Diatrype, which, in the different stages of its growth, presents 
at least three different forms — first, concave and slate color, with 
white dot-like punctures; then convex and brown, the surface 
being -Ii-htly cracked and the ostiola scarcely visible ; and finally 
the disk becomes black and the ostiola distinctly prominent. When 
it reaches this stage the asci have mostly disappeared. 

It is further to be noted that in the European specimens of D. 
disciformis the epidermis does not adhere to the margin of the 
disk but forms a loose, free border around it, while in the speci- 

of the diskfand is also split in a stellate manner around it. "in 
view of the facts now stated, it appears to me that Diatrype disci- 
formis var. magnolue is worthy of specific distinction, and I have 
prepared specimens to be distributed in the next Century of North 
Am. Fungi, under the name of Diatrype trciuc/.'ophora.—J; B. 
Ellis, Newfield, N. J., Jan. 7, 1S82. 



240 General Notes. [March, 

Botanical Notes.— Dr. Sternberg has seen "prehensile fila- 
ments" of protoplasm in a species of Navicula, and is thus able 
to confirm Dr. Wallich's views as to the motions of diatoms. 
In a letter to the American M ■' Journal he 

says : " I have seen them frequently in certain diatoms [Navcula] 
found in abundance in the gutters of New Orleans." He used 
a 2-5 per cent, solution of iodine for suddenly killing and staining 

the filaments. It is announced in English journals that B. D. 

Jackson, Secretary of the Linnean Society, will shortly bring out 

a new edition of Steudel's Nome-delator Botanicus, Dr. Thurber 

is to publish a new edition of " American Weeds and Useful 
Plants," and asks for notes upon new weeds, directing attention 
especially to the aggressive grasses. Specimens are desired, and 

should be sent to 75 1 Broadway, New York. S. E. Cassino, 

of Boston, announces for publication, at an early date, "A Man- 
ual of the Mosses of the United States," by Leo Lesquereux and 
Thomas P. James. It will contain nine or ten copper-plates illus- 
trating the genera. The same publisher announces also a "Man- 
ual of the Lichens," by Professor Tuckerman. A. H. Curtiss' 

Fascicle v. of his southern plants is one of the most interesting 
yet sent out by him. Several of the specimens represent new 
species, some of which are curious. Some are new to our flora, 
as Catesbcea parviflora, a remarkable shrub from Southern Flor- 
ida. This year (1882) Mr. Curtiss intends to spend in collecting 

in the Smoky mountains of East Tennessee. M. E. Jones, of 

Salt Lake City, has recently sent out his catalogue of specimens 
of California Plants, to be issued in fascicles. Many interesting 
species are represented, and this, with the low price ($30 per fas- 
cicle of 500 species), will make these sets very desirable. 
ZOOLOGY. 

Nesting Habits of the Horned Lark. — In the November 
number of the Naturalist, Mr. Aldrich, of Webster City, Iowa, 
notices the finding of a bird's nest with eggs, near the Agricul- 
tural College, on the last day of March, which he ascribes to the 
snow-bunting ( Plectrophanes nivalis). In this he must be mistaken, 
as no bird of that species probably ever nested within a thousand 
miles of Iowa. There are, I believe, only two records of its 
breeding in the United States, and both of those were in New 
England The bird to whom the nest that he discovered really 
belonged, was probably the horned lark ( llrcmophila alpestris). 
This bird habitually winters in Iowa in great numbers, and many 
remain to breed, which they always do very early in the season, 
with little apparent regard to temperature. Professor Arthur, of 
Charles City, I< iwa, tells mo that he has seen the snow blowing over 
the nest and mother-bird when the weather was as severe as mid- 
winter. Some specimans that I shot in February and dissected, 
showed by the condition of the sexual organs, that the breeding 



1 882.] Zoology. 241 

season was at hand, in fact they were evidently mating when 
killed. I will add that a short time after Mr. Aldrich's visit I 
obtained for the college museum a nest with eggs from that same 
" little knoll " of which he speaks, while another nest was found 
with young, which was very likely the one that he saw, which 
may satisfy him that the bird had made no mistake. — F. E. L. 
Beal, Ag. College, Ames, Iowa. 

Notes on some Fresh-water Crustacea, together with 
Descriptions of two New Species (Continued). — Crangonyx 
gracilis Smith. — (C. gracilis Smith S. L, Crustacea of the 
Fresh-waters of the U. S., Report U. S. Fish Commission 
for 1872-3, 654; S.A.Forbes, Bulletin Illinois Museum Nat. 
Hist, No. 1, 6.) Numerous specimens of the Western variety of 
this species were obtained in the ponds and slow streams around 
Irvington during the winter and early spring of 1879-80. They 
differ in no appreciable way from specimens of the same species 
obtained at various localities in Illinois. 

Crangonyx mucronatits Forbes. — [C. mucrouatus Forbes, S. A., 
Bull. Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist, No. 1, 6.) Two males of this curious 
species were obtained from a well in Irvington during the latter part 
of the year 1879. On the anterior edge of the sternal portion of 
each of the last two thoracic segments, I have observed two ap- 
pendages, no mention of which is made in the original description 
cited above. They call to mind the appendages mentioned by 
Prof. S. I Smith (op. cit 647) as occurring on some of the an- 
terior segments of Pontoporcia hoyi. In form these appendages 
are elongated, oval, and pointed. They are as long as the 
■ branchial sacs, of longer, and seem to be corneous. They may 
occur on the sternal portion of other of the thoracic segments ; 
but in the very few specimens that I have had the opportunity to 
examine, I have not observed this. 

As e Hits communis Say. — (A. communis Smith, S. I., op. cit. 657 
A. militaris Hay, O. P., Bulletin Ills. Mus. Nat. Hist, No. 2, 90.) 
This species is very common in the streams about Irvington, 
during the early months of spring. I am now pretty well con- 
vinced that the form that I described as cited above is the same 
as the Eastern species. It differs certainlv from Eastern speci- 
mens in the armature of the hand, in the form of the genital 
plates, in size, and in some other respects ; but I do not believe that 
these characters are sufficiently marked and constant to enable us 
to found species on them. The specimens obtained at Irvington 
differ in the details of the hand and genital plates from all others 
that I have seen; but these differences are accompanied by no 
others of importance. As I now recognize this species, it extends 
in its distribution from Massachusetts and Connecticut on the 
east to the Mississippi on the west, and to Central Mississippi on 
the south. About the middle of August of the present year I 



General Notes. [March, 

at Jackson, Miss., collecting fishes and, incidentally, other 
rials. While engaged in searching in the mud and among 
fallen leaves in a pool formed by a spring along the Pearl 
r, I found some specimens that prove to belong to Asellus 
The individuals are all of small size, none exceeding 
about 7 mm in length. That they are mature, however, is shown 
by the fact that several of the females bear numerous eggs be- 
neath their oostegites. They appear almost as pigmies beside 
the Illinois variety, ntilitaris. The discovery of these specimens 
in this locality shows that this species has a very wide geographi- 
cal distribution. 

Maucascllits tenax Harger. — ( Asellus ienax Smith, S. I., 
Amer. Jour. Sci., 1871, 453- Aselbpsis tenax Smith, S. I., Fresh- 
water Crustacea U. S. 659. Mancascllus tenax Harger, Amer. 
Jour. Sci., 1876, 304.) Along with the species of Asellus men- 
tioned above as occurring in the neighborhood of Irvington, and 
in equal abundance, is found Mancascllus tenax. It was origin- 
ally described from specimens obtained about the great lakes of 
Michigan, and I am not aware that it has hitherto been noticed 
anywhere else. The specimens that I have collected here appar- 
ently belong to Mr. Harger's variety dilata ; but are in some 
respects different both from this variety and from the typical 
forms. The flagellum of the antennae may have as many as forty- 
five segments. The propodite of the first thoracic foot is oval, 
swollen, and armed with three teeth, being in these features like 
dilata, but differing in that the larger tooth is the one at the pos- 
terior angle, instead of the middle one. This largest tooth is 
fully one-third as long as the dactyl. There is a prominent lobe 
or tooth on the concave side of the dactyl, about the middle of 
its length. On the outer surface of the mandible I have observed 
a small tubercle, situated apparently in a 'slight depression and 
armed with a hair. This I have been inclined to regard as a rudi- 
ment of the mandibular palpus. 

Eubranchipus vcrnalis Verril! -nail's Verrill, 

A. E. Packard, A. S, Jr., Hayden's Rep. Geolog. 

and Geog. Sur., 1874, 622.) Large numbers of this crus- 
tacean, so interesting on account of its curious form and structure, 
its habits, its beautiful colors, and its graceful movements, were 
taken from ponds in Irvington, during the winter of 1879-80. 
During this period the weather was unusually mild, and the 
waters remained unfrozen during the greater part of the season. 
About the first of December I caught a single specimen of what 
was evidently an Eubranchipus. It was but partially developed, 
and I supposed that it would turn out to be E. serratus Forbes. On 
the 1 oth of January I collected several full grown specimens of 
the same animal in the same pond, and a careful examination 
showed that they belonged to Professor Verrill's E. vcrnalis. The 
ponds in which I have taken specimens here are, some of them 



1 882.] Zoology. 243 

at least, dried up every summer. Not many individuals could be 
captured by merely sweeping the net through the water; but 
when it was used to stir up the soft mud at the bottom, they could 
be taken in great numbers. In the March number of Vol. XII. 
of the American Naturalist occurs a note by Professor A. S. 
Packard, Jr., stating that this species had been captured at Dan- 
vers, Mass., Jan. 10, 1878, and had been seen even earlier. So 
far as I am aware, no one has hitherto reported this species as 
having been observed outside of Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
— 0. P. Hay, Irvingtou, Ind, 

Albinism in a Crustacean. — To-day I found under a log 
an albino specimen of Porcellio. It was of a uniform yellowish 
white color, and was among other sow-bugs of the ordinary gray 
and brown colors. It is the only one I have ever seen. — Henry 
Wan/ Turner, Ithaca, New York, Dec. 18th, 188 1. 



Longevity of the Turtle, — Enclosed I send you a slip cut 
from " The Clayton Independent;* published at Clayton, N. Y., 
Sep. 8th, 1 88 1. The article was copied by some of the local 
papers in that vicinity, viz: " Watertown Times," and " Watertown 
Reformer" For the truth of these statements I can vouch so far 
as the matter concerns myself. A. D. Percy is a brother-in-law 
of mine and a gentleman to be relied upon. At the second 
capture the first markings were not very distinct, but sufficiently 
so to be easily read. Very truly yours, 

C. D. Abbey, 

Principal of the Hi-h School, I t'.i its.ru, Wisconsin. 

" In 1864 C. D. Abbey found a large mud turtle on his father's 
farmland cut his name and the date on the shell and then put it 
into the river. In 1874 he found the same turtle near the same 
place and again cut his name and date in the shell and then released 
it. Last Friday the same turtle made its appearance, and A. D. 
Percy cut his name on the back, and placed it in the river, when 
it started directly for Canada, evidently displeased with such 
treatment." 

Habits of the Boring Sponge. — N. Nassonon finds, states the 
Journal of the Royal Microscropical Society, that the Clione lives 
on the shells of living oysters as well as on empty shells. They 
give off from the surface very delicate pseudopodia-Iike processes, 
which pass in all directions into the substance of the shell ; these 
processes may branch, and even anastomose with one another. 
The author, by placing in the aquarium fine transparent lamella.' 
of oyster shells, saw the young Clione pusji its processes into the 
calcareous lamella ; when they had reached a certain depth they 
united with one another and forced out hemispherical calcareous 
particles; these were by contraction carried into the interior of the 
body, and then cast to the exterior. The ectoderm is reported to 



244 General Notes. [March, 

consist of flat, colorless epithelial cells, with processes by means of 
which the cells are connected together ; the mesoderm is formed 
by a mass of layers of oval, yellow cells. 

Color Sense in Crustacea. — M. Paul Bert has made some 
interesting experiments on a small fresh water crustacean belong- 
ing to the genus Daphnia, from which he concludes that they 
perceive all the colors known to us, being, however, specially 
sensitive to the yellow and green, and that their limits of vision 
are the same as ours ; but Sir John Lubbock, says the Journal of 
the Royal Microscopical Society, as the results of his own exper- 
iments with Daphnia under different parts of the spectrum, con- 
siders that the limits of vision of Daphnia do not, at the violet 
end of the spectrum, coincide with ours, but that, like the ant, it 
is affected by the ultra-violet rays. 

Hairs of the Anterior Antenna of Crustacea.— S. Jour- 
dain. after a few words on the auditory hairs of this group, pro- 
ceeds to point out the arrangement and structure of the processes 
found on these antennules, which were regarded by Leydig as 
having an olfactory function. Before describing the arrangements 
which obtain in the representatives of different orders, he says that 
in all cases we find a very delicate chitinous sheath, which is 
penetrated by an offshoot from the hypodermic layer, and which 
at its base is found to be in relation with a branch of the antennary 
nerve ; the free end is truncated and carries a hyaline body, which 
appears to be comparable to the rods found at the sensory ends 
of sensory organs. These may be known as the "poils a baton- 
net." The hairs are cylindrical in some cases, and then the chiti- 
nous cylindrical sheath is made up of a number of joints; the 
basal ones have thicker walls and are shorter than those which 
are more distal. In other cases the hairs are stipitate, and then 
the joints are ordinarily reduced to three, and the basal one, which 
is of some length, is constricted in its middle. A detailed study 
shows that the former arrangement is confined to the Podoph- 
thalmate Crustacea; the hairs are found in the' young, though in 
less number than in the adult; and, similarly, they are more 
numerous in the higher than in the lower forms. Although there 
seems to be no doubt that these organs respond to stimuli which 
are something else than tactile, we are not yet in a position to 
definitely assert that they have an olfactory function. The author 
concludes by remarking that the characters of these parts have a 
value for the systematist— Journal of the Royal Microscopical 

Bvthinia tentaculata. — My friend, Mr. Henry Prime, has just 
called my attention to'an error in The Naturalist for Septem- 
ber, i88[ (p. 716), in introduced species of shells. Instead of 
W. H. Ballou, it should have been VV. M. Beauchamp, as in the 
notice to which reference was made. 



1 882.] Zoology. 245 

Permit me to make a little fuller statement about this shell. 
I met with it in great numbers at Oswego in June, 1879, and ^ nc ^" 
ing no description of an American shell corresponding to it, re- 
ferred the matter to Dr. James Lewis, who was equally puzzled 
with myself until he saw the shell. He at once pronounced it a 
Bythinia, the first he had known in this country, and thought it 
B. (entaculata Linn., but, as it varied locally, he was not sure but 
it might prove a new and native species. Mr. Tryon at once pro- 
nounced it B. tentaculata, but it is interesting for comparison with 
the European shell. 

Dr. Lewis had successfully colonized Western mollusks in the 
Mohawk river and Erie canal, and I sent him several hundreds of 
this species for that purpose. How they have thriven I do not 
know. I put some in the Seneca river, but have seen none of 
them since, and think they require still waters. In the Erie canal 
at Syracuse, west of the Oswego canal only, there are a good 
many. At Oswego they adhere to the wooden piers and stones 
near the mouth of the river, and I found them nowhere else there. 

Soon after these shells were brought to Dr. Lewis' notice he 
showed some of them to Mr. Charles E. Beecher, of the New 
York State Cabinet, and found that he had frequently observed 
them in the canals near Albany, but had mistaken them for an- 
other native shell. Mr. B. certainly saw them before I did, though 
I happened to report them first. Dr. Lewis thought this species 
would spread rapidly, and it seems inclined to follow the canals, 
but not the streams. In ponds it would probably increase fast. 
Although it must have reached Oswego and Troy by way of the 
St. Lawrence, I am unable to learn of its presence on that river, 
or in Lake Champlain.— IV. M. Beauchamp. 

Zoological Notes. — The species of orangs, which have been 
placed at from one to four, have been examined by Mr. F. O. 
Lucas, of Professor Ward's establishment, who reports in the 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History that all four 

forms must be referred to one. Professor Ward has returned 

from a collecting journey to New Zealand and Australia with a 
large collection of marsupials, Ornithorhynchus, specimens of 
Echidna from New Guinea, and of Hatteria from New Zealand. 
His account of the habits of the latter very rare lizard, given in 
Ward's Natural Science Bulletin for January 1, is well worth 

reading. The mollusca of H. M. S. Challenger are being 

described in the Journal of the Linnaean Society, London, in a 
' a series of papers, by Rev. R. B. Watson, of which we have thus 
far received eight parts. The deep sea mollusks of the Gulf of 
Mexico and the Caribbean sea obtained by the U.S. Coast Survey 
steamer Blake have been described by Mr. W. H. Dall in Bulletin 
No. ir, Vol. ix, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. The collections made by the Blake in one winter 



(1877-78) is very rich, containing perhaps three times as many 
;pecies as ■" 



species as the results of the whole three years' voyage of the 
Chat' 



ENTOMOLOGY.' 

LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN CYNIPID/E. 



ftrata n. s. Genus 18. Cynips (L) Hertig. 

: = Aula* pirate O. S. strobilanai 



Os/ t ->i-S<rcl-e/iiiTi. 


Genus 


27. Holcaspis Maj 

Skbuh 




California B. 


Genus 


28. DryopuantaJ 


:<'<>rst. 



Bibliography of Gall Literature. — The study of galls be- 
longs to the domain of entomology as well as botany, and no 
one is more capable of reviewing the literature on the subject, 
than Dr. Fr. Thomas, of Ohrdruf (Germany). Dr. Thomas has 
for some years past prepared the chapter, " Durch Thiere erzeugte 
Pflanzengallen " (Galls produced on plants by animals) of the 
Botanischer Jahresbericht, and we have just received his report 
from Vol. vii of that periodical. This latest record comprises the^ 
literature of the year 1879, including a few publications of the* 
year 1878, .not mentioned in the Jahresbericht for 1878, and 
is arranged as in the previous volumes ; the titles are first 
given alphabetically by authors, a key to the subjects treated 
iThis department is edited by Prof. C. V. Rii.ky, Washington, D. C, to whom 



1 882.] 



Entomology. 



?47 



of follows, and finally the review is given of the publica- 
tions. There are 107 publications recorded in this volume, of 
which number more than one-third treat directly or indirectly of 
the grape Phylloxera. The record is an evidence of the increas- 
ing interest felt in this branch of natural history. The most im- 
portant contribution of the year 1879 appears to have been L. 
Courchet's " Etude sur les galles produites par Us Aphidiens." 

A new Depredator infesting Wheat-stalks. — Under the 
title of Isosoma allynii, Professor G. H. French, of Carbondale, 
111., describes what he believes to be a new wheat pest, in the 
Prairie Farmer, for Dec. 31, 188 1. He has been kind enough to 
send us types of this new species, which, as we suspected from 
the description, prove to be not Isosoma, but a species of Eupel- 
mus parasitic doubtless on some of the wheat-stalk feeders and 
probably on some species of Chlorops. A detailed description 
published in the Canadian Entomologist 1 Jan., 1882) of this " Iso- 
soma ally nii" shows also that Professor French drew it from the 
Eupelmus. The error would have loss significance but for the 






tin 






related by 
We hav< 

past from specimens received from Tennc 
and Missouri. The larvae were first received in 
June, 1880, passed the winter in the pupa state, 
and issued as adults in March and April, 1881. 
Specimens received the present season have 
issued in December, induced doubtless by the 
long protracted warm weather which gener- 
ally prevailed in those sections. Although 
congeneric with the Joint- worm (Isosoma 
hordei) of Harris and Fitch, it differs widely 
from the latter in habits and appearance. The 
Joint-worm forms a gall-like swelling at a joint 
near the base of the stalk, while the species 
under consideration feeds on the interior of 
the stalk between the joints higher up without 
- ng. Tin ■ ■ 



and 



th.i 



the 




joint-worm fly, and is perfectly smooth upon the dorsum of the 
thorax, while the latter presents a marked punctation ; moreover, 
the customary pronotal spot in the new specie- is large and ycl- 



■ellow, and extendii 



It is worthy of remark that the species seems to be quite 
closely related to the European Isosoma linearis. This spe- 
cies was bred from wheat by Dr. Giraud, who considered it 
inquilinous in the swellings formed by the Dipterous Octhiphila 
poly stigma of Meigen. Kaltenbach remarks, however, that al- 
though obtaining the Isosoma many times from the wheat, he 
never succeeded in seeing the Dipteron — a very suggestive fact. 

Walker (Notes on Chalcididae, p. 7) states, in reference to the 
"humeral spot" that although present in all European species of 
Isosoma, it is absent in American and Australian representatives of 
the genus. In tritici, however, it is a prominent feature of the 
markings, and even in hordei it is as evident as upon the European 
/. vertkellata which we have from Walker himself. — C. V. Riley. 
* Further notes on the imported Clover-leaf Weevil (Phy- 
tonomus punctatus). — During a recent visit to our friend, Dr. Le- 
Conte, in Philadelphia, we learned that he had received a beetle 
from Canada, as long ago as 1853, from Mr. D'Urban, who was 
then connected with the geological survey of that country, and 
another specimen from the late Dr. Melsheimer, from Pennsyl- 
vania, and that these specimens had been described by him 
as Phytonomu hpphora, p. 124). He had recog- 

nized, from what we had published in the Naturalist, regarding 

/ '"'■'■ .' ■'■■■:;■■: ■ ■ ■ ', ' : , ' :■■:..'■. 'I; ..■:!'. .- 

ceiving specimens from us he wrote that after a careful examina- 
tion there was no doubt in his mind as to the identity of the two 
species. Ph. punctatus, in its typical and most common form, is so 
easily recognizable by its coloration (the suture and margins of 
the elytra bein that one would not suspect its 

identity with Ph. opimus from the description of this last. It 
would appear, however, that opimus is identical with a variety of • 
Ph. punctatus described by Capiomont (Annates de la Societe 
Entomologique de France, 1868, p. 123), in which the scales of the 
elytra are almost uniformly gray, and which is not rare in Eu- 
rope. The specimen from Melsheimer is, moreover, evidently 
rubbed. It is a strange coincidence that the numerous specimens 
we collected on Mr. Snook's farm were all identical in coloration 
with the typical form, and that just those described by Dr. LeConte 
as opiums should belong to a comparatively rare form. 

The identity of the two forms once established, it becomes 
probable that the insect had made a permanent lodgement in this 
country years ago, and that it was simply overlooked as an injuri- 



1 882.] Entomology. 249 

ous insect till the present year. That a beetle is quite liable to be 
overlooked by coleopterists, although quite injurious to some cul- 
tivated plants, is not only probable, but has often occurred. 
Coccotorus scuUltaris which injuriously affects the plum; Tylo- 
derma fragaria which depredates on the strawberry plant ; and 
Hylesinus trifolii which is so injurious to clover, are examples 
among many which occur to us of species very common on culti- 
vated plants, yet rare in collections. The same is equally true in 
other orders of insects. A notable instance is found in the 
Hessian fly which, though more or less injurious every year in 
some of our wheat-producing sections, is yet so rare in collections 
that Dr. Packard had difficulty in procuring specimens to figure 
for his bulletin on the species. 

There is tfie other alternative, however (which is also not so 
improbable), that the two specimens that have remained solitary 
so many years in the largest American collection of Coleoptera, 
may really have come into the country through European ex- 
changes, especially as it is known that Dr. Melsheimer did, in 
some instances, mix up European with American species. 

It is impossible to say whether this Phytonomus will spread 
further west or not. The encouraging presumption, however, 
is, if we may predicate upon analogy, that it will not, since we 
recall no very injurious beetle introduced from Europe (excluding 
those feeding upon stored products) which has spread over the 
whole country, the most prominent examples of such introduced 
species, Criocer, \ a /> >. ?- ■', Gah ruca 1 />:' '/<•/< na, etc., being yet 
confined to the Atlantic coast. 

Our experience and observations this winter confirm the opinion 
already expressed, that this Phytonomus hibernates principally in 
the young larva state, and that any mode of winter warfare that 
would crush or burn these larvae hibernating in the old stalks 
would materially reduce the depredations of the species the 
ensuing summer. Clover stubble is, however, not so easily burned 
in winter, and whether rolling could be advantageously employed 
will depend very much on the smoothness of the field and other 

As an interesting fact in connection with imported clover 
enemies we would mention that several species of the Curculionid 
genus Sitones, especially 5. jltfvescens and lineellus, which in 
Europe are injurious to clover and lucern, and which have long 
since become naturalized in our country, have never been reported 
here as injurious though they occur quite commonly in some 
localities. 1 — C. V. Rilcv. 

Silk-worm Eggs; Prices and where obtained.— We daily 
receive applications for silk-worm eggs and inquiries as to where 



250 General Notes. [March, 

they can be obtained, the number of such applications indicating 
that interest in silk culture is fast increasing through the country. 
A small supply of silk-worm eggs will probably be at the dispo- 
sal of the Department of Agriculture early this spring, and will 
be distributed upon application. We learn also, from circulars 
received from Crozier & Co., Bayou Sara, La., that they are pre- 
pared to furnish eggs at the following prices : Annual Japanese, 
$5 per ounce, $i per iooo eggs; the best yellow breed, war- 
ranted free from disease, $6 per ounce, $i per iooo. The 
eggs ought to be ordered early, or else there is great danger of 
their hatching prematurely while on the way. A few eggs of a 
special race, fed for eleven years on osage orange (Madura anran- 
tiaca) by the editor, will be sent to a limited number of appli- 
cants who desire to feed with this plant, upon application to him. 
ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 
Professor Rau on Cup-shaped Stones. — The distinguished 
curator of the archaeological treasures of the National Museum 
has just published a paper upon cup-shaped and other lapidarian 
sculptures in the Old World and in America, which will form a 
part of Volume v. in Major Powell's series of Contributions to 
North American Ethnology. This monograph is in 4to, and 
consists of 102 pages of printed matter, illustrated by 6l figures 
on tinted paper. 

In archaeology, as in natural history, form and function have 
to be studied separately, and each class of objects may be con- 
sidered from the point of view of eilher. Furthermore, in all 
anthropological investigations analogies are to be distinguished 
from homologies. The work under consideration treats of a cer- 
tain form in ancient sculpture, occurring in very interesting con- 
nections in various parts of the world, viz., certain cup-shaped 
excavations called pierres a ccuelles in French, and Schalcnstcinc 
in German. Part i. is taken up with a comprehensive review of 
the work of Professor E. Desor, entitled " Les Pierres a Ecuelles " 
(Geneve, 1878); that of Sir James Y. Simpson entitled "Archaic 
Sculptures of Cups, Circles, &c, upon Stones and Rocks in Scot- 
land, England, and other Countries " (Proc. Soc. Antiq., Scot- 
land, 1867); Mr. J. H. Rivett-Carnac's "Prehistoric Remains in 
Central India" (Calcutta, 1879); and scattered references to these 
sculptures occurring in Scotland, England, Ireland, France, 
Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, and India. 
One-half of the illustrations are taken from the works above men- 
Professor Rau is very careful, while describing and figuring 
excavations very similar in form and grouping, to keep in view 
the fact that slight differences in detail combined with great dif- 
ferences of location may point to widely separated functions. In- 
» Edited by Professor Otis T. Mason, 1305 Q. street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 



1 8 8 2 . ] A nthropology. 2 5 1 

deed the mahadeos and yonis of India can hardly be said to have 
had their counterparts in America. 

While the first part of the volume exhibits a vast deal of research 
and painstaking, the truly original portion and that for which a 
lasting obligation will be due the author, is Part II., relating to cup- 
cuttings in America. These sculptures occur on hammer-stones, 
boulders of various sizes, paint mortars, stationary mortars, &c. 
They are not all alike in execution ; some are single, others in 
groups. The .Professor, both in his descriptive portion and in the 
closing remarks, enters quite minutely into the discussion of func- 
tions, and a few of his conclusions are herewith given : 

I. The so-called hammer-stones were not flint nappers; many 
of them show no mark of use as hammers. There is great prob- 
ability that they were nut-crackers. 

II. Many of the pitted boulders were paint mortars, and those 
with several pits have their analogues in the compound paint cups 
of the Pueblo Indians. 

in. They were not anvils for shaping copper disks. 

iv. They were not spindle sockets. Following this discussion 
is an extended allusion to several large pitted stones, notably one 
found by Dr. H. H. Hill, of Cincinnati. 

v. The deep depressions in large rocks were stationary mor- 

vi. Certain sculptures found in Pennsylvania and elsewhere 
resemble the cup and ring cuttings of the Old World. 

In Part in. Professor Rau discusses the significance of cup- 
shaped and other primitive sculptures, giving particular attention 
to Professor Nillson's " Phoenician Baal-worship theory," Canon 
Greenwell's " map theory," Professor Simpson's " dial theory," 
and many other speculations. The author is very much inclined 
to admit Mr. Rivett-Carnac's views respecting the " reciprocal 
principle" in many European examples. The question as to the 
authorship of the sculptures is also considered, as well as the 
superstitions connected with them, and the evidence afforded by 
them of migrations from the Old World to the New. 

Mexican Anthropology.— The fourth and fifth parts oi.Anales 
del Museo National de Mexico contain the following papers rela- 
tive to this department : 



252 General Notes. [March, 

The Implements of the Trenton Gravels. — Mr. Henry W. 
Haynes, of Boston, read a paper before the Boston Society of 
Natural History last January upon the argillite implements found 
in the gravels of the Delaware river, &c, compared with the 
palaeolithic implements of Europe. The communication is pub- 
lished in Vol. xxi of the Proceedings. The author comes to the 
following conclusions : The objects have come from the gravel 
beds of the Delaware valley, and only occasionally have they 
been found upon the surface. They show incontestable marks 
of human workmanship. The general appearance "of the country 
is similar to that of the palaeolithic gravels of the Old World. 
Dr. Abbott has sent us a pamphlet reprint from the Society's 
Proceedings reviewing the whole subject. 

Antiquities of New Mexico and Arizona. — Dr. W. J. Hoff- 
man, of the Bureau of Ethnology at Washington, sends us a revised 
edition of a pamphlet on the above named subject, which first 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences. The author has had a great deal of experience in the 
Indian country as a physician, is a man of great tact and address, 
and has been connected with the government surveys for a long 
time. We have in the brochure before us an excellent epitome 
of our knowledge of the Pueblos. The subject of glazed pottery 
is treated at length and several analyses given.' On the subject 
of crania and deformations the treatise is especially full and the 
bibliography invaluable. 

Asiatic Tribes in North America. — From the Proceedings 
of the Canadian Institute, we are in receipt of a brochure of 38 
pages from the pen of Professor John Campbell, on the Asiatic 
Tribes of North America. In this the author indicates the origin 
of three Indian families: the Tinneh or Athabascans, the Iroquois, 
and the Choctaws. The Tinneh family are associated with the 
Tungusians of Siberia and Northern China, and the Iroquois and 
Choctaws (who with the Cherokeesare simply disguised Iroquois) 
with the populations of Northeastern Asia, classed by Dr. Latham 
as Peninsular Mongolidae. With respect to the Tinneh, Professor 
Campbell, at the close of his argument remarks, " Certainly, no 
two families representing the Old World and the New present 
closer affinities in name, vocabulary, grammar, physical appear- 
ance, dress, arts, manners and customs, than do the Tungus of 
Asia and the Tinneh of America." 

Under the term Choctaw is included the entire Muscogee fam- 
ily, together with the Cherokees, the Choctaws representing the 
Tehuktchi or Tshekts, and the Cherokees the Koriaks or Koraeki. 
The Tuscaroras of the South are taken as the oldest and purest 
form of the Wyandot-Iroquois and through them the last named 
family are brought into relationship with the Choctaw-Cherokee, 
and by this path with the Koriak in Northeastern Asia. 



1 882.] Geology and Paleontology. 2 

Anthropology in France. — The unusual amount of mat 
relating to our own country precludes giving more than a bi 
outline of what is doing abroad. The Bulletins dc la Sociiti 
Anthropologic de Paris reports the following discussions in the 
fasciculus for 1881: 

Bordier, M.— Calotte cerebrale d'un Esquimau, p. 16. 
Chuu/unski, M. — Splanchnologie d'un orang, p. 19. 

-une Jacques Inaudi. 

Tenkate.H. F. C:— Cianes <le mu-ee de Leyde, p. 37. 

De Torok, A.— Crane du jeune gorille de m usee Broca, p. 46. 

Hayem, Professoi — ] 1 1 •. \ue anthropologique, p. 72. 

Ra! purdin. 1 icien — \^t de pierre 1 ms 1, S.l . , nti 1, ; {>. 115-160, 

The Revue d'Anthropologie, vol. iv., part iv., contains the f 
lowing original papers and reviews : 

Broca, Paul.— La torsion de I'Humerus et le tropometre, p. 577. 
• P- 593- 



Napoli, 1 88 1.] 
Zabarowski, —.—Revue preh 

SoMi's -I.es arts meeonnus;" Dr. Nehrings 

Manouvrier,°L. -Review of French and Italian journals. 
Deniker,—.— Review of Dr. II,nt<is •• he ia queue chez l'homme." 
Vars, Ed.— Revue russe. [Examines M. Bogdanoff's craniological works.] 

At the close of the number is an extended bibliography, too 
long to be reproduced here; but the important titles will appear 
in the next Smithsonian Annual Report. 

Correction. — By an oversight, for which we are extremely 
sorry, the title of the paper by Professor Cyrus Thomas on the 
Manuscript Troano, read at the American Association, was omitted 
from the list. 

GEOLOGY / AND PALJEONtf OLOGY. 

Marsh on the Classification of the Dinosauria. — Pro- 
fessor Marsh regards the group as a sub-class, and divides it into 
five orders, viz . Sam />oda, s} s ,v , /, Ornu \ poda, Thcropoda 
and Hallopoda ; the first three herbivorous, the last carnivorous, 
riie Sauropoda include A/lantosanms, Camarasanrns, Cctiosaurus 
and other forms having five digits on each of the limbs,and limbs 
nearly equal; Scclid saunts, t'/vltcosanrus and others having also 
twenty digits, but with small fore limbs and a post-pubis, form the 
toferStegosaitria; ( \impt not , <, Lr< s vn s, 4' < m don, etc., having 
five digits in manus and three in pes, with small fore limbs, are 
included in the 0; nitlu p 'da. w hilt J /.gal >* ntrus, . Utosaurus, Zanc- 



254 General Notes. [March, 

lodon % AmpJiisaurus, and other species with digitigrade feet, 
small fore limbs, and prehensile claws, form the order Theropoda, 
which has also two sub-orders — Ccemria and Campsognatha. The 
Hallopoda are doubtfully referred to the sub-class, and have the 
hind feet specially adapted for leaping. 

In the preparation of his papers on this subject Professor Marsh 
has had very extensive material, and has had excellent opportuni- 
ties for investigation. He had added more to our knowledge of 
this division of reptiles than perhaps any other single person. 
His demonstration of the structure of the pelvis in various genera, 
of the feet in many forms, includii r,and the dis- 

covery of the clavicle in Iguanodon and other genera, are among 
the most important points gained. It is, however, not evident 
that the Dinosauria constitute a group of higher rank than an 
order, or that the subdivisions proposed by Professor Marsh are 
of higher rank than sub-orders or families. 

The "personal equation" is observable in this work, in as 
marked a degree as in any of Professor Marsh's papers. This is 

First. In his failure to characterize his genera on first publish- 
ing them — a proceeding which is apparently intended to warn 
others off the field. The publication of nomina nuda, without the 
definitions which enable others to use them, is, to say the least, 
very inconvenient to cotemporary students. 

Second. In his failure to recognize the labors of others, except 
to point out supposed errors. Thus three of his orders had re- 
ceived names long before Professor Marsh wrote, and had been 
defined, less completely, it is true, but, as far as the material went, 
correctly. Thus his S;iump<>d;i was named by Owen, in 1841, 
Opisthoccela ; his Ornithopoda by Cope, in 1869, Orthopoda; and 
his Theropoda by Cope, in 1869, Goniopoda. The numerous gen- 
era described from the American Jurassic by American authors, 
are all ignored or stated to be founded on error. 1 Some of them are 
identical with those proposed by Marsh, and of earlier date. ■ 

Thirdly. In his failure to credit others with their discoveries, 
and permission of the inference that they are his own. Such is 
the discovery of the hyposphen articulation, by Cope, which he re- 
names the diplosphen. Such is the discovery of the sternum in the 
Dinosauria, which was made by Cope in the Laramie genus Mono- 
donius in 1877 (Proceedings Philadelphia Academy). His ref- 
erence of some discoveries to other than their authors is not less 
frequent. Thus it is well known that Professor Cope first showed 
the bird-like, affinities of some of the Dinosauria, and affirmed 






1 8 8 2 . ] Geology and Paleontology. 255 

that the bird-like tracks of the Triassic formation were made by 
Dinosauria, at least a year before Professor Huxley; yet these 
observations are credited to the latter writer. 

It cannot be said in defence of these defects in an otherwise ex- 
cellent memoir, that the papers in question have been written by 
Professor Marsh's assistants, since the latter are not made re- 
sponsible on the title-page. — E. D. Cope. 

The Dinosaurs of Bernissart 1 .— In the year 1878 numerous 
bones of fossil reptilia were discovered in the St Barbe mine of 
the Bernissart coal district, and ultimately several Iguanodon skel- 
etons were taken out from a depth of three hundred and fifty 
metres, as complete and almost as well preserved as though they 
had come straight from a slaughter-house. In a notice submitted 
to the Royal Academy of Belgium, M. Boulenger founds a new 
species on these skeletons, on account of their possession of six 
sacral vertebrae instead of five, the number possessed by that in 
the British Museum. M. P-J. Van Beneden, however, in reviewing 
M. Boulenger's work, states his belief that the remains belong to 
the well-known /. mantelli of England and Western Europe, and 
that the difference in the number of sacral vertebrae is merely an 
individual one. In support of this opinion he cites the facts that 
another Iguanodon, described by M. Hulke,has only four sacrals, 
and that the number of sacrals is subject to variation in many 
animals, especially in birds, the additional ones being taken from 
the caudal or the lumbar series. 

M. Dupont has also written upon the Bernissart Iguanodons, 
and agrees with M. Van Beneden in referring them to / mantelli. 
M. Van Beneden adds sonic interesting particulars relating to the 
limbs and pelvic arch of Iguanodon. 

All palaeontologists agree that the Iguanodons had on the hind 
feet three toes used in walking, but it is not generally known that 
the metatarsal bones of these three toes were completely separate, 
alike at both ends, and capable of leaving their imprint upon the 
•soil behind the toes, so that the Iguanodons were plantigrade when 
compared with most birds, or, to speak more accurately, were 
herpctigrade, like the penguin's. 

The fore limbs, which are as little developed as in kangaroos, 
have five fingers; three mid lie ones equallv developed and having 
three phalanges, as also has the fifth, and a thumb consisting of 
a single large phalanx and a rudimentary metacarpal. The fifth 
finger is small, and opposable to the thumb, so that the Iguanodons 
had two hands with which to gather the fruits of the cycads and 
conifers that flourished in the same epoch. 

The impressions of the footsteps of these animals, well preserved 



Belgiqu, 



'M- 



256 General Notes. [March, 

both in England and in Hanover, teach us that they did not make 
use of their tail for support, either when walking or when at rest, 
since up to this time no trace of a caudal impression has been 
found. This is also what might be inferred from the structure of 
the processes of the caudal vertebrae and from the tendons, which 
are so distinctly ossified that with a little trouble the myology of 
the tail could be made out. 

There has been considerable difference of opinion among natu- 
ralists as to the homologies of the pelvic bones of saurians, espe- 
cially with regard to the pubis, which is incomplete and does not 
take part in the formation of the cotyloid cavity. The pelvic 
basin of Com h) is, according to that author, 

nearest to that of the Iguanodon, but has the post-pubis more 
bird-like than in the latter. 

Hulke on Polacanthus foxi 1 .— Dr. J. M. Hulke has at last 
given us a description of this species, whose name has been on 
our lists for some years, but of which it has been impossible to 
get any information. In proper concession to mnemonic conve- 
nience Dr. Hulke has adopted the name given without descrip- 
tion by Professor Owen, but the species will stand Polacanthus foxi 
Hulke. The animal is nearly allied to Hyl(gosaitrus,a.r\d is one of 
the most thoroughly defended of the Dinosauria. Its body sup- 
ported huge spines, and its tail was enclosed in an armor of bony 
plates. The species was large and powerful, but not one of the 
gigantic forms of the order. It was found in the Wealden of 
the Isle of Wight by Dr. Fox, who has made so many important 
discoveries in that region. 

Russian Sauropterygia. — M. Kiprijanoff has communicated 
an important memoir on the genus Ichthyosaurus to the Imperial 
Academy of St. Petersburg 2 . The motive for the memoir was 
found in the discovery of the genus in the Cretaceous greensand 
of European Russia. This threw the genus into a later geological 
epoch than its range in Continental Europe had included. The 
author takes occasion to analyze the species of the genus, a work 
which will be of great service to extra-European palaeontologists 
in their studies. The Russian species is the /. campylodon oi 
Carter. Besides describing the bones of the skeleton, M. Kipri- 
janoff investigates their histology, and especially the minute struc- 
ture of the teeth. The plates illustrating this part of the subject 
are beautiful specimens of art. 

The Geology of Florida.— Prof. E. A. Smith, of Alabama, 
summarizes the geological history of the Peninsula of Florida as 
follows : 

(1.) Since no rocks have been found in Florida older than the 

'From the Transactions of the Royal Society, London. Part Til, 1SS1. 
»Sui.lien udter <lie Kossillen Rer,tili«.-n. i :ianoff. I Theii, 

Galiieng Ichthyosaurus. Mem. de l'Academie Imperiale de Sciences de St. Peters- 



Geology and Pal&ontology. 257 

Vicksburg limestone, it follows that until the end of the Eocene 
' " 1 the 
as still submerged. 

(2.) During the period of disturbance which followed the de- 
position of the Vicksburg limestone, Florida was elevated nearly 
to its present height above the sea-level, which elevation was 
maintained without material interruption until the Champlain 
period. 

(3.) In this upward movement the axis of elevation did not 
coincide with the present main dividing ridge of the peninsula, 
but lay considerably to the westward, probably occupying the 
position very nearly of the western coast of to-day. 

(4.) After the Miocene (or possibly the Pliocene) period, there 
was again an elevation of Florida, as is shown by the presence 
of a Miocene limestone of the eastern slope of the peninsula, 
some distance (not less than thirty feet) above the present sea- 
level. 

(5.) We have evidence in the distribution of the beds of the 
Champlain period (stratified drift of orange sand) that Florida 
and parts of the adjacent States were during this- time submerged 
sufficiently to allow the deposition over them of a mass of pebbles, 
sand and clay, varying in thickness from a few feet to two hun- 
dred. From the peculiar mode of stratification of most of these 
beds, it is concluded, with reason, that they were sediments from 
rapidly-flowing, ever-varying currents- In the State, the beds of 
yellow and red loam lie directly upon the stratified drift. These 
beds of loam are devoid of stratified structure, as well as of fossils, 
and were probably deposited from slowly running or nearly 

(6.) Following the submergence during the Champlain period, 
was a re-elevation, which brought the peninsula to approxi- 
mately its present configuration.— -Scientific News. 

Geological News.— The Trans. N. Y. Acad, of Sciences contain 
a paper by Mr. J. H. Purman upon the " Geology of the Copper 
Region of Northern Texas and the Indian Territory," giving the 
first accurate description of the geological structure of the dis- 
trict. S. A. Miller (Jour. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist.) concludes his 

article on Mesozoic and Caenozoic Geology by considering the 
" Drift of the Central Part of the Continent." He describes the 
character of these deposits, their situation, altitude, magnetic 
bearings, fossils, etc., and concludes by the assertion that the facts 
collected tend to prove that " there is no marine or other deposit 
which represents a glacial period." In a second paper he describes 

two new crinoids from the Niagara group, and two new shells. 

In the Geneva Archives des Sci. Phys. et Nat.. July, 1881, Mr. F. 
A. Forel has an important article on the periodical variations of 
•glaciers, based upon observations in the Alps. The Rhone glacier 
has retreated from 1857 to 1880 at a rate varying from twenty- 



258 General Notes. [March, 

three to seventy-one metres annually. The retreat or advance of 
a glacier depends "on changes of long periodicity in meteorological 
conditions— heat, moisture, winds." In the Am. Journal of Sci- 
ence Dr. R. W. Coppinger has some interesting observations upon 
the movement of the soil-cap on the shores of Western Patagonia. 
Evergreen forests and brushwood cover the shore hills to a height 
of one thousand feet, and gravitation, acting on this mass of vege- 
tation and the soil beneath, resting on a surface already planed by 
ice-action, causes the whole to slide downward to the water, which 
removes its free edge in much the same way that the end of a 

Greenland glacier is removed. The Report on the Geological 

and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, for 1880, contains a 
descriptive list of rocks, descriptions of three new Lower Silurian 
Brachiopods, and a note on the Cupriferous series by Professor 
Winchell ; also an account of the Glacial phenomena of the State 
and the district north and west of it, by Warren Upham. 
GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 1 

Dr. Lenz on the Sahara. — Dr. Oscar Lenz gives in the last 
number of the Zettsckrift of the Berlin Geographical Society 2 an 
account of the results of his journey across the Sahara, from Tan- 
ger to Timbuktu, and thence to Senegambia. The following good 
abridgement of his paper we take from the Nature : 

" The real journey was begun at Marrakesh, at the northern 
foot of the Atlas mountains, where Dr. Lenz laid in his store 
of provisions and changed his name and dress, traveling 
further under the disguise of a Turkish military surgeon. He 
crossed the Atlas and the Anti-Atlas in a south-western direc- 
tion. The Atlas consists, first, of a series of low hills belonging 
to the Tertiary and Cretaceous formations, then of a wide plateau 
of red sandstone, probably Triassic, and of the chief range, which 
consists of clay-slates with extensive iron ores. The pass of Bi- 
banan is 1250 metres above the sea-level, and it is surrounded 
with peaks about 4000 metres high, whilst the Wad Sus valley at 
its foot is but 150 metres above the sea. The Anti-Atlas consists 
of Palaeozoic strata. On May 5, 1880, Dr. Lenz reached Tenduf, 
a small town founded some thirty years ago, and promising to 
acquire great importance as a station for caravans. The northern 
part of the Sahara is a plateau 400 metres high, consisting of hori- 
zontal Devonian strata which contain numerous fossils. On May 
15 Dr. Lenz crossed the moving sand-dunes of Igidi, a wide tract 
where he observed the interesting phenomenon of musical sand, 
a sound like that of a trumpet being produced by the friction of 
the small grains of quartz. But amidst these moving dunes it is 
1 Edited by ELLIS H. Yarnall, Philadelphia. 

•I 

94, 95. P- 2 72. It is accompanied by a large m,;, ol his route. Scale I : 1,500,000. ' 



1882.] Geography and Travels. 259 

not uncommon to find some grazing places for camels, as well as 
flocks of gazelles and antelopes. At El Eglab Dr. Lenz found 
granite and porphyry, and was fortunate enough to have rain. 
Thence the character of the desert becomes more varied, the route 
crossing sometimes sandy and sometimes stony tracts or sand- 
dunes, with several dry river beds running east and west between 
them. On May 29 he reached the salt works of Taudeni and 
visited the ruins of a very ancient town where numerous stone 
implements have been found. Here he crossed a depression of 
the desert only 145 to 170 metres high, while the remainder of 
the desert usually reaches as much as 250 to 300 metres above 
the sea level ; and he remarks that throughout- his journey he did 
not meet with depressions below the sea-level. The schemes for 
flooding the Sahara are therefore hopeless and misleading. The 
landscape remained the same until the wide Alfa fields which 
extend north of Arauan. This little town is situated amidst sand- 
dunes devoid of vegetation, owing to the hot southern winds. 
Four days later Dr. Lenz was in Timbuktu, whence he proceeded 
west to St. Louis. During his forty-three days' travel through the 
Sahara Dr. Lenz observed that the temperature was not excessive; 
it usually was from 34 to 36 Celsius, and only in the Igidi 
region it reached 45 °. The wind blew mostly from north-west, 
and it was only south of Taudeni that the traveler experienced 
the hot south winds \edrash~\ of the desert. As to the theory of 
north-eastern trade winds being the cause of the formation of the 
desert, Dr. Lenz remarks that he never observed such a wind, nor 
did his men ; it must be stopped by the hilly tracts of the north. 

" Another important remark of Dr. Lenz is what he makes with 
respect to the frequent description of the Sahara as a sea-bed. 
Of course it was under the sea, but during the Devonian, Creta- 
ceous and Tertiary periods ; as to the sand which covers it now, it 
has nothing to do with the sea ; it is the product of the destruction 
of sandstones by atmospheric agencies. Northern Africa was not 
always a desert, and the causes of its being so now must be sought 
for, not in geological but in meterological influences." 

Arctic Exploration. — Up to the middle of June last the edge 
of the ice extended in an east and west direction at a distance of 
only sixty to one hundred miles from the coast of Finmark. It 
trended north-eastward toward Novaya Zemlya.and swept round at 
a distance of about thirty miles from Matyushin Strait, towards the 
entrance of theWhite Sea. With the probable exception of 1 S67, the 
ice was then nearer to the northern coast of Norway than it was 
ever known to be before. After the middle of August the ice dis- 
appeared off Novaya Zemlya, and there was probably open water 
to Franz-Josef Land. It is stated in the Royal Geographical 
Societies' Proceedings that " the collective evidence shows that the 
prevailing northerly and north-westerly winds of last winter packed 
the ice in a broad belt across the Spitsbergen and Barent's Seas. 



260 General Notes. [March, 

The southern edge of this belt was exceptionally low down along 
the north coast of Norway, while the northern edge nearly reached 
the south point of Spitzbergen. The southern pack-edge showed 
little alteration during May and June, but gave way rapidly when 
it fairly began to melt — about the beginning of July — as the ice 
was on the whole of no great thickness. The climatic conditions 
north and south of the belt seems to have differed considerably ^ 
during the winter. In the north of Norway heavy falls of snow 
were unusually frequent, while north of the belt the fall was 
comparatively slight. So early as the end of June the winter snow 
had in great measure disappeared even from the highlands of 
Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemlya, while in the northern part of 
Norway it lay thickly, down to the very water's edge. On arriv- 
ing at Spitzbergen the walrus hunters also found vegetation unu- 
sually far advanced. Thus since large masses of ice were blown 
southward during the winter of 1 880-1, it is highly probable that 
the Polar regions were fairly free from ice early in the summer, 
while the autumn must have offered exceptionally favorable con- 
ditions for an advance to the northward or north-eastward. This 
supposition is strongly confirmed by reports from the walrus 
grounds northward of Spitzbergen. With regard to the Kara 
Sea, it seems that it was not accessible from the westward till 
about the beginning of August. But while a heavy, solid pack 
extended northward from the Kara Strait along the east coast of 
Novaya Zemlya, the eastern part of the Kara Sea was certainly 
free from ice by the beginning of August, and very probably by 
the middle of July. In August and September, therefore, vessels 
from Europe could undoubtedly have reached the mouth of the 
Yenisei." 

It is probable the Eira took advantage of the disappearance of 
the ice in August, as mentioned above, to make her way to Franz 
Josef Land. 

Lieutenant Berry, of the Rodgcrs, found the sea becoming 
deeper as he sailed to the north-eastward from Wrangell Island. 
His observations off Herald Island indicate that there is no regu- 
lar current flowing to the north-west, as previously supposed. 
No perceptible current was noticed at low and high water — the 
only movement being caused by the tidal action. 

The expedition sent out by the Danish Government last sum- 
mer to Greenland, has returned home. It proceeded to the 
southernmost part of Greenland and succeeded in circumnavi- 
gating the large islands on the southern coast and in determining 
the exact position of Cape Farewell. Investigations were con- 
ducted on the mainland from the Tasermint Fjord on the west 
coast to the Lindenows Fjord on the east coast. 

There are high mountains and enormous glaciers on the west 
side. The eastern section is of lower elevation, and covered with 



1 882.] Microscopy, Scientific News. 261 

a layer of ice and snow with the exception of a kw mountain 

Mr. Dall, in an elaborate paper on the hydrology of Behring 
Sea, in Peternii /, concludes that the warm sur- 

face water which enters the Polar Sea through Behring Strait is, 
at most, capable of melting 5100 square inches of ice, and that 
its influence is consequently insignificant No branch of the Kuro 
Siwo enters the Behring Sea, and the currents in the Polar basin 
to the north of it, are mainly dependent upon the winds. There 
is no reason to suppose that these drift currents are capable of 
opening passages through the pack-ice which would enable ex- 
ploring vessels to reach the Pole or even a very high latitude. 

The British Government are considering a plan for the estab- 
lishment of a meteorological station at Fort Simpson, on the 
Mackenzie River, to be conducted on the system adopted by the 
International Polar Conference. 

Lake Onega may be considered to mark the natural boundary 
between Northern Russia and Finland, as regards their geologi- 
cal structure, topographical features, fauna and flora. 

MICROSCOPY. 1 
The Acme Microscopes.— These really excellent instruments, 
combining good workmanship with moderate cost, and built upon 
a model which comprises many of the most convenient and ser- 
viceable of recent improvements in the construction of stands, 
have passed into the hands of James W. Queen & Co., of Phila- 
delphia, who will act as business agents for their sale, and whose 
great business facilities cannot fail to secure for them a more gen- 
eral and adequate appreciation and attention than they have yet 
received. A " No. 4 " stand, simpler and smaller than those for- 
merly made, and a " lithological," specially adapted to the exami- 
nation of rocks, are among the recent additions to the Acme 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
— A French naval doctor, M. Crevaux, has lately made im- 
portant explorations in the northern parts of South America, 
more especially in the valley of the Orinoco and its affluents. 
Among other facts of observation, he states that the Guaraunos, 
at the delta of that river, take refuge in the trees when the delta 
is inundated. There they make a sort of dwelling with branches 
and clay. The women light, on a small piece of floor, the fire - 
needed for cooking, and the traveler on the river by night often 
sees with surprise long rows of flames at a considerable height in 
the air. The Guaraunos dispose of their dead by hanging them 



This department is edited by Dr. R. H. 



262 Scientific News. [March, 

in hammocks in the tops of trees. Dr. Crevaux, in the course of 
his travels, met with geophagous, or earth-eating tribes. The clay, 
which often serves for their food whole months, seems to be a 
mixture of oxide of iron and some organic substances. They 
have recourse to it more especially in times of scarcity ; but, 
strange to say, there are eager gourmands for the substance, in- 
dividuals in whom the depraved taste becomes so pronounced, 
that they may be seen tearing pieces of ferruginous clay from 
huts made of it, and putting them in their mouths. 

— Wasps are such an obstacle in the way of English fruit 
growers that one of them, Mr. William Taylor, thinks it worth 
while to pay three pence each for queens. And this season he 
bought and destroyed no less than 1192; about 230 nests have 
been annihilated within a mile of his premises, and still there is 
enough left for seed. He declares that the price named is not 
too high, " since it takes considerable skill to catch them," and 
because of their enormous fecundity, of which he says in the 
Cottage Gardener : " Understand that every wasp seen before the 
middle of June is a queen, and liable to have a nest of 10,000 
at least. I lately estimated the number of cells in a rather large 
nest, and made out 9000 of them. A great many of the young 
had flown, and fresh eggs were laid in their places, and I have 
reason to believe that there is often more than one succession of 
young insects from the same cells, therefore 10,000 is a compara- 
tively small family." 

— It has been found by M. de Lacerda that permanganate of 
potash is very efficacious as an antidote to the poison of snakes. 
He experimented on dogs, injecting a one per cent, solution of 
the substance into the cellular tissue or into the veins, after the 
poison, and the usual effects of the latter were strikingly obviated. 
In one series of experiments the poison was allowed time to take 
some effect before the permanganate solution was injected, the 
dogs showing dilatation of the pupil, respiratory and cardiac de- 
rangements, muscular contractions, &c. Two or three minutes 
after the antidote was given these troubles disappeared, aryd after 
15 to 25 minutes of some measure of prostration, the animal 
would be able to walk and even run about, and recover its normal 
aspect. The same dose of poison, not counteracted, caused death, 
more or less rapidly. 

—Mr. J. M. Swanks' Statistics of the Iron and Steel Productions 
of the United States, 1 881, is issued by the Census Bureau, and 
bears the marks of careful preparation. The historical sketch is 
interesting reading. The statement is made that " we are to-day 
the second iron-making and steel-making countrv in the world. 
In a little while we shall surpass even Great Britain in the pro- 
duction of steel of all kinds, as we have already surpassed her in 
the production of Bessemer stee! and in the consumption of all iron 
and steel products. The year 1882 will probably witness this con- 



1 882.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 263 

summation. We are destined also to pass Great Britain in the 
production of pig iron. 

— Under the title of " Zo6Iogy in the University of Tokio," 
Professor C. O. Whitman, late professor of zoology in the Univer- 
sity of Tokio, discourses in a pamphlet of forty-lour pages on the 
needs of a more complete endowment of a zoological department, 
and the natural advantages enjoyed by the Japanese zoologist for 
the study of this science. It contains interesting facts regarding 
the land leech, the land planarian, the jumping fish, and other 
animals. Professor Whitman is at present in Naples, studying at 
the Zoological Laboratory, founded by Dr. Dohrn. 

— In the Iowa Legislature, on the 20th of January last, a peti- 
tion from the citizens of Pottawatomie county, and another by 
Messrs. Henderson and Calkins, were presented, asking for a 
thorough geological survey of the State. Both petitions were 
referred to the Committee of Ways and Means, which reported 
favorably on the project. Another move has been made looking 
toward the establishment of a Bureau of Agriculture, which shall 
sustain an entomologist, an office which is sadly needed. 

— Queen, one of the group of elephants connected with Bar- 
num's circus, at Bridgeport, Conn., gave birth to a baby elephant 
last night (February 3) at eight o'clock ; weight, forty-five pounds. 
The other baby elephant weighed one hundred and twenty-six 
pounds at birth. At last reports mother and daughter were doing 
well. 

— M. Pasteur has resolved to continue his researches into the 
means of preventing diseases by destroying »>r nullifying the viru- 
lence of the germs, and is about to visit the Bordeaux lazaretto, 
with a view of studying yellow fever, which he hopes to conquer 
by means of inoculation. 

— A new and most valuable feature of the Census Reports for 
1880 are the Forestry Bulletins, prepared by Mr. C. S. Sargent. 
Each number is accompanied by a map of some State, showing 
the distribution of forests, with special reference to the lumber 
industry. 

— Humboldt is the title of a new monthly illustrated magazine 
of science in all depart:! Stuttgart and edited by 

Dr. G. Krebs. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Jan. 18, 1882.— Mr. 
Win. M. Davis discussed the classification of Lake Basins, and 
Mr. F. W. Putnam spoke of the use of copper and bronze by the 
early races of America. 

Feb. 1. — Professor Henry W. Haynes gave some indications 
of an early race of men in New England, 
showed some interesting stone implen 



:-ials. [March, 1882. 



New York Academy of Sciences, Jan. 9.— Dr. L. Johnson 
described the parallel drift hills of Western New York, and Pro- 
fessor J. S. Newberry remarked on hypothetical high tides as 
agents of geological change. 

Jan. 30. — The following papers were read: The discovery of 
emeralds in North Carolina, illustrated with remarkable specimens, 
by Mr. Wm. Earl Hidden. Mr. George F. Kunz exhibited a 
series of ancient obsidian knives found near the city of Guatemala, 
C.A. 

Feb. 6. — Professor J. S. Newberry remarked on the origin and 
relations of the carbon minerals. 



SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

American Journal of Science, February.— The flood of the 
Connecticut river valley from the melting of the Quaternary gla- 
cier, by J. D. Dana. Geology of the diamond, by O. A. Derby. 
A Cercaria with caudal setae, by J. W. Fewkes. Notice of a re- 
markable marine fauna occupying the outer banks off the south- 
ern coast of New England, by A. E. Verrill. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, January. — 
On the morphology of . the fungus of the coffee 

disease of Ceylon), by H. M. Ward. On the nature of the organ 
in adult Teieosteans and Ganoids, which is usually regarded as 
the head-kidney or pronephros, by F. M. Balfour. Observations 
on the resting stage of i es, by P. Ged- 

des. Review of recent researches in karyokinesis and cell divis- 
ion, by J. T. Cunningham. The micro-organisms which occur in 
septicaemia, by G. F. Dowdesnell. Pringsheim's researches on 
chlorophyll, translated and condensed by B. Balfour. 

Zeitschrift furWissenchaftliche Zoologie, December 30. — 
On the structure of the bird-inhabiting Sarcoptidae, by G. Haller. 
On Scoloplos anin^tr, by \V. Man. Comparative-embryological 
studies, by E. Metschnikoff Dimorpla nutans, a connective form 
between the Flagellata and Helliosa, by A. Gruber. Contribu- 
tions to a knowledge of Amoebae, by A. Gruber. Contributions 
to a knowledge of Radiolarian shells, by O. Butschli. 

Zoological Magazine, January. — Traces of a great post-glacial 
flood, by H. H. Haworth. 

Annals and Magazine of Natural History, December — .On 
certain points in the morphology of the Blastoidea, by P. H. 
Carpenter. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xvi. — APRIL, 1882. — No. 4. 
MOUND PIPES. 



TT is impossible to determine what was the earliest form of the 
-*- tobacco-pipe. The oldest examples of which we possess any 
knowledge, have been exhumed from some of the mounds of the 
Mississippi valley. These are usually made of stone of great 
hardness, but we have no reason to believe that this material was 
always employed in their manufacture. It is not to be supposed 
that the symmetrical and highly-finished specimens which the 
mounds have produced were the results of the first savage con- 
ception of the narcotic utensil. Indeed, it is more than probable 
that the most ancient pipes were rudely fashioned from wood or 
other perishable substances, all traces Of which have long since 
disappeared. 

The earliest stone pipes from the mounds were " always carved 
from a single piece, and consist of a flat curved base, of variable 
length and width, with the bowl rising from the center of the 
convex side. From one of the ends, and communicating with 
the hollow of the bowl, is drilled a small hole, which answers 
the purpose of a tube ; the corresponding opposite division 
being left for the manifest purpose of holding the implement 
to the mouth." 1 It would be difficult to conceive of any 
other form so admirably adapted to the purpose for which it 
was designed. Such pipes are not only models of compactness, 
but are, in many instances, highly ornamental, and in all proba- 
bility totemic. In the majority of these "platform" pipes, the 
stem perforation, which is always straight, is so minute as to pre- 
clude the possibility of the insertion of an additional stem. The 

1 Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi valley, p. 228. 



266 Mound Pipes. [April, 

implement was complete in one piece, so that all parts were 
equally durable. The facts that such pipes had expended upon 
them all of the ingenuity and skill at the command of the sculp- 
tor, and that they were usually placed in association with human 
remains, go far to prove that they were invested, to a considerable 
degree, with 1 a religious, or at least a mortuary, significance. " The 
remarkable characteristics of their elaborately'sculptured pipes, 
and their obvious connection with services accompanying some of 
the rites of sacrifice or cremation, tend," as Dr. Wilson observes, 
" to suggest very different associations with the pipe of those an- 
cient centuries from such as now pertain to its familiar descendant. 
Embodying, as these highly-finished implements did, the result 
of so much labor, as well as of artistic skill, there are not want- 
ing highly suggestive reasons for the opinion, that the elaborate 
employment of the imitative arts on the pipe-heads found depos- 
ited in the mounds, may indicate their having played an import- 
ant part in the religious solemnities of the ancient race." 

The typical mound pipe is of the " monitor" form, as it may be 
termed, possessing a short, cylindrical, urn, or spool-shaped bowl, 
rising from the center of a flat and slightly curved base. Fig. I 
is an illustration of an example from a mound in Ross county, 
Ohio, which is now deposited in the National Museum at Wash- 
ington. Pipes of this form average three or four inches in 
length, but an extraordinary specimen formerly in the collection 
of Mr. O. A. Jenison, of Lansing, Mich., measures six and five- 
eighths inches. 

The most important and interesting discovery of mound pipes 
was made by Messrs. Squier and Davis, during their explora- 
tions in the valley of the Mississippi, about a third of a century 
ago. From a small sacrificial tumulus in the vicinity of " Mound 
City," Ohio, they obtained nearly two hundred stone pipes. 
Many of these, according to the report of the discoverers, " were 
much broken up, some of them calcined by the heat, which had 
been sufficiently strong to melt copper, masses of which were 
found fused together in the center of the basin. A large number 
have nevertheless been restored, at the expense of much labor 
and no small amount of patience. They are mostly composed of 
a red porphyritic stone, somewhat resembling the pipe stone of 
the Coteau des Prairies excepting that it is of great hardness and 
interspersed with small variously colored granules. * * 



1 882.] Mound Pipes. 267 

The bowls of most of the pipes are carved in miniature figures of 
animals, birds, reptiles, etc. All of them are executed with strict 
fidelity to nature, and with exquisite skill." 1 With the exception 
of this large deposit of these objects, comparatively few of them 
have been brought to light; yet a number of them are scattered 
through public and private museums in the United States and 
Europe, some of which will be described hereafter. It is a mat- 
ter for sincere regret that the greater portion of the original col- 
lection of Dr. E. H. Davis was sold to the Blackmore Museum 
at Salisbury, England, some years ago. In the Museum of Nat- 
ural History in New York City, however, thirteen of the original 
specimens, formerly owned by Mr. E. G. Squier, may yet be seen, 
including the remarkable example represented in Fig. 142 on 
page 244 of Ancient Monuments. In the magnificent collection 
of pipes recently owned by Mr. William Bragge, F.S.A., 
of Birmingham, England, are three broken bird-shaped pipes 
from " Mound City," Ohio. A set of casts of the entire Squier 
and Davis collection is preserved in the National Museum at 
Washington. Amongst the pipes of the original series were a 
number supposed to represent animals not indigenous to the Uni- 
ted States. Seven representations of the lamantin, or sea-cow, 
were found in the mounds, three of which were nearly perfect. 
"The sculptures of the manatus," remark the explorers, " are too 
exact to have been the production of those who were not well 
acquainted with the animal and its habits." 2 Though frequenting 
the mouths of tropical rivers, the " big beaver," as the Florida 
Indians called this curious animal, has been found within the 
boundaries of the United States. Bartram states that it occurs in 
Florida, in a spring a few miles below Tallahassee. 3 The manati 
are comprised in three or four species, two of which are found in 
the Gulf of Mexico. The more northern species (Manatus lati- 
rostris) is found in 25 N. lat., and Harlan states that during the 
first quarter of the present century it was so abundant near the 
capes of Eastern Florida that one Indian sometimes captured ten 
or twelve specimens with a harpoon in a single season. 4 This 
species, which sometimes attains to a length of fifteen or twenty 
feet, bears a striking resemblance to the smaller M. senegalensis of 



268 Mound Pipes. [April, 

Western Africa. In both of these species the caudal fin is 
rounded, and the fingers on the swimming paws of the former 
species are provided with rudimentary nails. The Indians were 
extravagantly fond of the flesh of the manatee, the tail being 
considered the most savory portion. The following quaint de- 
scription of the species inhabiting the Indian ocean is interesting 
as given by an early writer: " It is good Meat, because using the 
Shoar it hath a flesh taste, resembling Veal, which also it shews 
like ; the Face is like a shrivelled Buffalo or Cow, the Eyes are 
small and round, and has hard Gums instead of Teeth ; the In- 
trals also are like a Cow's : there is a Stone generated in the 
Head, which is very valuable, being a soveraign remedy (as some 
report) against Cholick, Stone-Cholick, and Dysentery, being 
beat small, infused in Wine, and drunk fasting: the Body of this 
Fish is three Yards long and one broad, thick-skinned, and with- 
out Scales, narrow towards the Tail, which is very nervous, slow 
in swimming, because it wants Fins, in lieu of which it has two 
Paps, which it can use either to suckle its young withal, or creep 
ashoar, where it grazes, and where it delights to lie and sleep ; for 
it can't keep half an Hour under Water. It is very teachable 
and apt to be made tame, being famed like the Lizzard for their 
love to Man, whose Face they delight to look upon, and in weak- 
ness have refreshed them." 1 

One of the sculptures referred to above, is represented with a 
flat, truncated tail, which may possibly have been intended for the 
South American species ( M. australis), though it is not probable 
that the ancient mound-builder was familiar with exotic models 
of this animal. I am inclined to believe that this feature was the 
result of an inaccuracy in detail on the part of the sculptor, 
especially as all of the other representations exhibit the rounded 
tail of the Floridian species. 

Another carving of ruder execution has, with some hesitation, 
been described as the toucan, a bird not found in the northern 
part of the western continent. Since the Indians of Guiana and 
Brazil, according to the statements of travelers, formerly domes- 
ticated this bird, the fact that the sculpture in question is repre- 
sented in the act of taking food from a human hand, " would 
favor the conclusion," according to the discoverers, that it was 

\ 1626. From Navigantium atque Itineratium 



1 882.] 



Moand Pipes. 269 

The shape and proportions of 



intended to represent the toucan 
the beak and the number and position of the toes, however, are 
sufficient evidence that the bird which formed the model of the 
artist, did not belong to the zygodactylous order. The pipe 
shows three toes in front and the bill is short and stout. The 
builders of the mounds probably possessed their aviaries which, 
like those of the ancient Mexicans, doubtless supplied a number 
of species which Were capable of domestication. 




—Monitor Pipe. 

Several of the images, h< 
of familiar animals. " Not only are the features of the various 
animals represented faithfully, but their peculiarities and habits 
are in some degree exhibited." 1 In one pipe we recognize the 
otter with a fish in his mouth (Fig. 2). The tufted heron is seen 
in the position of devouring a fish (Fig. 3). " Nothing can sur- 
pass the truthfulness and delicacy of the sculpture. The minutest 
feathers are shown; the articulations of the legs of the bird, as 




Fig. 3.— Heron Pipe. Fig 

also the gills, fins and scales of the fish, are represented." 2 The 
hawk is shown in the act of tearing a smaller bird. 3 The beaver 
also figures in the collection (Fig. 4), as also do the bear, panther, 
wolf, wild-cat, elk, opossum and squirrel; the buzzard, crow, 
eagle, falcon, owl, raven, duck, grouse, parroquet and swallow; 
the serpent (rattlesnake), turtle, frog, toad and a number of other 
animals which have been readily recognized. The sockets of the 



2J o 



Mound 1 



[April 



eyes in the majority of the bird pipes were set with pearls from 
the margaritiferous Unionidae. 

The most valuable specimens of the series, however, are those 
in the form of the human head, probably " faithfully representing 
the prominent physical features of the ancient people by whom 
they were made." 1 Fig. 5 illustrates the most interesting example, 
in this valuable collection. 2 

Next in importance to the discoveries of Messrs. Squier and 
Davis, is the collection of mound pipes deposited in the Daven- 
port Academy of Natural Sciences, and for the greater part taken 
from mounds by members of that learned body. The series 
number forty-three specimens of the platform type, consisting of 
twenty-two with plain or zoned bowls of the " monitor " pattern ; 
one human head ; seven bi^is, and thirteen other animal forms, 
of which Mr. W. H. Pratt has kindly sent me photographs. 




An interesting and instructive specimen, in the form of an un- 
finished pipe, was taken from a mound at Toolsborough, Louisa 
county, Iowa, which serves' to show, to a certain extent, the man- 
ner of fashioning such objects. The material is a coarse, soft, 
cream-colored stone, which has been roughly hewn into the de- 
sired shape (Fig. 6). The inference to be drawn from the pres- 
ence of an incomplete pipe in one of the mounds, is either that 
it was discarded on account of the unsuitableness of the mate- 
rial, or that it was placed in the tumulus as a substitute for a per- 
fectly finished specimen which could not be procured at the time 
when the body it was intended to accompany was deposited. An 

« Ancient Monuments, p. 153. 

1 The illustration of this pipe and those which precede, have been furnished 
through the courtesy of Professor S. F. Baird, secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, from Dr. Charles Rau's work on the Archaeological Collection of the United 
States National Museum. 



1 882.] 



Mound Pipes. 



2- 1 



incomplete object, somewhat resembling this, in which the cavity 
of the bowl is merely indicated, is figured in Mr. E. G. Squier's 
"Aboriginal Monuments of the State of New York." 1 It is 
made of steatite and was found near Mount Morris, Livingston 
county. The original of Fig. 7 is a bird-shaped pipe carved from 




Fig. 7.— Bird Pipe. 
a bluish-gray pipe stone. It was found associated with portions 
of several human skeletons and a four-sided, bent copper " awl," 
ix inches in length, in a mound of the same group as the 
1 figured. This was possibly intended to represent a spe- 







Fig. 8. — Grouse Pipe. 
5 of wild duck, the eyes of which were { 



second bird pipe of the 1 



material, which is shown in Fig. 8, 



2~2 



Mound Pipes. 



[April, 



and is believed to portray the male of the pinnated grouse. In 
the same mound were found portions of several human skeletons, 
about two hundred shell beads, five copper axes, one of them " a 
very smoothly wrought specimen, showing very distinct traces of 
the cloth in which it had been wrapped, and some portions of 
which were still adhering to the copper," 1 and another bird-shaped 







Fig. 9.— Goose (?) Pipe, 
pipe of red pipe stone, furnished with eyes of pearl. The speci- 
men shown in Fig. 9 may have been meant for the wild goose, 
or possibly the loon. It is formed of sandstone, and was found 
in Louisa county, Iowa. 

About one mile below Davenport, on the right bank of the 
Mississippi, the original of Fig. 10, fashioned from a light-gray 
pipe stone, was discovered in a mound at a depth of six feet, 




I Hog Pipe. 

associated with five very old copper, cloth-wrapped axes and two 
pieces of galena. Above these objects, one and a half feet from 
the top of the mound, were found two adult skeletons, evidently 
belonging to an intrusive burial, as they were accompanied by 

1 Vide Proceedings of the Davenport Academy, Vol. 1, p. 108. 



1882.] 



European relics, such as glass beads, etc. It is difficult to deter- 
mine what animal was intended, the wolf, ground-hog and prairie- 




Fig. n.— Howling Wolf (?) Pipe, 
having been variously suggested. The "howling wolf" (?) 
(Fig. ji) is from a sand hill in Rock Island county, Illinois. 




Fig. 12.— Lizard Pipe. 
culptured lizard (Fig. 12) and the turtle (Fig. 13) are from 
ds in Mercer county, 111. The last three are made of a 



Fig. 13.— Turtle Pipe. 

soft, dark slate-colored talc. The serpent pipe (Fig. 14) comes 
from the same locality, and is formed of a sort of clay slate. In 
close contiguity, in the same mound, a lump of galena, consider- 
ably ground down, was discovered, and the pipe presented the 



appearance, when found, of having been lightly coated with a 
plumbiferous substance. Another example carved in the form of 



Fig. 14.— Serpent Pipe. 
a frog (Fig. 15) from a light-gray pipe stone, was exhumed from a 
mound in the same group with that which yielded the original of 
Fig. 10. Associated with the former were two copper axes and 
five skeletons, of which three faced the east and the others the 
west. The pipe was found with the latter two. 

Having incidentally heard of a pipe in the form of a bear, 
which was said to have been found in a mound in Muscatine 
county, Iowa, by a laboring man, the Rev. Mr. J. Gass, a member 
of the Academy, finally, with some difficulty, discovered the 




Fig. 15.— Frog Pipe. 

owner and succeeded in purchasing the specimen from him for a 
paltry sum (see Fig. 16). The peculiarity of this pipe, which is 
made of a gray trap rock, unpolished, is that, unlike most other 
platform pipes, it possesses a straight base which is not drilled 
and of which the front projection is lacking, the mouth of the 
animal forming the mouth-piece for the smoker. 

The most remarkable specimens in the Davenport collection, 
however, are the two elephant pipes recently brought to light, 
and which have been too hastily pronounced spurious by critics 



who have had no opportunity of examining them. The circum- 
stances of the discovery of these two examples are contained in 
the following extracts from a letter which I have received from 




Fig. i 6.— Bear Pipe. 
Mr. W. H. Pratt, president of the Academy, under date of April 
24, 1880: " The first elephant pipe which we obtained (Fig. 17) a 
little more than a year ago, was found some six years before by an 
illiterate German farmer named Peter Mare, while planting corn on 
a farm in the mound region, Louisa county, Iowa. He did not care 
whether it was elephant or kangaroo ; to him it was a curious 
1 Indian stone,' and nothing more, and he kept it and smoked it. 




Fig. 17.— Elephant Pipe, Iowa. 

In 1878 he removed to Kansas, and when he left-, he gave the pipe 
to his brother-in-law, a farm laborer, who also smoked it. Mr. 
Gass happened to hear of it, as he is always inquiring about such 
things, hunted up the man and borrowed the pipe to take 
photographs and casts from it. He could not buy it. The man 
said his brother-in-law gave it to him and it was a curious thing — 



276 Mound Pipes. [April, 

he wanted to keep it We were, however, unfortunate, or fortu- 
nate, enough to break it ; that spoiled it for him and that was his 
chance to make some money out of it. He could have claimed 
any amount, and we would, as in duty bound, have raised it for 
him, but he was satisfied with three or four dollars. During 
the first week in April, this month, Rev. Ad. Blumer, another 
German Lutheran minister, now of Genesee, Illinois, having for- 
merly resided in Louisa county, went down there in company 
with Mr. Gass to open a few mounds, Mr. Blumer being well 
acquainted there. They carefully explored ten of them, and 
found nothing but ashes and decayed bones in any, except one. 
In that one was a layer of red, hard-burned clay, about five feet 
across and thirteen inches in thickness at the center, which rested 
upon a bed of ashes one foot in depth in the middle, the ashes 




Fig. 18.— Elephant Pipe, Iowa. 

resting upon the natural undisturbed clay. In the ashes, near the 
bottom of the layer, they found a part of a broken carved stone 
pipe representing some bird ; a very small, beautifully formed 
copper ' axe,' and this last elephant pipe (Fig. 18). This pipe 
was first discovered by Mr. Blumer, and by him, at our earnest 
solicitation, turned over to the Academy." 

Mr. J. Duncan Putnam, corresponding secretary of the Acad- 
emy, writes me that the former pipe " is of a light-colored sand- 
stone, but has been much greased and smoked, so as to appear of 
a dark color." The material of the latter is the same. There seems 
to be no flaw in the history of these pipes, which, coming from 
sources of unquestioned integrity, is evidence that there has been 
no attempt at deception on the part of the Davenport Academy. 



1 882.] Mound Pipes. 277 

It is not within the province of this paper to discuss the ques- 
tion of the contemporaneousness of man and the mastodon in 
the western hemisphere. The existence of an artificial mound in 
Wisconsin, 135 feet in length, in the form of an elephant? adds 
much to the probability of the genuineness of the pipes above 
described. It is worthy of note, however, that no representations 
of the male elephant have as yet been found amongst the remains 
of man in North America. It is, to say the least, a singular fact 
that the most characteristic features of this pachyderm, the promi- 
nent tusks, should have been omitted both in the pipe sculptures 
and the " big elephant mound," if the ancient Americans were 
acquainted with the model. The long, slender, curved tusks, 
however, would be difficult to imitate either in the miniature 
stone sculptures or the embankments of earth, and might have 
been purposely ignored. These likenesses of fossil mammals 
acquire an additional interest, however, when we read the remark- 
able accounts of the discoveries in the State of Missouri and else- 
where, of deposits of bones of the mastodon in association with 
flint arrow-heads and fragments of pottery. 2 " Such contiguity 
of the works of man with those extinct diluvial giants," observes 
Dr. Wilson, " warns us at least to be on our guard against any 
supercilious rejection of indications of man's ancient presence in 
the New World as well as the Old. * * * * Whether or not 
those huge mammals had been known to man, during his occu- 
pation of the American continent, as his living contemporaries, 
their remains were objects of sufficiently striking magnitude to 
awaken the curiosity even of the unimpressible Indian ; and tra- 
ditions were common among the aborigines of the forest relative 
to the existence and destruction of the strange monster, whose 
bones lie scattered over the continent from Canada to the Gulf of 
Mexico. * * * * In all that relates to the history of man 
in the new world, we have ever to reserve ourselves for further 
truths." 3 

Pipes of the platform type are confined almost exclusively to 
the section north of the Ohio and Missouri rivers, or to the 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Iowa. A few specimens of 
the curved- base form have been picked up in other localities, but 

1 Vide Smith. Report, 1872, p. 416. The Big Elephant Mound in Grant county, 
'See Foster's Prehistoric; Races of the U. S., p. 63. 



278 Mound Pipes. [April, 

generally, so far as I can ascertain, on the surface, having in all 
probability been carried from the mound region by roving bands 
of Indians of a more recent period. ,In the National Museum at 
Washington, are three examples, which were derived respectively 
from Ohio, Maryland and Illinois. Another was discovered in 
the valley of the Delaware river in the State of New Jersey. It 
is of the plain " monitor " form, made of a light-brown or choco- 
late-colored stone, and is now owned by Mr. Wm. S. Vaux, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. Hon. R. S. Robertson, of Fort Wayne, Indi- 
ana, possesses a pipe of the same form, from a mound in Laport 
county of the same State, which was found in connection with a 
copper chisel, two copper needles, four flints, some fragments of 
pottery and a single skeleton. Two other pipes from Southern 
Ohio, in the same collection, are cylindrical bowls which have 
been broken from the curved platforms and put to further use by 
drilling stem-holes in the sides. One of these shows an opening 
in the base where it was broken from the stem, the hole being 
plugged to render it serviceable. The other example has a por- 
tion of the platform still attached, which has been smoothed or 
polished at the point of fracture. In the collection of Dr. C. S. 
Arthur, of Portland, Ind., are also three curved base pipes with 
plain bowls, two of which were ploughed up, and the third taken 
from a mound, in that State. 




Fig. 19.— "Dog"(?) Pipe. 
In a mound at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, associated with 
pieces of mica, an interesting platform pipe was discovered. Hon. 
Horace Beach, who sends me the original, regards it as de- 
cidedly Egyptian in general appearance, and terms it the "dog(?) 
pipe." It represents the head of some animal, possibly the 
mountain sheep or goat, and is made of a soft, heavy, dark-brown 
stone, somewhat resembling Catlinite. The peculiarity of this 
specimen is that the face looks away from the smoker. As may 
be seen in the illustration (Fig. 19); the anterior end of the plat- 



1 882.] Mound Pipes. 279 

form, constituting the handle, is wanting. On the upper part of the 
nose, and on the base, front and back of the neck, hieroglyphical 
lines are inscribed, which may have possessed some symbolical 
significance, or perhaps were simply ornamental. In a few exam- 
ples of pipes of this class, the platforms have been carved in imita- 
tion of animals. Dr. J. Schneck, of Mount Carmel, Illinois, sends 
me a sketch of a curious specimen which was found about two feet 
below the surface of the earth in a mound in Wabash county, 
111. (Fig. 20). It represents a small bird about the size of, and 
somewhat resembling, the chimney swallow ( Chcetura pelasgia 
Steph.), which, in those distant days, attached its nest, doubtless, 
to the cliffs and rocky crags. The material is a soft, yellow 
slate ; the bird is represented on its back with wings crossed 
beneath, the cylindrical bowl rising from the breast, and the 
smoking orifice passing through the tail. Dr. Elliott Coues, 




to whom I sent a sketch of this pipe, writes : " As is so frequently 
the probable case in such matters, I am inclined to think the 
sculptor had no particular bird in mind in executing his rude 
carving. It is not necessary, or indeed permissible, to suppose 
that particular species were always intended to be represented. 
Not unfrequently, the likeness of some marked bird is so good as 
to be unmistakable, but the reverse is oftener the case ; and in the 
present instance I can make no more of the carving than you 
have done ; 'excepting that if any particular species may have 
been in the carver's mind, his execution does not suffice for its 
determination." 

Another specimen, in the collection of Mr. N. V. Johnson, of 
Brookville, Indiana, was found in a marsh a few miles north of 
that place. The material is a bluish-green stone, very hard and 
highly polished. Mr. Edgar R. Quick, who sends me a well- 



28o Mound Pipes. [April, 

executed colored drawing of this object, writes : " The general 
form of this beautiful piece of work is that of a crescent with a 
protuberance on the outside, which forms the bowl of the pipe. 
The horns of the crescent form respectively the handle and stem 
or mouthpiece. The handle or front part is beautifully carved in 
the semblance of a lizard's head." *(Fig. 21.) 

Although many of the miniature sculptures already described 
are characterized by a remarkable accuracy of detail, and are 
faithful representations of well-known animals, the ancient artist 
was not always true to nature. In some of the carvings, promi- 
nent or characteristic features were often exaggerated ; the heads 
of birds and mammals were sometimes disproportionately en- 
larged ; in some instances to such an extent as to suggest to us 
the idea of caricature. Many of these sculptures were evidently 



Fig. 21.— Bird Pipe, Indiana, 
carved from memory, and errors of execution appear more fre- 
quently in the representations of those animals which obviously 
could not have been perfectly familiar to the sculptor. Indeed, 
many of these portraitures are scarcely recognizable, and it is 
often impossible to determine what animal the artist intended 
to copy. The body of the elephant pipe (Fig. 17) is much elon- 
gated and the legs shortened ; defects which may be attributed 
to the inexperience of the workman or his lack of personal 
knowledge of the model ; yet, notwithstanding the fact that certain 
archaeologists have advanced the opinions respectively, that the 
peccary, the tapir and the armadillo were intended to be portrayed, 
a careful study of the image will confirm us in the belief that the 
elephant was the animal which the prehistoric artisan had before 
his mind. It may be asserted with a considerable degree of con- 



1 882.] Flowers of Solan mzcrista. 281 

fidence that no representative of an exclusively exotic fauna 
figured in the pipe-sculptures of the mound-builders. If we 
accept the presence of the mammoth or mastodon amongst these 
carvings, the species which served as models, though now extinct, 
must be classed with our indigenous fauna. Their knowledge of 
such animals as the-parroquet, the manatus, and possibly the seal 
and Rocky mountain sheep, does not necessarily indicate any 
particular migration on the part of that ancient people, but serves 
to show that their intercourse and commercial relations with other ' 
peoples were extensive. As has been previously remarked, how- 
ever, the artists were apparently well acquainted with some of 
the birds, mammals and amphibia whose geographical limits were 
far removed from the upper portion of the Mississippi valley, but 
which, nevertheless, might have been met with by some of the 
people in their expeditions. On the other hand, many of the 
representations were evidently executed from descriptions or rude 
delineations furnished by those who had seen the originals. The 
mounds have produced galena from Missouri and the adjacent 
territory; mica from the spurs of the Alleghany or Rocky 
mountains; Catlinite from Minnesota; copper from the Lake 
Superior region ; obsidian from Mexico and the Pacific slope of 
the United States, and marine shells from the Gulf of Mexico, 
the Atlantic ocean, and also the Dentalium of the Pacific coast. 1 
Thus it will be seen that the trade relations of the mound-build- 
ers extended over a great extent of territory, in fact, covering the 
greater portion of the present United States and probably pene- 
trating into British America and Mexico. 



ON THE FLOWERS OF SOLANUM ROSTRATUM AND 
CASSIA CHAMyECRISTA. 2 

BY PROFESSOR J. E. TODD. 

AX/ITHIN a few years, a plant has been introduced into South- 
' * western Iowa, which is as unwelcome as it is interesting. 
It bristles all over on stem, leaves and fruit, with stout, rigid 
prickles. It is commonly called Texas nettle, as it is supposed 
to have been brought by the herds of Texas cattle, which in 

'Vide Ancient Aboriginal Trade in North America, by Dr. Chas. Rau. Smith. 



2X2 



On the Flowers of Solatium 



[April, 



recent years have been fattened in that region. It is found abun- 
dantly in Western Nebraska at present, and although it may have 
been introduced there in like manner, I presume it is indigenous. 
It is so put down, I believe, in Coulter's Flora of Colorado. 
It has rather conspicuous flowers, of a pure sulphur-yellow color, 
and of the form repre- 
sented in the figure. It is 
a Solatium, but very unlike 
the more familiar forms of 
the genus. The essential 
organs are quite unsym- 
metrical. Four of the sta- 
mens are of the normal or 
usual form, but the fifth, 
which is on the lower side 
of the flower, is about 
twice the length of the 
others, and has a large, 
tapering anther, which 
about the middle is crooked 
to one side, and its slender 
apex curved upward as is 
represented in the figure. 
This irregularity, doubt- 
less earned for the plant, 




^stratum, a, flower (nat- The anthers open by ter- 

viet'oflhetn;: ^'"aml minal chinks or P° reS > aS 

from above. is common to this genus. 

The long anther shows considerable elasticity, and in its move- 
ments throws a puff of pollen from its apex, which, as will be 
seen, is turned upward and at right angles with its axis. 

The pistil, as will be seen from the figure, is turned so as to 
resemble in general form, size and position, the long anther just 
described, with this exception, that it turns toward the opposite 
side of the flower. Moreover, the pistil and longer stamen, in 
different flowers, exchange directions, so that in some the pistil 
turns to the right hand, and the stamen to the left, and in 
others vice versa. We will, for convenience, call the flowers in 
which the pistil turns to the right hand, facing as the flower, 



1 882.] and Cassia chamcecrista. 283 

right-handed, and those in which it turns to the left, left-handed. 
The figure represents a left-handed flower. With a little exami- 
nation, it is found that there is a very simple law deciding whether 
any given flower, from its position, should be right-handed or left- 
handed. In the examination of scores of flowers I found no 
exception to this law. The flowers are arranged in simple, bract- 
less racemes, which extend in a horizontal position. The flowers, 
consequently, are arranged on each side of the axis. 

The law referred to is this. The pistil, in any flower, turns to- 
wards the axis of the raceme. It follows from this, that succes- 
sive flowers on the same raceme have their pistils turned toward 
opposite sides. It is also a fact of observation, that the flowers of 
a cluster on any one branch, and opening about the same time, are 
either all right-handed or all left-handed. Any plant, however, if 
it is at all large, exhibits right and left-handed flowers in about 
equal numbers. 

Of five plants observed : 

No. 1 had 5 pistils left-handed_ and 4 right-handed. 



The advantage in all this is so obvious that it scarcely needs 
explanation. It is like most irregularities in flowers, a contri- 
vance for cross-fertilization. After considerable watching, I had 
noticed no insects visiting the flowers, except a small humble-bee, 
and this seemed quite attentive. The weight of the bee so springs 
down the flower, that it is quite difficult, on account of the large 
flexible corolla, to see just what is done, but repeated observations 
led me, quite satisfactorily, to this conclusion. The bee seeks the 
pollen — for the flowers have neither nectar nor odor — and this she 
uniformly gets from the four shorter stamens; never, so far as I 
could determine, from the larger one. This she does by seizing each 
one, near its base, between her mandibles, and with a sort of milk- 
ing motion crowds the pollen out of the terminal pores ; mean- 
while, by the movements of her feet, the larger stamen is repeat- 
edly sprung backwards, and as often throws a cloud of pollen on 
one side of her body ; this in a right-handed flower. When she 
passes to a left-handed flower, which, as was explained above, is 
very likely not to be on the same plant, the pollen is carried 
directly to the pistil of that flower, and so on. We have here, 



- K 4 



On the Flowers of Solatium 



[April, 



therefore, a novel apparatus for cross-fertilization, quite distinct 
from those that have been most commonly noticed. 

A few days after having noticed the peculiarities of Solatium 
was attracted to the asymmetry of the 
plant, Cassia chamacrista. Its 
n early morning, is shown in the 
figure. The points that are of 
special interest to us, are the 
sickle-shaped pistil, the sta- 
mens with long, rigid anthers, 
opening by terminal pores, 
and most of them pointed to- 
ward the incurved petal, which 
is always on the opposite side 
from the pistil, as is shown 
in the figure. A vertical line 
let fall across the flower, in its 
natural position, uniformly 
falls midway between the two. 
So we may here speak of the 
flowers as right-handed or left- 
handed, as before, according 
to the position of the pistil. 
As the inflorescence is less 
regular than in 5. rostratum, 
we have been unable to discover any definite law, as in that case, 
but different plants have about an equal share of right and left- 
handed flowers. Observations on some plants that were in rather 
a dilapidated condition, resulted as follows : 

Plant No. i had 6 right-handed flowers and 4 left-handed. 







I found these flowers also visited mainly by a small humble- 
bee, and judge that they gather pollen in a similar way to that 
noticed in the Solatium. The flowers are nectarless and odorless. 
The advantage is not so obvious in this arrangement as in the 
Solatium, and I have not had opportunity to study it quite as 
closely and carefully, but I consider the following explanation the 
most probable. 



1882.] 



and Cassia t 



2S5 



In gathering the pollen, some grains are dropped on the in- 
curved petal, and by it made to adhere to parts of the bee, and to 
such parts in a right-handed flower as will carry it to the stigma 
of a left-handed flower, and vice versa. 

So much for the observations upon the plants themselves. Let 
us trace their more marked peculiarities in related plants, and, if 
possible, find some hint as to their origin. 1 

In Solanum rostratum the particulars in which it differs from 
the normal form of the genus, are three, viz: (1) The long re- 
curved style ; (2) the elongation and enlargement of the lower 
stamen ; and (3) the crooking of them toward opposite sides of 
the flower. In examining kindred species of this most numerous 
genus, we find that in our common S. nigrum in Southern California, 
there appears a variety, S. Dillenii, which 5 



exerted, and 
Another, S.^nodiflor- 
um t in Arizona, which 
" generally has this 
feature," passes into 
S. Douglassi which is 
found at Santa Bar- 
bara, Cal. The de- 
velopment of this char- 

and perhaps depends 
upon, the change 
of the flowers from a 
drooping attitude, as 
in the typical nigrum, 



lias 



to ; 



:rect posi- Fig. 3.— «, 
obliquity , 




/>.•::.-» 



■ d, flower 

of the 
their vertical asym- 
metry, as it might be called, appears in S. tuberosum sometimes. 
I have observed it in the "peach-blow" variety; I have observed it 
more frequently in S. Carolinensc. The extreme form, however, 
which we have found in 5. rostratum, is confined to the sub- 






1 ™ r >" ■' 



286 Flowers of Solatium rostratum and Cassia chamcecrista. [April, 

genera Androcera and Nycterium. The first has but one long 
stamen, and S. rostratum may be taken as its type. This sub- 
genus is confined to tropical America. Nycterium contains spe- 
cies most of which have three long stamens, but some have only 
one. A table of the species and their distribution is as follows : 



dubium I » « " Arabia and North Africa. 

Of the lateral asymmetry I cannot speak, for so far as I can 
learn, it has not been noted. In the case of Cassia chama 'crista, 
the unsymmetrical features are ( i) the curved style, (2) the oblique 
stamens, (3) their abnormal number, and (4) the incurved petal. 
The first is not peculiar, but is found in nearly all representatives 
of the order Leguminosce. The second and fourth peculiarities 
are such as are easily overlooked, and have not, so far as I find, 
been noted of other species. The third peculiarity becomes, sig- 
nificant when we compare this species with a typical one of the 
genus, such as the one shown in the figure of C. q&itifolia, which 
may also represent in general, Marylangica and occidentalis. Here 
(Fig. 2) we usually have seven fertile stamens; in that (Fig. 3 <*) 
we find the other three of the normal number ten, present, but 
sterile, as if to indicate that some of the seven are derived from 
the longer ones of the typical form. One or two of them in 
cham<zcrista, instead of following the oblique position of the rest, 
sometimes stretch out on the side of the pistil. 

The advantages of the arrangement in chamcecrista for securing 
cross-fertilization over the more common form of the Cassicz, as 
in acutifolia and occidentalis, I think may be seen withoutlurther 
explanation. Moreover, if the insects visit the flowers for pollen, 
we can readily see the advantage in having the stamens of un- 
equal length, and hence the development by natural selection, of 
the Androcera form of Solarium, and the typical Cassia from 
among the Ccssalpinicce 

Before leaving the subjects suggested by these flowers, I 
would indicate several points, and not having time to discuss 
them more fully, we will leave them in the form of queries. 

I. These similar modifications occur in utterlydiver.se families, 
having similar geographical distribution, viz : in tropical regions, 
and perhaps the limitations may be further narrowed to the drier 



1 882.] Is Limulus an Arachnid? 287 

parts of these regions. May this not indicate that certain phys- 
ical influences have primarily induced the variations which have 
been developed into perfect adaptations ? 

2. May not heliotropism, or the retarding effect of light upon 
the formation of tissue, partly explain the greater development of 
the lower stamens, the shortening of the middle, and the abortion 
of the upper ; and may it not also explain the upward curving of 
the styles and lower stamens in these plants ? 

3. May not the mechanical action of the insect have some con- 
nection with the obliquity of the C. chamcccrista flower, and the 
divergence of the styles and stamens"? C. chamcccrista is like the 
typical form turned downward and to one side. 

4. In these plants we have found a lack of bilateral symmetry, 
and we have found it attended with a regular exchange of sides, 
and that to accomplish a special purpose. Is this commonly so 
in plants thus irregular, such as the Cannacece and Zingiberacece ? 



IS LIMULUS AN ARACHNID? 

BY A. S. PACKARD, JR. 

IN an article by Professor E. R. Lankester in the Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science, for July and October, 1881, 
entitled '* Limulus an Arachnid," the author, distinguished for his 
histological and embryological papers especially relating to mol- 
lusks and Ccelenterates, takes the ground that Limulus, or the 
horse-shoe or king crab, " is best understood as an aquatic scor- 
pion, and the scorpion and its allies as terrestrial modifications 
of the king crab," and on p. 507 he makes the following startling 
announcement : " That the king crab is as closely related to the 
scorpion as is the spider has for years been an open secret, which 
has escaped notice by something like fatality." While appre- 
ciating the thorough and critical nature of the learned author's 
work, especially observable in his excellent paper on the structure 
of Apus, we venture to assert that in regard to the systematic 
position of Limulus, Professor Lankester has mistaken interest- 
ing analogies for affinities, and has on quite insufficient and at 
times wholly hypothetical grounds rashly overlooked the most 
solid facts, and safe inductions from such facts, and arrived at very 
forced and it seems to us strange and quite untenable conclusions. 
At the outset, it will be remembered that Limulus differs from 



288 Is Limulus an Arachnid ? [April, 

the Tracheates, including the Arachnids, in having no tracheae, no 
spiracles, and no Malpighian tubes. It differs from Arachnids in 
these characters ; also in having compound eyes, no functional 
mandibles or maxillae, the legs not terminating, as is generally the 
case in Tracheates, in a pair of minute claws ; while its brain does 
not as in Arachnida supply both eyes and first cephalic 
appendages. On the other hand, Limulus agrees with Crus- 
tacea in being aquatic and breathing by external gills attached 
to several pairs of biramous feet; in having a simple brain, which 
as in some groups of typical Crustacea (Branchiopoda, etc.), does 
not supply any of the appendages, while the structure of the cir- 
culatory, digestive and reproductive organs agrees with that of 
the Crustacea; and, as we have shown in our Embryology of 
Limulus (this journal for 1870), the development of Limulus is 
like that of certain other Crustacea with a condensed metamor- 
phosis, the possession of an amnion being paralleled by that of 
Apus. In all essential points Limulus is a Crustacean, with some 
fundamental features in which it departs from the normal Crus- 
tacean type, and with some superficial characters in which it 
resembles the scorpion. The importance of these superficial 
characters Mr. Lankester exaggerates, and upon them with a 
number of suppositious, a priori, pseudo facts he constructs, by a 
process quite the reverse of the inductive method, a new classifi- 
cation of the Arachnida. 

We will now briefly criticise some points insisted upon by Pro- 
fessor Lankester: and first on p. 510, as regards the ensheathing 
of the nervous cord by an actual arterial vessel. This is to be met 
with in a less marked degree in the insects (Lepidoptera) as well as 
scorpions. As regards the comparison of the nervous system of 
Limulus with that of the scorpion, the comparison and statement 
made in our second memoir, which Lankester sets aside, was 
based on a month's careful study and dissection of the nervous 
system, particularly the brain of the scorpion, while our author 
draws his inspiration from Newport's account and figures. The 
differences between the brain and thoracic ganglionic mass of the 
scorpion, and that of Limulus are not even correctly stated by 
our author. The brain of the adult scorpion, as we stated on p. 
7 of our second memoir, sends off nerves to the simple eyes and 
to the first pair of appendages ; in Limulus the brain supplies the 
eyes alone ; the first pair of appendages being supplied from the 



1 88 2.J Is Limulus an Arachnid ? 



is in all Phyllopod Crustacea. Had Mr. Lankester 
examined for himself the brain of the scorpion, he would not 
have given the strangely incorrect account on p. 5 1 1. In the first 
place, the nerves to the first pair of appendages arise from the 
brain itself, as we have seen and as has been stated by other 
authors, 1 and not as Lankester says from the oesophageal collar. 
Moreover, as we stated, the brain is situated in the top of the 
head of the Arachnida, and not on the same plane as the oesopha- 
geal collar as in Limulus. In regard to the morphology (not the 
internal structure) of the brain, Limulus much more nearly 
approaches Apus and other Phyllopods than the scorpion and 
other Arachnida. 

In discussing the external anatomy of Limulus, Mr. Lankester 
claims that between the sixth abdominal segment and the spjne 
there are six segments. We venture to suggest that four of 
these segments are purely imaginary. Embryology, as we have 
indicated in our figures, shows that there are but nine segments 
in the abdomen of Limulus, the spine forming the ninth. Our 
author speaks of the "post-anal spine," when the anus is plainly 
situated in the base of the spine itself. It is a general law in the 
Arthropods that the anus opens in the terminal segment of the 
body. There are fifteen segments in the body of Limulus, as 
embryology abundantly shows. In order to compare the body 
of Limulus with its fifteen segments or arthromeres to that of the 
scorpion with nineteen, Mr. Lankester conjures up four addi- 
tional segments, which are pure metaphysical inventions. The 
cephalothoracic plate or carapace is more than once styled a 
"sclerite." The author here (as usual) sets aside the embryo- 
logical proof that the carapace is composed of the tergites of six 
segments, and allows, apparently as the results of his own inde- 
pendent observations (as if no one had previously proved it 2 ), that 

1 Newport, whom our author quotes, expressly state- that " minu.ii.iu -]y U- 



290 Is Limulus an Arachnid ? [April, 

the carapace may " be considered as representing six coalesced 
tergites." Partly on metaphysical grounds, and partly from the 
presence of moveable spines on the sides, which, however, are 
situated on the anterior limb-bearing segments of the abdomen, as 
well as on the 7th and 8th limbless segments, our author is en- 
couraged in the belief that these four hypothetical segments really 
exist. We prefer the plain teachings of observed facts, which are 
capable of demonstration and proof, and would ask for better evi- 
dence than this article affords of the existence of such segments. 
We would also continue to regard the anal spine as the telson. 
Lankester's " telson" is made up of the consolidated thirteenth 
and fourteenth segments of the body plus the anal spine or fif- 
teenth (or ninth abdominal) segment. 

Our author sets out with the foregone conclusion that he 
" must " find in the " abdominal carapace " of Limulus the rep- 
resentatives of the twelve abdominal segments of the scorpion, 
and so with a method of his own he creates them out of his inner 

In like manner he feels compelled to offer a new interpretation 
of the scattered, individual, simple eyes of the scorpion, and at- 
tempts to show that after all they are compound eyes like those 
of Limulus, with the difference that in Scorpio they are " in a less 
compact form." Now the compound eye of Limulus, like that of 
the lobster or any other Crustacean or insect, possesses a common 
basally undivided retina, in Limulus a common undivided outer 
cornea, while the two simple eyes in Limulus have each a sepa- 
rate cornea, a separate retina, and each ocellus is supplied by a 
separate nerve arising independently from the brain. 

In like manner our author labors to diminish the importance of 
the differences between the cephalothoracic appendages of the 
Arachnida and those of Limulus. 

Professor Lankester then ventures, we think, somewhat hastily, 
to homologize the first pair of abdominal appendages of Limulus 
with a little triangular median sternite in the scorpion. Then he 
fancifully homologizes the comb-like organs of the scorpion with 
the second pair of abdominal legs of Limulus, and also homolo- 
gizes the respiratory lamellae with the " lamelliform teeth of the 
scorpion's comb-like organs." The author farther seriously at- 
tempts to homologize the four pairs of stigmata of the scorpion 
with the four last pairs of biramous respiratory feet of Limulus. 



On the same principle the stigmata of any insect are the homo- 
logues of its legs. What will Mr. Lankester do with the gill-plates 
of the Eurypterida, which are not arranged, according to Wood- 
ward, like those of Limulus, but are placed like the teeth of a 
rake? 

Another surprise is added to the already long list, by Mr. Lan- 
kester's discovery (of which he makes great account), of what he 
calls " parabranchial stigmata" in Limulus. He places them on 
the "sternal area of the segments," but his statements on the suc- 
ceeding page, and his figures plainly show that these little mus- 
cular pits are situated at the base of the biramous abdominal 
legs. Is there an instance in nature of stigmata being borne on 
the legs ? Is there the slightest possible reason for regarding 
these pits as stigmata ? We are then treated to a long series of 
suppositions accompanied by a series of elaborate hypothetical 
lithographic drawings designed tq " illustrate the hypothesis as to 
the derivation of the lamelliferous appendages of Limulus and 
Scorpio from a common ancestral form." The late appearance of 
the lamellae on the feet of the embryo Limulus, should teach any 
naturalist of sound judgment that they are most probably very 
special and late differentiations of the appendages. Besides this, 
palaeontology shows that in the Carboniferous period there were 
scorpions almost generically the same as the existing ones, and 
with them Bellinurus, closely resembling the Mesozoic and recent 
Limuli, which indicates that the latter type has always been a 
marine one, without any possible use for stigmata. Moreover, 
the Eurypterine Merostomata, with crustacean gills, flourished as 
early as the Lower Silurian period. 

Passing over for want of space and time, the three or four pages 
of trivial criticisms of our own views by Professor Lankester, we 
are thus brought to the close of Mr. Lankester's article, and to 
his tabular view of his new classification of the Arachnida, one 
which is calculated at least to. take away the breath of the ordi- 
nary systematist. 

Any attempt at reasoning with our author, whose methods are 
so opposed to the inductive mode of scientific reasoning, and 
whose views are often founded on baseless hypotheses, would 
probably be fruitless. He is " surprised " that we should persist 
in believing that Limulus is a Crustacean. 

We will in reply and to close this criticism, simply quote some 



292 Is Limulus an Arachnid ? [April, 

; of the late Dr. Von Willemoes-Suhm, whose impor- 
; have been overlooked by all writers on Limulus. 
has been called to them through Mr. E. Burgess 
by Professor Walter Faxon, who has kindly sent us the subjoined 
extracts from Von Willemoes-Suhm's Letters. 

The first reference by Von Willemoes-Suhm was in the Zeit- 
schrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie, xxrx, 1877, writing from 
Yeddo under date of May 7, 1875, he says : " I have in the mean- 
time discovered in the Philippines that the Limulus living there 
develops from a free-swimming larva, viz., a Nauplius stage, a 
fact of great significance to the whole doctrine of crustacean de- 
velopment. The preliminary notice concerning it, which I soon 
send to the Royal Society, will soon come to your notice. Pack- 
ard and Dohrn have had to do with an animal which, like the 
crayfish, has a condensed development." (p. cxxxn.) 

A fuller statement is in a postscript to a letter written aboard 
the Challenger to Professor Kupffer, dated " Zamboanga, Min- 
daua, 4 Februar, 1875," printed in " Challenger-Briefe von Ru- 
dolf von Willemoes-Suhm, Dr. Phil., 1872-1875. Nach dem 
Tode des Verfasser herausgegeben von seiner Mutter," Leipzig, 
1877, pp. 157, 158. I am indebted to Professor Faxon for the ex- 
tract of which I give the following translation : 

" I send you this postscript in order to forward early informa- 
tion that it has befallen to me to find on the surface of the water 
here, about five stages of development of Limulus rotundicauda, 
which does not, like the North American species, according to 
Packard and Dohrn, directly develop, but passes through a Nau- 
plius stage, with one, afterwards with three eyes, wholly like 
a Phyllopod. A tail spine is present, but jointed above, and in 
this stage shows a parallel with Eurypterus. Packard's mode of 
development is a condensed one, and as would appear, his as well 
as Dohrn's and Van Beneden's generalizations on the position of 
Limulus are throughout untenable, in so far as they remove this 
from the Phyllopods ( Apus and Branchipns). They rather be- 
come closely allied through their common Nauplius with three 
pair of appendages ; and a part of the ' Gigantostraken,' especially 
the Eurypteridae, should be added to them." 

" As soon as I reach Japan, I hope to also examine the Limu- 
lus there. The larvae here are unfortunately very rare and 
difficult to isolate but I have good preparations of the most 
important stages. I hope to fall in with the northern species." 



?2.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. i 

A PATHOGENIC SCHIZOPHYTE OF THE HOG. 



( Continued from March number.) 
A LITTLE over a year ago I had a chance to make an inci- 
•**■ dental investigation of a few cases of Texan fever, and be- 
sides other bacteria found several large bacilli, several micros in 
length. These bacilli developed large helobacteria, containing 
each one or two lasting spores. If the observations of dthers 
are correct, and I have no doubt they are, these lasting spores, 
when their time comes, burst, and discharge a cloudy mass, which 
is supposed to consist of exceedingly minute germs, too small to 
be distinctly seen with the very best objectives at our disposal. 
These minute germs, it is further supposed, develop and grow, 
and finally form the micrococci of the Schizophytes to which the 
helobacteria and the lasting spores belong. The helobacteria, which 
I found in swine-plague, bear, as to size, about the same relation 
to the swine-plague Schizophytes, as the helobacteria found in 
Texan fever to the bacilli, which presented themselves in that dis- 
ease ; consequently, as the former were found so often, and fre- 
quently in perfectly fresh material, before any other Schizophytes 
except those of swine-plague, and particularly before any putre- 
faction bacteria had made their appearance, there is, in my judg- 
ment, just cause to suppose that these helobacteria are but another 
stage of development of the bispherical swine-plague Schizo- 
phytes, and that the germs of the swine-plague micrococci are 
the product of the lasting spores. At any rate, if such is the 
case, the whole cycle of development and propagation is complete, 
and a great many things are at once explained which otherwise 
cannot be accounted for. 

These lasting spores, undoubtedly, like those of some other 
Schizophytes, possess great vitality ; are able to withstand degrees 
of heat and cold and other adverse influences absolutely destruc- 
tive to the Schizophytes in any other form or stage of develop- 
ment. I have abundant proof— the same has been published in 
my reports to the Commissioner of Agriculture— that the vitality 
of the infectious principle of swine-plague, or what is the same, 
of the Schizophytes of swine-plague, can be preserved under cer- 
tain conditions, or in certain media — in an old straw stack for 
instance — a whole year, and possibly much longer. If the swine- 



294 A Pathogenic Schizophyte of ike Hog. [April, 

plague Schizophytes did not develop helobacteria or lasting 
spores, such a long preservation, to say the least, would be diffi- 
cult to comprehend, even if an indefinitely continued and unin- 
terrupted propagation of the Schizophytes by fission should be 
possible, for an old straw stack, although affording excellent pro- 
tection on account of its porosity, and by being a poor conductor 
of heat, does not seem to be capable of providing the necessary 
pabulum for innumerable generations for a whole year, or longer, 
without changing the malignant character of the Schizophytes, 
while, when cultivated in fluids, foreign to the body of the hog, 
the same Schizophytes undergo an observable change as to their 
malignancy — become less capable of producing mischief — in a 
few generations. Further, the swine-plague Schizophytes, while 
in the state of a single or double micrococcus, of a coccoglia, or 
of a micrococcus chain, are known to succumb in a comparatively 
short time to adverse influences, and it is very much to be 
doubted whether they possess vitality enough to be preserved a 
whole year, or longer, in a dormant state, even if protected by 
such a porous body as an old straw stack. Moreover, for reasons 
already stated, it would be impossible to account for the multi- 
tude of single micrococci invariably present in all infectious 
material, unless the swine-plague Schizophytes develop helo- 
bacteria and lasting spores, which produce germs developing to 
micrococci. If animal fluids, lung-exudation for instance, con- 
taining swine-plague Schizophytes, are filtrated through several 
papers, the latter, if fine enough, retain the micrococcus-chains, 
the zoogloea-masses, most, or nearly all of the double, and a good 
many of the single micrococci, while some of the latter, no mat- 
ter how fine the papers may be, will pass through. But as the 
single or spherical micrococci of swine-plague are not a product 
of fission — do not proceed from micrococcus-chain, zooglcea- 
masses, or double micrococci — and do not come from other sin- 
gle micrococci, which, as far as I have been able to observe, de- 
velop to double or bispherical bodies, in as well as out of the 
zooglcea-mass, the fact that in a few hours or, at any rate, in a 
day after the filtration, the number of single micrococci contained 
in the filtrate is much larger than immediately after the filtration, 
cannot be explained, unless something finer than the micrococci, 
in other words, some micrococcus germs or the products of the 
lasting spores, too fine to be distinguished by the human eye 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schhophyte of the Hog, 295 

through the best lenses in use, must have been contained in the 
lung-exudation, and must have passed through the filtering 
papers. Still, when the filtrate containing the micrococci, was 
filtrated again and again, each time through four papers, and at 
such a time, at which most or nearly all of the micrococci had 
become double, or developed to chains, but before any helobac- 
teria had formed or could be found, the filtrate finally became 
free from micrococci, and an inoculation with the same proved to 
be ineffective, while an inoculation with the filtrate containing 
micrococci, produced a mild form of disease. Hence, it must be 
supposed, time and repeated filtrations finally exhausted the exist- 
ing supply of micrococcus-germs or lasting spore products. 
Some French investigators, indeed, have found that in Anthrax 
not only the bacilli, but also their products (?), if used for inocu- 
lation, produce the disease. Does it not seem probable that these 
products are nothing but the germs discharged by the lasting 
spores, which are contained in the infectious media, invisible to 
the human eye even through the best objectives, because too 
small ? 

Finally, as single micrococci do not develop from other single 
micrococci, and are not a product of fission, they cannot increase 
in numbers in the animal organism — for instance, after an inocu- 
lation — unless we accept spontaneous generation, or unless there 
is another link in the cycle of metamorphosis, a helobacterium or 
lasting spore, which produces and disseminates the germs or 
seeds of the new micrococci. Therefore, as such helobacteria or 
lasting spores are of frequent occurrence, and can very often be 
found in perfectly fresh material, such as lung-exudation, blood 
serum, etc., before any other bacteria besides swine-plague Schiz- 
ophytes have made their appearance, and also correspond in size 
to the swine-plague Schizophytes the same as the helobacteria 
found in Texan fever to the bacilli found in that disease, it will be 
pretty safe to conclude that the helobacteria in question are sim- 
ply an advanced and matured form of the swine-plague Schizo- 
phytes. The discharged contents of such a lasting spore, though 
undoubtedly granular, are too fine to be resolved by our present 
objectives. 

But what proof is there that these Schizophytes, which I call 
swine-plague Schizophytes, really constitute the cause and the 
infectious principle of that disease, and are not the products of 



2g6 A Pathogenic Sckizophyte of the Hog. [April, 

the morbid process, or merely accidental attendants. To show 
that their presence is not accidental, may not need much proof, 
although an abundance can be furnished. It will probably suffice 
to say, if the Schizophytes were accidental, that is, had no rela- 
tion to the disease, neither as cause nor as effect, it would be very 
strange that they are found in every case of swine-plague and 
nowhere else. It may be said that some investigators did not 
find them, but that proves nothing. They are easily overlooked. 
If one, for instance, has blood or blood serum under the micro- 
scope, and focusses on the blood corpuscles, the microphytes, and 
especially the micrococci, are easily overlooked, particularly if 
the objective has a short focus and a large aperture, and therefore 
but little penetration, but the same will come into view if the 
focus is very slightly raised, or just enough to make the outlines 
of the blood corpuscles a trifle less distinct, because the Schizo- 
phytes, it seems, have a tendency to crowd as close to the cover 
as they possibly can. Some of them also crowd to the slide, and 
may therefore be brought to view by lowering the focus just a 
trifle. Besides, to distinguish under all circumstances, Swine- 
plague micrococci from small granules, and vice versa, requires 
some experience, a very good objective, good light and careful 
handling. Further, if one attempts to find Schizophytes in un- 
diluted blood he will very often not succeed, because the blood 
corpuscles, if very thick or numerous, are apt to hide them from 



In all my examinations of blood, blood serum, lung-exudation 
and other morbid products of swine-plague, I never found the 
swine-plague Schizophytes absent, while on the other hand, I 
never found them anywhere else. It is true I have found similar 
single and double micrococci and micrococcus-chains in other 
substances ; for instance, in wine, but the same differed in size, 
and behaved differently in forming zooglcea-masses and micro- 
coccus-chains. Those which I found in some substances were 
considerably smaller, while in some others I found larger ones. 

If the possibility of spontaneous generation is admitted, it wil 
be difficult to advance direct proof that the swine-plague Schizo 
phytes are not the product of the morbid process, because in '< 
certain sense they are ; they multiply within the animal organism 
and multiply very rapidly, and probably in the same ratio, if 
which the morbid process progresses, if once introduced from the 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyie of. the Hog. 297 

outside. If, however, the possibility of a spontaneous generation 
is not admitted, the Schizophytes cannot be produced, or be 
called into existence by the morbid process. 

As evidence that the swine-plague Schizophytes constitute the 
true cause of the morbid process, and the infectious principle of 
the disease, by which the latter is communicated from animal to 
animal, from herd to herd, and from one locality to another, I can 
offer the following facts, which may not constitute absolute proof, 
but, if considered in toto, make it reasonably certain that the Schizo- 
phytes, and nothing else, constitute the cause and the infectious 
principle of the disease. 

1. Every inoculation of healthy pigs which never had become 
infected with swine-plague, when made with material contain- 
ing swine-plague Schizophytes — lung-exudation for instance — 
proved to be effective, and produced the disease in due time, be- 
tween three and fifteen days, or on an average in five to six days, 
notwithstanding the very small quantity, usually not exceeding 
the fourth part of one drop, with which the animal was inocula- 
ted on the outer surface of the ear, provided no measures of pre- 
vention were applied. For particulars I have to refer to my pub- 
lished reports. Further, even an inoculation with filtrated lung- 
exudation, in which no visible solid bodies whatever, except 
Swine-plague micrococci, could be discovered, proved to be effec- 
tive, and produced a mild form of the disease, while filtrated 
lung-exudation, destitute of micrococci, when used to inoculate 
a healthy animal, proved to be ineffective, and did not even cause 
a visible reaction. 

2. Inoculations with swine-plague Schizophytes cultivated in 
an innocent fluid, such as fresh cow-milk, albumen of a hen's 
egg, etc., invariably produced the disease, though usually in a 
comparatively mild form ; a fact which corresponds with the results 
of the experiments, made by Toussaint, Pasteur, and Buchner 
with Bacillus anthracis, and by Pasteur with chicken-cholera 
microbes, and shows that the malignancy of pathogenic Schyzo- 
phytes depends largely upon the nature of this pabulum. 

3- Swine, which survive an attack of swine-plague and recover, 
possess afterwards either perfect, or what is more frequent, partial 
immunity from further infection. In other words, subsequent in- 
oculations, or a subsequent exposure to the influence of the in- 
fectious principle, have either no effect whatever, or have only a 



298 A Pathogi the Hog. [April, 

comparatively slight effect, that is, are productive of a mild and 
not fatal form of the disease, or cause only a scarcely observable 
reaction. All this cannot find an explanation, if the infectious 
principle consists in a chemical virus, but is fully explained, if 
Schizophytes constitute the cause and the infectious principle of 
the disease, for it is a well known fact that these minute bodies, 
by passing through a certain cycle of changes or metamorphoses, 
and propagating to a certain extent exhaust in that medium, in 
which they are existing, the conditions necessary to their further 
development and propagation. They then render their medium 
sterile, and do not undergo any further changes, and do not 
multiply, unless, and until they are transferred to a fresh and 
otherwise suitable medium, when again they begin another cycle 
of metamorphosis and propagation, and multiply with great 
rapidity. In an animal, which has recovered from an attack of 
Swine-plague, some of the conditions necessary to the further 
metamorphosis and propagation of the Schizophytes, it seems, 
have become either partially or fully exhausted, and are not very 
soon restored, hence the partial, or as the case may be, perfect 
immunity. Still, as will be mentioned again, such an animal is 
usually able, at least within two months after its recovery, to 
transmit the disease, from which the same itself is not any more 
suffering, to other healthy animals, though in most cases only in 
a mild form. 

4. It is a well known fact, and has been observed every- 
where, not only by myself, but by nearly every one who has 
any experience in regard to swine-plague, that healthy hogs, 
which have access to a creek or a small stream of running water, 
which is further above accessible to, and defiled by, diseased 
hogs, or polluted with morbid products of swine-plague, or the 
carcasses of dead hogs, will almost invariably contract the dis- 
ease; a fact which plainly shows to every thinking man that the 
infectious principle must be something corporeal, endowed with 
life, and able, like the swine-plague Schizophytes, not only to 
withstand the influence of water, but also to live and to multiply 
in the same. A chemically acting, and invisible fluid, or volatile 
virus, one should suppose, would become diluted by the water of 
a creek, small river, or running stream to such an extent as to be 
perfectly harmless and unable to communicate the disease, be- 
cause there is no known chemical of an organic nature, but what 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. 299 

can be sufficiently diluted to lose its efficiency. With living 
germs it is different ; if conditions are favorable, a few of them 
will suffice to develop innumerable generations, and may thus be- 
come a source of incalculable mischief. Further, it is also well 
known that the disease can be communicated through the air, 
and that the infectious principle which may happen to be floating 
in the air is absorbed by wounds, scratches, sores, abraisions, etc., 
in skin and mucous membranes, which would hardly be possible 
if a chemical virus constituted the cause and the means of in- 
fection. 

5. The temperature of the atmosphere, and also the weather 
have considerable influence as to the spreading of the disease, 
but apparently have no influence whatever upon the morbid pro- 
cess or the development of the disease, after an animal has be- 
come infected. Frost, cold weather, lasting snow, frequent heavy 
rains, and continued drought and sunshine retard, and mild, warm 
and cloudy weather, heavy dews, and now and then a light rain 
considerably promote the spreading of the disease. Such would 
not be the case if the infection-, principle consisted in a chemical 
virus, indestructible by water and air, but all this is natural, easily 
explained and self-evident, if living germs which require a certain 
degree of warmth and moisture, constitute the infectious princi- 
ple, because frost, lasting snow, cold weather, heavy rains, and 
continued drought are inimical to organic life and vegetation, 
offer but little opportunity to the Schizophytes for a change of 
place, and necessarily retard their development and propagation ; 
while, on the other hand, mild and warm weather, heavy dews, light 
rains, etc., are not only favorable to vegetation in general, and to 
the development of minute organic bodies in particular, but also 
offer a great many chances for a change of place and medium, 
and thus promote the propagation of the Schizophytes. The latter 
which are discharged in immense numbers with the excrements, 
urine, discharges from the nose, and other secretions and excre- 
tions of the diseased animals, rise into the air, perhaps mostly as 
micrococcus-germs and micrococci, probably only to a limited 
height, when the moisture contained in the dung and other excre- 
tions, and the urine evaporate, and come down again in the dew, 
and when it rains. At any rate, where swine-plague is prevailing, 
the swine-plague micrococci can often be found in dew-drops on 
the grass early in the morning, and also in exposed pools of 



300 A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. [April, 

water. If the rain is a light one, the Schizophytes are apt to 
remain where the rain-drops deposit them, till evaporation once 
more carries them up into the air, but if the rain is very heavy or 
pouring, and temporarily flooding the ground, the Schizophytes, 
it seems, are washed away, for it can be observed that after light 
rains the spreading of the disease is accelerated, while immediate- 
ly after each heavy or pouring rain a temporary diminution, 
often almost amounting to a cessation, can be noticed. 

6. As already mentioned, it is an established fact that external 
wounds, especially such as are caused by ringing, castration, cut- 
ting of tails, and slitting of ears, external sores, scratches, and 
even abrasions, attract and absorb the infectious principle, and 
that the disease is also communicated, though not as readily as 
through wounds, etc., if the infectious principle is introduced 
with food or water for drinking into the digestive canal, while I 
have never yet been able to observe, or to obtain any evidence, 
that the infectious principle does enter, or can enter, the animal 
organism through a healthy skin, or through the respiratory organs, 
if the mucous membranes are in a perfectly healthy condition, or 
free from any sores, wounds, or abrasions. It has even been re- 
peatedly observed that an animal whose skin and mucous mem- 
branes are whole and healthy, will not contract the disease, and is 
perfectly safe, if separated only by a fence, a board fence, or a 
board partition from diseased animals, provided, of course, an in- 
troduction of the infectious principle through the alimentary canal 
is prevented. All this shows that the infectious principle must be 
something that is very minute, but corporeal, and endowed with 
life and power of propagation, and not an invisible poisonous 
fluidum, for the latter, most assuredly, if dissolved in air, would 
find its way through the lungs, and, very likely also through the 
healthy skin into the animal organism. 

7. If the morbid process is taken into consideration — for par- 
ticulars I have to refer to my published reports, as going into de- 
tails would consume too much time — it also becomes evident that 
something corporeal and endowed with life and power of propaga- 
tion must constitute the cause of the disease. The morbid pro- 
cess in all parts and organs, in which it may develop, essentially 
the same, is best studied in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and 
particularly in the lungs. At first the finer capillaries become ob- 
structed, as a consequence, more or less blood serum transudes 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. 301 

through their walls into the tissues, or if the pressure is a great 
one some of the capillaries will yield, and become dilated or 
break behind the obstruction, and thus small specks of blood 
are extravasated. These extravasations are sometimes, especially 
in younger animals, exceedingly numerous, and present them- 
selves as tiny red, or reddish-brown specks of the size of a pin's 
head, or smaller. To mention the further, or subsequent changes 
which are taking place, will not be necessary, for the same have 
but little bearing upon the subject. The question is what ob- 
structs the capillaries? It, of course, must be something solid or 
corporeal, and I have not been able to find anything, except the 
swine-plague Schizophytes. It is true, the single and double 
micrococci, and the micrococcus-chains cannot and do not do it, 
for they are abundantly small to pass everywhere with the greatest 
facility where a blood corpuscle can pass, but these micrococci 
form zooglcea-masses or coccoglia, which frequently are many 
times the size of a blood corpuscle, and therefore sufficiently 
large to clog the finer capillaries. Besides, some of the micro- 
cocci enter, or are taken up by the white blood corpuscles, and swell 
the latter not seldom to an abnormal size, or a size large enough 
to obstruct some of the finest capillary vessels. In all my ex- 
aminations of diseased lung-tissue, and lung-exudation, these 
zooglcea-masses and white blood corpuscles invaded by micro.- 
cocci, have never been found miss ented them- 

selves in great, though somewhat variable numbers. No matter, 
in which way, or by what means the Schizophytes enter the ani- 
mal organism, and get into the blood by being absorbed by the veins 
or by the lymphatics, the first capillary system to which they 
come, is in the lungs, which may account for the fact that in 
swine-plague morbid changes in the lungs, consisting in exuda- 
tion, extravasation of blood, and finally hepatization are never 
absent. At least I found them at every post-mortem examination, 
and in the last three years I made about 300. Dr. James Law, 
of Ithaca, N. Y., in his report to the Commissioners of Agricul- 
ture, records the lungs of some of his experimental pigs as 
"healthy," "sound," "normal," etc., which simply shows that 
those pigs were not affected with swine-plague, and did not die of 
that disease. It may here also be mentioned that in all cases of 
swine-plague most of the lymphatic glands are more or less en- 
larged, and that comparatively more Schizophytes can be found 



302 A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. [April, 

in the enlarged or swelled lymphatic glands, than in any other 
part of the animal's body. 

8. In one and the same affected herd the older or more fully 
matured animals often recover, while nearly every young ani- 
mal and particularly nearly every young pig under three months 
old, if once infested, will succumb to the disease, and is 
almost sure to die. This also may be considered as proof that the 
Schizophytes, or rather their zooglcea-masses cause the disease 
by obstructing the capillaries. In older, and otherwise robust 
hogs the heart and the walls of the blood vessels are much 
stronger than in young pigs, and so it often happens that in the 
former the force of the blood current is strong enough to break 
and to disperse the zooglcea-masses, and thus to free the ob- 
structed passages, while in young, and especially in very young 
animals the pressure or the force of the blood current is insuf- 
ficient, and then the passage is not freed, and exudation takes 
place, or the walls of the blood vessels are too weak, and then 
the latter yield and break and blood is extravasated. Usually 
both processes occur. Hence, while blood-extravasations in. the 
lungs, arc, as a rule, more frequent in young animals, other mor- 
bid changes brought about by Schizophytes, which have passed 
tine capillary system in the lungs, and are forming their zooglcea- 
masses in other parts or organs of the body, are on the whole 
more frequently met with in older hogs. Still, the latter, not- 
withstanding, have a much better chance of recovery than the 
former. 

9. An animal which is recovering from an attack of swine- 
plague, or in which the morbid process has ceased to be active, 
will yet for sometime discharge swine-plague Schizophytes with 
its excretions, and is able to communicate the disease to other 
healthy animals by polluting their food or water for drinking, 
consequently the organism of such an animal is not destitute of 
the infectious principle, but contains an abundance of the same in 
a potent condition, while its own tissues have become sterile, or 
are not any more acted upon, because some of the conditions re- 
quired by the Schizophytes to form zooglcea-masses and to pro- 
pagate have become exhausted. In the lungs of an animal which 
was butchered two months after recovety, I found an abundance 
of swine-plague Schizophytes, but no zooglcea-masses. These 
facts, too. will be difficult of explanation, if a chemical poison or 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizopliyte of the Hog. 

and the cai 

10. Swine-plague has a well-marked period of incubation, or as 
it has more appropriately been called stage of colonization, last- 
ing from two to fifteen days, during which no morbid symptoms, 
with the exception, perhaps, of a somewhat higher temperature, 
can be observed. The average time which elapses after an inocu- 
lation or infection has taken place till plain symptoms of disease 
make their appearance, or till the morbid process has sufficiently 
advanced to produce external symptoms, or a visible disturbance 
of health, may be set down as from five to six days. All this is 
easily explained if Schizophytcs constitute the cause, because 
those introduced from without are insufficient in numbers to 
cause at once important morbid changes ; they must have time to 
undergo the necessary metamorphoses and to multiply within the 
animal organism, and this time varies according to the number 
of Schizophytes originally transferred to the condition or stage 
of development in which they are transferred, and to the degree 
of so-called predisposition or favorableness of conditions existing 
in the infected animal. As a rule, the larger the amount of the 
infectious material introduced and the richer the same in swine- 
plague Schizophytes, the shorter the period of incubation, or stage 
of colonization. 

On the other hand, if the infectious principle were a chemical 
poison or virus, its action, one should suppose, would, under 
all circumstances be exactly the same, and the malignancy 
of the morbid process and the time required for its devel- 
opment would not be influenced by, or be dependent upon 
so many conditions, such as the individuality, age and tempera- 
ture of the animal, the time and season of the year, the number 
and stage of metamorphosis of the Schizophytes contained in the 
infectious material and other yet unknown conditions. A poison 
or virus, indestructible by water and air, and not affected by dilu- 
tion, no matter how far it may be carried, one should suppose, 
would act with great uniformity. Consequently one is obliged to 
conclude that the Schizophytcs, and not a chemical virus, must, 
and do, constitute the cause. 

11. The infectious principle undoubtedly consists in something 
that is destroyed and made ineffective by putrefaction, because 
infectious material, such as blood, blood serum, lung exudation, 



304 A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. [April, 

other morbid products, etc., if putrefied, can be consumed by- 
healthy animals without communicating the disease, and if used 
for inoculation, such putrefied material may cause septicaemia, but 
never produces a genuine case of swine-plague. Further, as has 
been previously mentioned, swine-plague Schizophytes cannot 
any more be found in the blood, blood serum, morbid tissues and 
morbid products, etc., of hogs which are diseased with, or have died 
of, swine-plague after putrefaction has set in, or in other words, 
after putrefaction bacteria, and particularly Bacterium termo, 
have made their appearance in large numbers. So, for instance, 
blood which has become sufficiently putrefied to assume a pur- 
plish color, is destitute of swine-plague Schizophytes. If these 
two facts are connected, it becomes evident that infectious sub- 
stances or media lose their efficacy, or their power to communi- 
cate the disease to healthy animals simultaneously with the dis- 
appearance of the swine-plague Schizophytes, and vice versa, the 
latter disappear at the exact time at which the infectious sub- 
stances or media cease to be infectious. Does this indicate a close 
relationship between the swine-plague Schizophytes and the in- 
fectious principle, or can such a remarkable coincidence be rejected 
as merely accidental ? Further, is it more rational to accept as 
the cause and infectious principle of swine-plague, an unseen 
virus or something which nobody has ever produced, nor ever 
will produce, but which, notwithstanding, is indestructible by 
water, air and dilution, and possesses the remarkable property of 
making its exit at the very moment at which the swine-plague 
Schizophytes are destroyed, or caused to disappear by putrefac- 
tion, than to regard the latter, the Schizophytes, which do exist, 
are present, can be seen, have been shown and, moreover, possess 
all the properties and peculiarities manifested by the infectious 
principle, as the true cause of the morbid process and the propa- 
gators of the disease? I, for one should not think so. 

12. It is an established fact that the morbid process, which in- 
variably affects the lungs, will also develop in all such other parts 
or organs as may happen to be wounded, inflamed, or in a state 
of congestion — for particulars I have to refer to my reports — and 
thus some other parts besides the lungs may sometimes become 
just as much, or even more affected than the latter. So, for in- 
stance, if a pig has been ringed, or been castrated, and a perfect 
healing has not yet taken place when the animal becomes infected, 



1 882.] A Pathogenic Schizophyte of the Hog. 305 

the parts yet more or less inflamed invariably become a promi- 
nent seat of the morbid process. All this is explained if the 
Schizophytes constitute the cause, as all recently wounded parts 
are comparatively rich in blood, and their capillaries, on account 
of the yet existing congestion or inflammation, are easily ob- 
structed; but I should find it very difficult to give an explanation, 
if a poison or chemical virus constitutes the infectious principle 
and the cause of swine-plague. A chemical poison or virus, one 
should suppose, would possess special affinity to certain parts or 
tissues, and therefore cause the morbid process either to develop 
invariably in one and the same part of the body, or to attack in 
all cases the whole animal organism. 

13. Antiseptics, or medicines, which are either directly poison- 
ous to the lowest forms of organic life, or destructive to some of 
those conditions necessary to the metamorphoses and propaga- 
tion of the simplest forms of organic life, such as Schizophytes, 
and among those antiseptics particularly carbolic acid, iodine, 
hyposulphite of soda, benzoate of soda, thymol, etc., have proved 
to be almost sure prophylactics. Their use, combined with strict 
separation, will prevent the outbreak of swine-plague in animals 
which have been inoculated or have undoubtedly become infected. 
As one of the conditions necessary to the development of swine- 
plague, it seems, must be considered a certain degree of animal 
heat. At any rate, after or while the animal heat of a pig is 
reduced by a continued treatment with carbolic acid from the 
normal 102 or 103 F., to an abnormally low temperature of a 
few degrees below 100 — in several cases it was reduced to 96 
and 97 — nearly every inoculation with fresh infectious material 
has proved to remain ineffective, and the few which did not 
remain ineffective were followed by an unprecedentedly long 
period of incubation and a very mild form of the disease. Com- 
ment will not be necessary. The various antiseptics which have 
proved to be good prophylactics, are very dissimilar in their 
chemical action and affinities, and therefore their prophylactic 
effect cannot very well be explained if the infectious principle 
consists in a chemical poison or virus, but admits explanation if 
something endowed with life and power of propagation consti- 
tutes the cause of swine-plague. 



306 Mexican Caves with Human Remains. [April, 

MEXICAN CAVES WITH HUMAN REMAINS. 

BY EDWARD PALMER. 

NEAR the western border of the State of Coahuila, Mexico, are 
to be found several caves in the limestone formation of the 
mountains. In these caves human remains were found. This 
section of country under consideration is commonly called the 
Lajona, which means overflowed. During the rainy season, 
which is the months of July, August and September, the river 
Nazas overflows its banks, and inundates the valley. Of late 
years cotton and corn has been cultivated. To prevent the ex- 
cess of water from destroying the plants, large canals are dug 
round the fields, and connected with the river. These canals are 
used for irrigating the crops. Previous to the advent of the 
Spaniards this section could not have been much cultivated, as 
the good land was overflowed at the growing season, and previous 
to the rains it was too dry for crops to mature before the wet 
season, when the overflow would destroy them. 

It presents to the eye of an observer a country unfit to sustain 
a large permanent people without modern appliances. Its nu- 
merous mountains are dry and rocky, without trees, though 
having a few stunty bushes and plants in the shady recesses. 
The valley also is as dry and barren except immediately about 
the receding waters. The plants naturally produced in a country 
of this character are the cactus, agave, yucca, mesquite, Larrea 
mexicana, and allied forms. These are either armed with thorns, 
or are so excessively bitter that neither wild nor domestic animals 
using them for food can exterminate them. , 

Animals are scarce ; deer, two species of rabbits, skunk, 
badgers, ground squirrels, and rats, with snakes, lizards, birds 
and fish, are limited in number, except rabbits and blackbirds. 

The food products of a country determines its capacity to sus- 
tain life, especially when without domestic animals, and situated 
as these people were in the midst of a desert waste without any 
productive country immediately near from which to draw food 
supplies from, moving from place to place as the food and water 
supply admitted during the dry season, in the wet they could with 
pack-animals move their effects to the near mountains in which 
water is then to be found. During the dry season there are but 
two plants in that section, which could be counted upon for a sup- 
ply of food, game being merely incidental. 



1 882.] Mexican Caves ivith Human Remains. 307 

In the spring the center or crown of the agave was roasted, 
when it became a nutritious article of food, and in summer the 
mesquite beans are ripe. After the flood of waters had subsided, 
annual plants, like the sunflower, would produce abundance of 
seeds, which the inhabitants could return and gather. 

As to the dead found in the caves, they had their knees drawn 
to their chin, also the hands, and so encased in their robes, and 
so securely bound with bands made of net-work, that they formed 
a convenient bundle for handling. Some had but one wrapping 
around the bones, others two; these during life were clothing 
and bedding, one worn round the waist and fastened by a belt; the 
other, worn over the shoulders, was fastened by two strings, at- 
tached thereto for that purpose. Those with only one wrapper, 
which was worn on the shoulders by day, wore around the waist 
in two parts appendages made of fringe or cloth; sometimes 
feathers were attached to the fringed ends to make the fringe 
longer and more showy ; one division was worn behind the other 
in front. The heads of the dead were variously cared for. One 
had drawn over it a worked bag, another had a cap of net-work 
to which was fastened a profusion of feathers; this head rested in 
a collar of braided cat-tail rushes ; other heads were placed in 
round pads that are usually worn on the heads of females to sup- 
port the jars of water while carrying them. Sandals of various 
qualities were used, made of agave fibers. The ornaments worn 
were seeds of plants, vertebrae of snakes, roots of medical plants, 
pieces of shell, bone or stone cut into suitable shapes. 

Caves as depositories of the dead were very suitable, and saved 
the labor of digging graves in the earth. In the caves the dead 
were laid therein without any earth being placed over them. 

Raw materials for clothing was supplied main!) from the differ- 
ent agaves and yuccas ; in fact, all the fabrics and sandals found 
with the cave dead were made from the fibers or leaves of those 
plants. Skins of animals seem only used to a limited extent for 
clothing, these plants furnishing a cooler and more durable fabric 
for hot climates. 

The remains found in the cave have their hair done up in one 
bunch behind, and bound very tight by cords ; they are very 
short in length, very unlike the hair of many of the Indians of the 
United States, whose hair hang down to and below their waists 
done up in two bundles, one on each side, larger than the bunch 
found with the cave dead. 



3o8 Mexican Caves with Hitman Remains. [April, 

The wooden handles and tools were cut by stone tools, and 
when they were required to be sharp, smooth and round, they 
were rendered so by rubbing with stones. 

As no ruins of ancient dwellings are to be found in the cave 
district, it is to be inferred that they lived in dwellings of very 
perishable materials. 

Baskets, plain and ornamented, were made from the split twigs 
of the Rhus or split roots of the mesquite bound over small rolls 
of grass. Dress goods were all made by hand-loom, or made of 
skins, and all garments of the same fashion were as plain as could 
be made. Only two pieces of pottery were found. If the war- 
like character of the people is to be inferred from the implements 
found, they should be considered very peaceable, for only two 
arrow-heads, parts of two bows, and one arrow shaft, to which is 
attached a piece of reed, having inserted in it a piece of a wooden 
arrow, the kind often used to kill small game; knives of fine 
finish made of stones, which by their size and shape would indi- 
cate they were used in cutting the maguey plant for roasting, and 
for dividing it after being cooked, were found. 

For beds, small sticks and twigs of plants, over which were laid 
grasses, leaves, hides of animals, or mats, were used, as indicated 
by the remnants found in the caves. For covering by night, 
their clothing answered admirably, being long and of a width 
sufficient to cover them ; their garments may be called long, 
narrow blankets, retaining their strength to the present time; 
bands, parallel lines or simple diamonds or squares were used in 
ornamentation. The colors used in dyeing are yet bright and 
perfect, being black, yellow, brown, red, and orange. 

Easily constructed from the small pools, and sticks for the 
side and frame ; for a roof, grass and earth, or yucca leaves were 
used. These simple huts were airy and cool, suited to the wants 
of a people living in a state of nature, and the requirements of a 
hot climate. 

Are the native inhabitants of the country under consideration, 
descendants of those whose remains are found in the caves? 
Though they have been modified to some extent by the Catholic 
religion, and introduced customs from Spain, they present very 
much in their customs which compel the belief that they are yet 
more truly Indian than any thing else. They live in their simple 
huts with a household paraphernalia of Indians, often without the 



I882.J Mexican ( 'arcs ivith Human Remains. 309 

least furniture. Beds, blankets, belts, shoes, baskets, crockery, 
hand-looms, and metates or stone mills with which they prepare 
their seeds and grain for food are still used,- and the present in- 
habitants use many native plants and seeds for food that were 
used by the cave dead, while cotton and wool have taken the 
place of the agave and yucca fiber for clothing, and leather is sub- 
stituted for plant fibers and leaves for shoes ; it is only change of 
materials, not of mode of manufacture or superiority of workman- 
ship that make a difference. The fiber of the agave though not 
now in use for clothing, is yet used to make ropes, mats, &c, 
the mode of preparing the fiber is handed down by cave people, 
and the knife now used, for the cutting up of the agave plant for 
domestic uses though of iron, is fashioned after the stone knife 
found with the dead in the caves. As one sees the people in their 
domestic relations, in their daily avocations, when engaged in 
their dances, in their desire for idleness, taking into consideration 
all the above mentioned traits, one comes to the conclusion that 
they are the descendants of the cave people. The influence 
of the Catholic church has caused them to bury their dead in the 
ground. The present race not of Spanish origin is Indian. 

Glancing over the physical geography and the natural produc- 
tions of the country about the caves, the question may be asked, 
how high in the scale of advancement did the former inhabitants 
of this section rise? The clothing and utensils found with the dead 
answers the question. A race of Indians, without commerce, de- 
pendent upon the natural productions of a desert country to 
supply their daily want ; long practice in the use of their simple 
arts had created that perfection, which has given rise to the belief 
that only a superior race could produce like results. A people 
in nature, in a climate with nine months drouth, without domestic 
animals and modern civilization could not become rich or civi- 
lized according to modern views. Studying closely this section 
with the evidences found with the cave dead, and comparing other 
lands with a similar production, and one finds there a like race 
with corresponding manners and customs. Take for instance 
ancient Peru and its people ; the Territories of Arizona, New 
Mexico and Southern California with their inhabitants as found 
at the Spanish Conquest, and compare them with that portion of 
Mexico formerly inhabited by the race whose remains are found 
in the caves, and one will find not only a resemblance of produc- 



3 io Mexican Caves with Human Remains. [April, 

tions from the soil, but the people possessing the same ability to 
take nature's gifts, and adapt them to their every day wants in a 
highly satisfactory manner. We are astounded in beholding 
their workmanship, they simply took nature's gifts and made the 
best of them. Comparing the cave clothing with that of the 
ancient Peruvians, we find a close alliance ; both made by a 
hand-loom, the same as is used by the Indians of Peru, Mexico, 
Arizona, New Mexico and Southern California to-day. The rude 
Navajo Indian makes a blanket upon one of these hand-looms, 
which commands not only a good price from white men, but 
their admiration— yet he is considered a savage — lives in a hut. 
It is not necessary to live in palaces, in order to perform great 
works, and it is shown by our ancient and modern American In- 
dians, that they were equal to emergencies, until compelled to 
face Europeans with their civilization. 

In the New and Old World, it is customary to consider 
those that lived in caves to be a distinctive people from those 
called Pueblos or town-dwellers. The evidences of these kinds of 
habitations are to be found in many places. There was another 
class of dwellings : the perishable huts made of tree branches and 
thatched, of which nothing is left. The dwellers in each of these 
three classes of buildings might be of the same race. In the win- 
ter living in caves, in summer or while attending to crops they 
might live in temporary stick-huts. Some caves contain human 
remains, these have been put there as the easiest means of dis- 
posing of the dead. If surrounded by enemies, as the industrious 
and peaceful Indians of ancient times were, they had become 
Pueblos or dwellers in towns as a means of defence, yet they could 
be of the same people as the cave-dwellers, or those who inhab- 
ited brush houses. There was a distinctive race from the above 
which lived in brush huts ; they lived by the chase, and roamed at 
will over the land, always warring against the town-dwellers. In 
some sections many stone implements are found, in others those of 
bronze. The finding of these tools of different materials is no evi- 
dence of their being made by distinctive people or in remote 
periods from each other, for sometimes one finds both' together. 
Ancient and modern people in nature use whatever their section 
afforded. There is no reason to suppose that the so-called 
mound-builders were different from the cave-dwellers. Town- 
dwellers, makers of flint or bronze implements, they were all of 



1 882.] Editors' Table. 311 

the same great division ; i. e. buryers of the dead. Their war-like 
enemies compelled them to live in brush huts, built together in a 
wooded country in winter, and in the openings in summer; thus 
the mounds with human remains therein occur in these sections. 

A difference in the kind of dwellings or tools do not of them- 
selves warrant the conclusion of some writers that each distinctive 
class was an evidence of tribal or race difference. We might as 
well consider the makers of pottery a distinct people ; but they 
were not, for every race of Indian made and used pottery in 
ancient times, and at the present time, even the warlike Indian, 
without fixed habitations, has his though of a plainer kind. There 
are some who think that the kind of pottery argues a different race 
origin ; this is not so, the different qualities of pottery and forms 
are designed to suit the different purposes for which they were 
made, and not for a display of race distinctions. In Mexico and 
the United States in ancient times, the Indians used the same 
method of rendering their pottery hard and smooth as is now 
practiced by the Indians of Mexico to-day. A pebble of agate or 
jasper is used to rub over the surface of the pottery as soon as the 
new made article is dry; a fine, hard, smooth surface is the result ; 
it has been considered a varnish. I saw it in general use ; it is a 
new fact not known to writers before my visit to Mexico in 1877 
and 1878. 

In conclusion, I would say that there are two races of Indians 
to-day, as there were in ancient times, circumstances causing 



EDITORS' TABLE. 

EDITORS : A. S. PACKARD, JR., AND E. D. COPE. 

Professor E. DuBois Raymond has recently delivered a 

lecture before the physicians of the German army, on exercise or 
use, in which he makes some important admissions. We hope to 
give an abstract of the lecture, but content ourselves, at present, 
with the following extracts : " We should be, therefore, free to 
admit, with some appearance of reason, that the vigor of the 
muscles of wings and of digging feet; the thick epidermis of the 
palm of the hand and of the sole of the foot ; the callosities of 
the tail and of the ischia of some monkeys; the processes of 



312 Editors' Table. [April, 

bones for the insertion of muscles; are the consequences of nutri- 
tive and formative excitation, transmitted by heredity." In this 
position Professor Raymond is in strict accord with the American 
school of evolutionists. He then goes on to say: "It is neces- 
sary to admit along with development by use, development by 
natural selection, and that for three reasons. First, there are 
innumerable adaptations — I cite only those known as mimetic 
coloration — which appear to be only explicable by natural selec- 
tion, and not by use. Second, plants which are, in their way, as 
well adapted to their environment as animals, are of course inca- 
pable of activity. Thirdly, we need the doctrine of natural 
selection to explain the origin of the capacity for exercise itself. 
Unless we admit that which it is impossible to do from a scien- 
tific standpoint, that designed structures have a mechanical ori- 
gin, it is necessary to conclude that in the struggle for existence, 
the victory has been secured by those living beings who in exer- 
cising their natural functions have increased, by chance (" par 
hasard") their capacity for these functions more than others, and 
that the beings thus favored have transmitted their fortunate gifts, 
to be still further developed by their descendants." In these 
three propositions, Professor Raymond still clings to the obscuri- 
ties of the Darwinians, though Darwin himself is not responsible 
for them. 

To take up first the second and third of these propositions. 
Professor Raymond does not for the moment remember that 
movement (or use) is an attribute of all life in its simplest forms, 
and that the sessile types of life, both vegetable and animal, 
must, in view of the facts, be regarded as a condition of degener- 
ation. It is scarcely to be doubted that the primordial types of 
vegetation were all free swimmers, and that their habit of build- 
ing cellulose and starch, is responsible for their early-assumed 
stationary condition. Their protoplasm is still in motion in the 
limited confines of their walls of cellulose. The movements of 
primitive plants have doubtless modified their structure to the 
extent of their duration and scope, and probably laid slightly 
varied foundations on which automatic nutrition has built widely 
diverse results. We may attribute the origin of the forms of the 
vegetable kingdom to three kinds of motion which have acted in 
conjunction with the physical environment ; first, their primordial 
free movements ; second, the intracellular movements of proto- 
plasm ; third, the movements of insects, which have doubtless 
modified the structure of the floral organs. Of the forms thus 
produced, the fit have survived and the unfit have been lost, and 
that is what natural selection has had to do with it. 

The origin of mimetic coloration, like many other things, is yet 
unknown. An orthodox Darwinian attributes it to " natural selec- 
tion," which turns out, on analysis, to be "hasard." The survival 
of useful coloration is no doubt the result of natural selection. 



1 882.] Recent Literature. 313 

But this cannot be confounded with the question of origin. On 
this point the Darwinian is on the same footing as the old time 
Creationist. The latter says God made the variations, and the 
Darwinian says that they came by chance. Between these posi- 
tions science can perceive nothing to choose. — C. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

The Development of Amphioxus bv Hatschek. 1 — The entire 
organic world does not contain a more interesting animal than the 
lancelet, Amphioxus or Branchiostoma, the lowest vertebrate, 
the link which, though far removed from either, indicates a com- 
mon origin, or at least a remarkable structural similarity between 
the Vertebrata and the Ascidians or Tunicates. 

The literature upon this creature, extensive but incomplete, is 
now enriched by the present exhaustive memoir by one of the 
most careful and accurate of European biologists. In this me- 
moir, which forms the greater portion of a late issue of the 
Arbeiten of the Zoological Institute of the University of Vienna, 
and is illustrated by nine large plates, carefully drawn and 
colored, the development of the lancelet is traced with the 
greatest minuteness from the ovum to the adult. The ovum 
of Amphioxus contains, between the germinal portion and the 
enclosing membrane a remarkably large water space, forming 
by far the greater portion of its bulk, and the cleavage is 
very near regular, the difference between the size of the cells 
separated by the first equatorial fissure being very small. The 
"blastula" stage with its large segmentation cavity, and the 
gradual formation of a " gastrula," are abundantly illustrated; 
two plates are devoted to the more advanced development, plainly 
showing the hollow structure and alternate position of the 
muscle-plates or myocommas, and three colored plates are filled 

Until an advanced period of embryonic life, the digestive tract 
is continuous with a dorsal canal, which terminates at an opening 
upon the upper surface of the head. At a later period the vent is 
formed, connection between the digestive tract and the dorsal 
canal is cut off, the anterior opening closes, and the dorsal canal 
becomes the neural canal. 

The hollow form of the muscular segments is shared by the 
lancelet with the Selachians sharks and rays), Cyclostomes 
(hags and lampreys) and Batrachia, and tends to prove their 
Primary origin as diverticula from the digestive cavity. 

In the notochord vacuoles are developed, which become larger, 



314 Recent Literature. [April, 

obliterating the structure of the original notochordal cells, until 
finally the notochord consists of a series of clear spaces separated 
by hyaline partitions. These vacuoles are traceable also in tuni- 
cates, and in the teleosts or bony fishes. 

In conclusion, we have to say that Hatschek has given to the 
world a most valuable addition to its stock of embryological 
knowledge. 

Trouessart's Catalogue of Recent and Fossil Mammals. 1 — 
Catalogues of animal forms are as necessary to a student of 
zoology as are catalogues of books to the frequenters of a library, 
or directories to dwellers in cities. No zoologist can carry in his 
brain, ready at an instant's notice, the accepted name, synonymy, 
etc., of all the species included in the department he specially 
studies, and thus such works as Gray's Hand-List of Birds, and 
the present are great boons to him; they save him hard work, 
and leave him free to exercise his mind upon purely scientific 

Dr. Trouessart's catalogue, which has already progressed to 
the completion of the Primates and Rodentia promises to be to 
mammalogists what Gray's Hand-List is to ornithologists, with 
the added recommendation that it contains also all known species 
of fossil mammals, and will therefore prove equally useful to the 
palaeontologist. 

The classification adopted is to a great extent that of modern 
authors with the addition of the orders proposed by Professor 
Cope, and is based upon the structure of the feet and teeth, ex- 
cept in the division of all mammalia into the universally accepted 
sub-classes Monodelphia (placental) and Didelphia (non-placental). 

The Prosimiae (Lemurs) are separated as an order from the 
Simiae; Cope's order Bunotheria, with four extinct sub-orders 
( Mesodonta, Creodonta, Tillodonta, Tccnioilontn), and one recent 
sub-order (Insectivora), is placed among the Secundates, or ungui- 
culates; the Toxodonta are considered a sub-order of Rodentia, 
and the Zeuglodonta has the same rank among the Pinnipedia. 
The line of hoofed animals or Ternates is concluded by the Am- 
blypoda, with two sub-orders, Dinocerata and Pantodonta ; the 
porcine group is separated as a sub-order from the ruminants, 
and the order Sirenia is intercalated between the Edentata and 
the Cetacea. The last mentioned three orders form the group 
Homodonta, of equal rank with the Heterodonta, which includes 
the remaining monodelphian orders. 

The catalogue gives, besides genera, sub-genera, and species, 
the habitat, the synonymy, and all varieties on which species 
have been founded. When these varieties are merely local, or 
perhaps based on individual characters, they are marked with the 

1 Catah;ue des Mammifires Vivants et Fos silts. Par le Dr. E. L. TrouessART. 



1 882.] Recent Literature. . 315 

letters a, b, c, etc., but these letters are doubled when the varie- 
ties have the weight of races or geographical species, while fossil 
species and genera are marked by the sign f- 

There are points in the classification adopted that may reason- 
ably be objected to. The most important of these is the creation 
of the group Homodonta to include the sirenians, whales and eden- 
tates, orders not closely allied, and differing much in the struc- 
ture of the teeth. 

The terms Secundates and Ternates are new, and are no 
improvement upon the older terms Unguiculata and Ungulata, 
the last of which should be understood to comprehend four 
orders, viz., Proboscidea, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Ambly- 
poda. It is not possible to discover anatomical characters of 
sufficient importance to warrant the separation of the Bimana 
from the Simiae, and it is probable that the Prosimiae should be 
placed in the bunotherian series of sub-orders. This last proba- 
bility is hinted at in the prospectus. 

Bettany's Practical Botany. 1 — This useful little book should 
have been called First Lessons in the Practical Botany of the 
Flowering Plants, as it does not even mention the non-flowering 
plants. In the words of its author " its aim is to aid students in 
schools and colleges in the practical work of describing flower- 
ing plants." Some excellent suggestions are given under " How 
to Describe Plants." The " Cautions," too, are to the point. 
Under the successive topics, (1) Root system, (2) Stem and branch 
system, (3) Leaf system. (4) Inflorescence and floral receptacle, 
(5) Floral envelopes, (6) Stamens, (7) Pistil and ovules, (8) Fruit 
and seeds, short definitions and practical directions for the study 
of specimens arc given, which if followed step by step will enable 
the pupil to observe accurately, and to record what he has seen 
in proper order and in plain language. Special directions are 
given in a later chapter for the study of the plants of the prin- 
cipal natural orders, which will doubtless prove useful to the 

While we do not think it profitable to begin the study of 
botany with such complex organisms as the flowering plants, we 
nevertheless welcome this little volume because it can do good 
service in directing pupils to study plants rather than books on 
plants. The " laboratory method" is so fully carried out that the 
book can scarcely be studied by itself; the pupil must study the 
plant— C. E. B. 

Balfour's Comparative Embryology (Second Notice).— The. 
chapter on the development of the birds is quite long, and the 
embryology of the chick has been more thoroughly studied than 
that of any other animal. In the brief chapter on reptiles, the de- 

' 'First Lessons in Practical Botany, by G. T. Bettany, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. Mac- 
allan & Co., London and New York, i8mo, 104 pp. 



316 Recent Literature-. [April, 

velopment of the lizard is chiefly discussed. In the longer chapter 
on the mammals, several pages are devoted to the early stages in 
the development of man. 

The remaining two-thirds of the book are, in the present stage 
of embryological science, of much value to the student, as Profes- 
sor Balfour here attempts the difficult task of stating the general 
conclusions derived from a survey of all authentic known facts re- 
garding the embryology of animals in general. This is done suc- 
cessfully, the work well deserving the name of a comparative 
embryology. 

In chapter xi, we are presented with a comparative sketch of the 
mode of formation of the germinal layers, and the notochord, with 
a notice of the mode of origin of the allantois and amnion. We 
notice here a little discrepancy in the author's statement regard- 
ing the allantoic bladder of the Amphibia, which leaves us some- 
what in doubt as to the author's final opinion respecting its 
nature. On p. 108, the author states that the allantoic bladder of 
the frog "is probably homologous with the allantois of the 
higher Vertebrates;" on p. 587 he says that it "is homologous 
with the allantois of the amniotic Vetebrata," on p. 256, it is 
stated that there is "ample evidence" that the allantois "has 
taken its origin from a urinary bladder such as is found in Am- 

Chapter xn, observations on the ancestral forms of the Chor- 
data, is mainly speculative. The author claims that it is clear " 
from Amphioxus " that the ancestors of the Chordata were seg- 
mented, and that their mesoblast was divided into myotomes, 
which extended even into the region in front of the mouth. The 
mesoblast of the greater part of what is called the head in the 
Vertebrata proper was therefore segmented like that of the 
trunk." In the Amphioxus also the only internal skeleton pres- 
ent is the unsegmented notochord ; a " fact which demonstrates 
that the skeleton is of comparatively little importance for the so- 
lution of a large number of fundamental questions." We have 
for some time inclined to the view that there was a general 
analogy between the head of an Arthropod and a Vertebrate, 
more intimate than generally stated, and Balfour's views on this 
point are of much interest. As to the differentiation of the Ver- 
tebrate head, he says on p. 260, " In the Chaetopoda, the head is 
formed of a praeoral lobe, and of the oral segment, while in 
Arthropods a somewhat variable number of segments are added 
behind to this primitive head, and form with it what may be 
called a secondary compound head. It is fairly clear that the 
section of the trunk, which, in Amphioxus, is perforated by the 
visceral clefts, has become the head in the Vertebrates proper, so 
that the latter forms are provided with a secondary head like that 
of Arthropods." Hence Balfour considers that the part of the 
head containing the fore-brain is probably "the equivalent of the 



1 3 8 2 .] Recent Literature. 3 1 7 

praeoral lobe of many Invertebrate forms, and the primitive posi- 
tion of the Vertebrate mouth on the ventral side of the head 
affords a distinct support for this view." • 

Gegenbaur's theory that the pairs of cranial nerves represent so 
many segments, and his segmental theory of the skull, which has 
replaced the old-fashioned vertebrate theory of the skull, is appa- 
rently endorsed by Balfour, who states that " the posterior part of 
the head must have been originally composed of a series of so- 
mites like those of the trunk, but in existing Vertebrates all trace 
of these, except in so far as they are indicated by the visceral 
clefts, has vanished in the adult. The cranial nerves, however, 
especially in the embryo, still indicate the number of anterior so- 
mites," etc. 

Part 1 is concluded by a chapter on the mode of origin and 
homologies of the germinal layers of animals in general, and with 
a discussion of larval forms. 

Part 11, or the second half of the book is devoted to Organo- 
geny, or the mode of origin of the different organs of the verte- 
brate body, and this important part is characterized by the same 
full, critical treatment as in the first part, with consideration of 
the theoretical bearings of facts, such as seem at least in the main 
warranted by our present knowledge of the facts. 

The work is a most stimulating one, and will greatly advance 
in English-speaking countries the study of what is the most diffi- 
cult field of research in biology. 

Elliott's Seal Islands of Alaska. 1 — This entertaining and 
unusually well illustrated monograph of the fur-seal, hair-seal, 
sea-lion, and walrus is exceptionally well done. The story is 
really a fascinating one, and the author's sketches of these ani- 
mals in various ages and altitudes are apparently by far the best 
that have ever been executed. A number of important hitherto 
doubtful points have been cleared up by Mr. Elliott, especially 
those relating to the breeding habits of these creatures. The re- 
port, while of particular economic value, is also one of the most 
important works on natural history which has been published by 
our Government, containing as it does the results of several years 
of arduous study and close observations on the bleak, out-of-the- 
way Prybilov group of islands. 

Although the seal is not a fish, the volume not inappropriately 
appears as a special Bulletin under the direction of the Com- 
missioner of Fish and Fisheries. 

1 U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries Spencer F. Baud, Commissioner. 176. 
Speei.il IJ:,|]etiii. AM-. ,,f Alaska. By Henry W. 

I 

: : : ' 



318 


Recent Literature. 




[April, 


Recent Books i 
des Thier-Reichs, ii 
luntr— Reptilien 25 
Heidelberg, 1 881. 

Freunde'zu 7 Berlin. 

1. Mittheilung ul 

2. Uber das V01 

3. Uebersicht del 

4. Uber eine neue 

5 . Uber die von 


vnd Pamphlets.— Dr. H. G. Bronn' 
1 wort u. Bild. Von C. H. Hoffmann. 
u. 26 Lieferung. 8vo, pp. 79, 4 pl a 

. Peters in the Sitzungs-Bericht der Ge 


s Klassen 


und Ordnungen 
Band in Abthei- 


jer vier neue Fische. 15 February, I 
-.tonimen schildformeger Verbreiteru 


ngen der Dornf 

r Abtheilung der Reptilien. 


■ zu den Familien der Typhlopes und Stenostor 

;n Art von Tachydromus aus dem Amurlande. 
Herm. Dr. Finsch aus Polynesien gesandte 


rii gehorigen Gat- 
n Reptilien. 19 



7. Uber die Excresdenzen des Mannchens von Rana gigas Blyth (=Rana liebigii 
Giinth. 1), wahrend der Poarungszeit. 

8. Uber zwei Arten der Schlangengattung Psammophis und Uber die synonymie 

9. Uber den Bau des Schadels Urseotyphlus oxyurus (Dum. Bibr). 21 Juni, 1881. 
10 Uber die Verschiedenheit von Syngnathus (Belonichthys) zambezensis Pths., 

und S. f n.) mento Blecker, und uber eine neue Art der Schlangengattung Callopsis 
von den Philippien. 

■ 
gefunden haben, der ihm von der Frau Staatsrathin Grube Mitgetheilt War. 19 

12. Uber die von Herrn Major von Mechow von Seiner let/ten Expedition nach 
] 
plar der merkwurdigen Insectivorengattung Potamogale (P. velox Duchaillu) vor. 
18 October, 1 88 1. 

U Zwei neue von Herrn V seiner let/on Expedition 

WtMafrikas ent.le l.'e Scldangi-n mid eine Uebersicht der von ihm Mitgebrachten 
Bg. 15 November, 1 881. 
14. Uber die Verschiedendeit der Lenge der ausseren Spalten der Schallblasens 

Uber die Chiropterengattung Mormopterus und die dahin geh&rigen Arten. 



, Peters. 8vo, pp. 6, I plat 



■ .!<:r wi-senschaften 
ntographica. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Vorzeit \ 
1 A. Zittel. AchtB Der dntten Folg 

,"l[. R.^ir^p-rt und Dr. G. hien/.el. 4 to, pp. 40. 'O |)1.U 



1 8 8 2 .] Recent Literature. 3 1 g 

Gruppe.) 4to, pp. 106, 19 plates. From Memoires de L'academie Imperiale des 
St Petersbourg. St. Petersburg, 1 881. From M. 

Amphibies et pal les et des Otaries. Par le Dr. E. L. Trou- 

essart. 8vo, pp. 4. Extrait du Bull, de la Societie d' Etudes Scientifiques d' Angers 
(Anne, 1881). Paris, 1881. From the author. 

Association F, aent des Sciences, Congres de Reims. La 

Nouvelles Recherches dans les Alpes-Maritimes en 1879. M. Emile Riviere. 
8vo, pp. 10. Paris, 1880. From the author. 

Deux Plesiosaures du Lias Inferieur du Luxembourg. Par P. J. Van Beneden. 
4to, pp. 46, fol. plate. Extrait du Tome 'Academic royal 

des beaux-arts de Belgique, 1881. Brusells, 1881. From 
the author. 

Polacanthus foxii, a large undescribed Dinosaur from the Wealden formation in 
the Isle of Wight. By ). W. llulke, F.R.S. 4 to, pp. 14, 7 plates. From the 
the Royal Society. Part til, 1881. London, 188 1. 






Report on the mode of Reproduction of certain species of Ichthyosaurus from the 
mberg, by a committee consisting of Professor H. G. 
Seeley, F.R.S., Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., and Mr. C. Moore, F.R.S. 
Drawn up by Professor Seeley. 8vo, pp. 8, fol. plate. Reprint from the Report of 
the British Association, 1880. 

The following is a list of papers by Professor H. G. Seeley, extract "from the Quar- 
terly Journal of the Geological Society : 

Note on the Cranial characters of a Teleosaur from the Withby Lias preserved 
cies, Teleosaurus eucephalus. 8vo, pp. 8, quarto plate. Nov., 1880. — 

On the skull of an Ichthyos nth indicating a 

new species (I /.etlamiieus Seeley), pie- 1 n the \\ ! « Inn Museum of the 

University of Cambridge. 8 vo, pp. 16, quarto plate. Nov., 1880. — 

Note on Psephoporus polygonus V. Meyer, a new type of Chelonian reptile allied 
to the leathery turtle. 8vo, pp. 10, plate. Aug., 1880. — 

f Comen, near Tri- 



The reptile fauna of the Gosau formation, preserved in the Geological I 
of the University of Vienna, with a note on the geological horizon of the i 
Neue Welt, west of Wiener Neustadt. By Edw. Suess, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. 8 
plates. " 

The history and present condition of the Fishery Industries. The Oystei 
try. By Ernest I: dates, cuts. Department of th 

nor. Tenth cen . Government Printing Office, \V 

ton, 1881. From the department. 

"76, 39 plafe r s, P cut s. ' 
mg Office, Washingto 



320 General Notes. [April, 

GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 1 

Motility in the Flowers of Draba verna. — As is well 
known this plant flowers during any open time in spring, say 
from February to June, with us. In the early part of the season 
the petals expand about 9 a. m. and close about 2 p. m. Sur- 
prised that I had not noticed this opening and closing years 
before, I was led to observe it from day to day, and many times 
a day. If there was the least cloudiness," no matter how 
great the volume of light, the petals would not expand. During 
nearly a week of cloudiness no flowers expanded. On the least 
burst of sunlight, however, the flowers opened, provided always, 
it was before 2 p. M. I felt little hesitation in deciding that 
sunlight was the immediate agency in expansion. One day we 
had a heavy thunder shower. The next day -was wholly cloudy, 
but strange to say they expanded during this warm moist cloudy 
day, as well as under the previous sunlight ! They seem to ex- 
pand every day since, sunlight or not, through all these variations, 
however, up to. to-day they close regularly about two o'clock. To 
my mind it leaves the cause of motion more obscure than ever. 
It is evidently not light alone, and it is a gain is know what it is 
not. Yet if we had reflected we might have learned this lesson 
before, for there are some flowers opening at every hour of the 
twenty-four. Under the same light when one expands another 
may be closing; what is one man's meat is another one's poison. 
It is not the food, but the internal arrangements, it is not the light, 
but the ability to make use of it.— T. Meelian, May yth, 188 J. 

New Work on the Fungi.— Prof. Saccardo writes me that the 
first part of his Sylloge Fungorum Omnium is now in press and 
will soon be ready, embracing the Erysiphece, Perisporiacece and 
Capnodia. This will be followed by the Sphceriacece ; so that it is 
expected all of the Pyrenomycetes will be finished this year. 

It will be recollected that the Sylloge is to include diagnoses 
of all the species of fungi published up to the present time, thus 
doing to some extent for the fungi, what De Candolle's Prodromus 
is doing for the Phanerogams. 

The importance of such a publication will at once be evident, 
bringing together and rendering accessible the disjecta membra 
of mycological literature, which, lying as it now does scattered 
through various publications and in the transactions of the scientific 
societies in different parts of the world, is to the ordinary student 
for the most part inaccessible. 

The work can be obtained by addressing Professor P. A. 
Saccardo, Padova, Italy. The expense will be from eight to ten 
dollars per year, and the work will require probably four years 
for completion.— J. B. Ellis, Nezvfield, N. J. 

^Edited by Prof. C. E. Bessey, Ames, Iowa. 



De Thumen's Mycotheca universalis. — This valuable myco- 
logical collection, which was begun in 1875, now includes 2000 
.species ; the 20th century having been issued towards the close 
of 1881. 

The work is very neatly gotten up, and including as it does 
species from all parts of the world, many of which are rare and 
valuable, is well worth the moderate price at which it is sold. 

An index to the first twelve centuries has been published, from 
which it may be noted that among these 1200 species there are 
of the 



These different orders are apparently represented in about the 
same relative proportion in the remaining centuries of the collec- 

The preponderance of the Uridinei is noticable, comprising as 
it does one-fourfh of the whole number of species. Of these 237 
were collected in Europe, 33 in America, 21 in Africa, 7 in Asia, 
and 2 in Australia. 

The bulk of the species, as would be expected, are European, 
but as at least three collections at different points in the Middle 
and Southern States have contributed more or less, the propor- 
tion of American species is comparatively very small and natur- 
ally leads to the enquiry whether the Uredinei are really represented 
by a less number of species here than in Europe. 

That this may be the case is further indicated by the fact that 
in the "North Am. Fungi " of which the material for nine centu- 
ries is now collected, there are. after throwing out from cent. Ill 
25 species not belonging to this order and adding 50 species since 
collected, only 125 species of Uredinei or about j part of the 
whole number thus far collected. 

It is to be borne in mind, however, that in the Report of the N. 
Y. State Museum of Nat. History, nearly 200 species of Uredinei 
have already been enumerated, and it is altogether probable that 
on a thorough exploration of our territory, the list of American 
species of this order will be largelv augmented.— J. B. Ellis, New- 
field, N. X 

Notes on N. American Grasses, based on Mr. Bentham's 

RECENT PAPER ON GRAMINEyE.— 



a new genus by 1 

.sly referral to Li 



5 22 


General Notes. 


[April, 


'leuraphis Torr., is verj 


r properly referred to 


Hilaria H.B.K. Mr. Bentham says 








1 Hilaria cenchroides H. E 


1. K., is ap- 


parently distinct. 










Egopogon is placed in 


Panicaceae. 










nded into foui 








Rottbcellieae and A 




,,'eS, 






Imperata, Miscanrh 












i not represented in N. America. 


The group 




: represented i 


nN. Am 






tottboelliacese. The A 






i group are Elionurus, Rottbcellia 


Manisun,. Andre 


pogon Nuttall 


//Chap., 


is an Elionurus nearly re 


dated to E. 


ciliaris H. B. K. 














ich we have Ischsemum (it 




Trachypogon, Hete 






, Chrysopogon 




pogon is divided in 




>: S:ln/.;u:tiynutn, Cymbopogon, C 










- • ' : ,. .. , 




S. arenacea, are species of Chrys. 


jpogon. 


Sorghum includes only thi 


- cultivated 



hum and Hierochlo; 







eludes Vaseya and 


Podossemum), Brachyelytrum, Perieilema, Lycurus, Phleum 


.Coleanthus, Phipp- 
s Vilfa, Beauv. In 






thist 




a macroura1\xxn\i. 




Of Cinna we have 


two species, C. arundinacea and C.pendula. 




In Deyeu: 


- 






to Ammophila Host. Arctagrostis is an Arctic genus i 


af this tribe. 






Tribe Av 


enea 1 — 16 genera. All our native species of Aira i 


ire referred to Des- 


Tribe Chi 


E istachys Desv. 


Trichloris Fourn. 






Lepturus l 






Bouteloua 


has fourse.Mions : Ci,ondro-,ium, Atheropogon, Triatr 


.era and Polyodon. 


Eleus 








are referred to Diplachne 


in the tribe Festu- 


Triodia in 


ispis. Triplasia Beauv. haj 


; two N. American 



ipecies, as arranged by 
ius includes Ceratoch- 

Hordiacex ; Our native Triticums are referred to Agropyrum. Gymnostichum 
Schr., or Hystrix Moench., is referred to Asprella W.lld. 

— Geo. Vasey, Washington, D. C. 
Botanical Notes. — Romyn Hitchcock, of New York, has 
merited the gratitude of botanists by undertaking the publi- 
cation of Habirshaw's " Catalogue of the Diatomaceae," which 
contains full references to the published descriptions and 
figures. Every botanical library should secure a copy of this 
valuable work at an early date, as the edition is limited 
to two hundred and fifty copies. Part I of this work has 

just appeared. The same publisher has on sale Dr. Henri Van 

Heurck's "Synopsis des Diatomees de Belgique," of which four 
of the six fascicles have appeared. The excellent plates which 
ubstance of the fascicles include many hundred 



1 882.] Zoology. 323 

species, a large proportion of which are common in our waters. 
This work, with the catalogue noted above, will go far to render 

easier the systematic study of the diatoms. Professor C. H. 

Peck re-describes, in the January Torrey Bulletin, a curious fungus, 
Secotium Warnei, which constitutes " a connecting link between 
the Hymenomycetous Agaricini.andthe Gasteromycetous Tricho- 
gasters." The close resemblance of some of the stipitate forms 
to an unexpanded Agaric was, in specimens from Iowa, quite re- 
markable, and the writer of this note was for a time puzzled to 

determine whether it might not be an Agaric after all. The 

Forestry Bulletins issued from the Census Office, and prepared 
by Professor Sargent, are of great interest and value to botanists. 
When the series of bulletins is completed we shall have a most 
excellent and reliable map of the forest distribution of the United 

States. Wiley & Sons, of New York, have, at the request of 

some of their patrons, reprinted the edition of " Lindley's Horti- 
culture," which they brought out many years ago, and which had 
long been out of print. We are glad to see the old book again, 
and hope that ere long it may be honored with a revision, bring- 
ing it up to the present status of vegetable physiology. 

zoology. 

The Cell-parasite of the Frog. — The Revue Scientifique, of 
January 28, 1882, contains an abstract of the discovery by Dr. 
Gaule, in the frog's red blood corpuscle, of certain bodies which 
he considers to be derived, under certain circumstances, from the 



protoplasm of those corpuscles. On treating the red corpuscles 
with a solution of six per cent, of chloride of sodium, there ap- 
peared, beside the nucleus, mobile corpuscles, elongate and 
pointed at the extremities. These issued from the cell, which 
they could drag after them for some time, but after a little while 
became motionless, and finally died and disappeared. 

These mobile particles are not met with in all frogs, the season, 
locality, size, and general state of the animal seeming to have 
considerable influence on their production, which is most abund- 
ant in the season when the frog takes no food, and depends for 
sustenance upon the reserves stored up in the season of activity. 
In the cells of such organs as the spleen, the liver, and the 
marrow of the bones, these particles develop at the expense of 
the red blood corpuscles more easily and quickly than in the 
blood itself, and they are more readily obtainable from the spleen 
than from any other organ. The addition of the saline solution 
to the sugar of thai or^an, without the application of heat, caused 
them to appear. When the violet of gentian was added to the 
solution only these bodies and the nucleus were colored and this 
fact led Gaule to suspect that they were derivatives of the nucleus. 

In a last series of observations, Dr. Gaule experimented on 
tissues taken from the living animal. When these were treated 
with a solution of corrosive 'sublimate or of nitric acid of three 



324 General Notes. [April, 

per cent., bodies which he considered identical with those before 
spoken of were found, like little accessory nuclei, and these be- 
haved with coloring reagents in precisely the same manner as 
"ules of fresh 
>f osmic acid, tin 
pear ; but if the cellules ■< 



figures, the second illustrated. 

He first named the bodies "little worms" (Wurmchen) but 
afterwards gave them the title of Cytozoa, and his ultimate con- 
clusion as to-their nature was the singular one that they are the 
result of death, one portion of the protoplasm dying, while the 
other becomes more active, frees itself from the dead portion and 
survives awhile. It is probable that the first name given by 
Gaule foreshadowed the true nature of these bodies. 

Professor E. Ray Lankester (Quar. Jour. Mic. Sci., 1882, 53) con- 
siders these bodies to be cell-parasites. He says that in 1871 he 
described in the same journal certain sausage-like parasites from 
the blood of Rana esculenta, and suggested that they might be 
connected with the life-cycle of Try vis (Gruby), at 

the same time pointing out their. resemblance to certain peculiar 
spores found in cysts of a gregarine parasitic in Tubifex. 

As Dr. Gaule gave no figures in his first article, it was sup- 
posed that he had been studying some of those curious phe- 
nomena of disintegrating blood-corpuscles that attract the atten- 
tion of histologists ; but the figures accompanying the second 
paper showed at once that they were cell-parasites belonging to 
the Gregarinidse and identical with the organisms described by 
Lankester in 1871. Certain Gregarinidae (Sporozoa) are now 
known to be cell-parasites during a portion of their lives, and 
those organisms have of late been considerably studied. One of 
these sporozoa ( Gregarines velues) inhabits the sperm polyblasts of 
the earth-worm. Butschli has shown that sometimes the gregarines 
of the earth-worm penetrate epithelial cells of the ciliated fun- 
nels of the spermatic duct, and will continue attached to the cell by 
one extremity when they have attained fifty times the linear 
dimensions of the cell. 

Eimer observed oviform psorosperms ( ' Coccidium Leuckartj in 
the house-mouse, and Aimee Schneider has discovered in the 
pseudonaviculae tk Monocystis lumbrici and other gregarines falci- 
form corpuscles resembling those figured by Gaule. Schneider's 
observations establish the relationship between these curious 
bodies, such as Eimer's Coccidium, and the typical gregarines. 

The bodies found in the frog resemble Eimer's Coccidium of the 
mouse both in form and size; and also bear a close likeness to 
the falciform corpuscles found in the spores of a gregarine 
which occurs in the striated muscular fibers of the pig, sheep- 



r882.j Zoology. 325 

and man. The cattle plague of 1865 was at one time attributed 
to this gregarine. 

Taking into consideration all these points, Professor Lankester 
believes the bodies found by Gaule, and afterwards again observed 
by himself, to be a stage in the life-cycle of a gregarine to which 
he gives the name of Drepanidium ranarum. 

Professor Lankester disposes of Gaule's statement that these 
bodies were formed on the stage of the microscope after the ap- 
plication of the saline solution ; as well as of that observer's fail- 
ure to discover them in living tissue, by showing that it is diffi- 
cult to see the nucleus in living tissue, so much so that not 
long ago it was thought that the red blood-corpuscle of the frog 
contained no nucleus during life. The parasite is difficult to see 
because its angle of refraction is the same as that of the corpuscle, 
but it becomes visible///^/ at the same time and to the same degree 
that the nucleus does. 

Dr. Gaule's studies, however, establish two facts not be- 
fore known ; these are, 1st, that the parasite is not only found 
attached to the cell, but also within it ; 2d, that it is capable of ac- 
tive movement by bending and straightening its body; these 
movements are excited by a heat of 30°-35° C, but are stopped 
by a heat of yo° C. 

The active motions of these bodies, exhibited in cells as well 
as in fluids ; the cessation of these movements at a temperature 
of 70 ; the fact that they are found in some frogs and not in 
others, as well as at some seasons and not in others; their power 
to penetrate cells and escape from them ; and their presence 
in R. temporaria, as well is Triton, sp., all point to their animal 

To Gaule's assertion that these bodies did not appear in fresh 
tissue, Lankester opposes the statement that he obtained them 
from spleen pulp spread when fresh in osmic acid, and suggests 
the possibility that the particles treated in this manner by Dr. 
Gaule were free from the parasite, while those treated otherwise 
contained them. 

Vitality of the Mud Puppy. — The observations on the Meno- 
poma in your February number, call to mind several instances of 
its remarkable vitality which have come under my own observa- 
tion. One specimen, about eighteen inches in length, which had 
lain on the ground exposed to a summer sun for forty-eight 
hours, was brought to the museum, and was left lying for a day 
longer before it was placed in alcohol. The day following, desiring 
to note a few points of structure, I removed it from the alcohol, 
in which it had been compl teh Mibmcrged for at least twenty 
hours, and had no sooner placed it on the table before it began to 
open its big mouth, vigorously sway its tail to and fro, and give 
other undoubted signs of vitality. 

On anotk / to kill one of these 



326 General Notes. [April, 

which had been out of water for a day, I made a little slit in the 
back, hoping to be able to penetrate between the cervical verte- 
brae with a stout scalpel, and cut the spinal cord. After several 
trials, in which I succeeded only in breaking the scalpel, I gave 
up the attempt ; but with all my cutting and pushing, it mani- 
fested not the slightest signs of pain or irritation, while if I 
but touched the tip of its tail with my finger, it would make a 
vigorous protest by lashing its tail and snapping its jaws. I 
doubt if even the redoubted snapping-turtle could show signs of 
a more "rugged" constitution. — Wm. Frear, University of Lewis- 

The First Californian Eel Caught.— The San Francisco 
Chronicle of February 8th, reports the catching by George Bird 
of the first eel, resulting from the plant of 12,000 made by the 
California Fish Commissioners. It was caught on the easterly 
shore of San Francisco bay, and measured three feet in length. — 
R. E. C. Stearns. 

Wild Geese as Pests. — In the latter part of January, the 
farmers of the Upper San Joaquin valley in California, were fight- 
ing the wild geese, which in vast numbers were devastating the 
grain-fields of that region, pulling up the young wheat by the 
roots.— R. E. C. Steams. 

Zoological Notes. — The Proceedings of the National Museum 
contain notes on a collection of fishes from the west coast 
of Mexico, by D. S. Jordan and C. H. Gilbert, while Mr. 
T. H. Bean gives a preliminary catalogue of the fishes 
of Alaska. Mr. C. H. Boyd records the discovery of the 
remains of a walrus near Addison Point, Washington county, 
Me., in a bed of blue clay two feet above high water mark. A 
few years ago a nearly perfect skeleton was found in the marine 

clays at Portland, Me. Excellent zoological work is now being 

done in Japan by students educated in the United States and 
Europe. In the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science Mr. 
Mitsukuri recently published an article on the structure of the 
gills of Lamellibranchs, and in the January number a paper on 
the development of the supra-renal bodies in Mammalia. In the 
Zoologischer Anseiger, January 9, Mr. Jijima gives an abstract of 
a memoir on the structure of the ovary, and the origin of the egg 
and the egg-strings in Nephelis, and Mr. T. Iwakawa gives the 

results of studies on the genesis of the egg in Triton. A revision 

of the Crustaceous family Idoteidce, by E. J. Miers, with full de- 
scriptions of the species, is published in the Journal of the Linnean 



1 882.] Entomology. 327 

ENTOMOLOGY. 1 

Possible Food-plants for the Cotton- worm. — One of the 
most interesting characteristics of the Cotton-worm is that it is so 
strictly confined to cotton as its food-plant. All attempts hith- 
erto made to discover additional food-plants have proved futile; 
nor have we been able to ever make it feed successfully on other 
plants allied to Gossypium. 2 We have, however, long felt that 
there must be some other wild plant or plants upon which the 
species can exist, and this belief has been all the stronger since it 
was demonstrated two years ago from observations made by Dr. 
P. R. Hoy, that the larva may occur in Wisconsin and conse- 
quently out of the range of the cotton belt. 3 We have given 
special directions to those in any way connected with the cotton- 
worm investigation to search for such additional food-plants, but so 
far no additional food-plant has been discovered. Last November 
we received from Dr. J. C. Neal, of Archer, Fla., specimens of a 
plant with eggs and newly hatched larvae which he believed to 
be those of Aletia but which belong to an allied species— the 
Anomis erosa Guen. The plant proved to be one of the Malvaceae 
(Urena lobata Linn.), which is reported as quite common in that 
part of Florida and further south, being a tall branching and 
straggling weed with annual stems and perennial root, from 
which new shoots arise in January. It blooms from February to 
December, and is, in addition, a valuable fiber plant, the bark of 
both stem and root being very strong, and used very generally 
for whip and cording purposes. The leaves have three very con- 
spicuous saccharine glands on the principal veins toward the leaf 
stem, and the plant, Dr. Neal reports, is much less sensitive to 
cold or frost than Gossypium. We find that the plant has been 
received by Dr. Vasey, botanist of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, from several parties in Florida, with inquiries as to the value 
of the fiber. Urena lobata was, until very recently, not known to 
occur in the United States. It is common on dry hill pastures al- 
most everywhere in the West Indies and southward to Guiana and 
Brazil, and is also reported from Western Africa, East Indies, 
China and some of the Pacific islands. It seems to thrive very 
well in Florida, and is likely to spread to other adjacent States. 

The Anomis erosa, the eggs and young larvae of which were 
not uncommon on the leaves of the Urena, may be distin- 
guished from Aletia by the paler, more translucent character of 
both egg and larva, and by the first pair of prolegs being quite 
obsolete, in which character it resembles the Anomis exacta that 
affects cotton in Texas. Aletia larvae that had been fed on cotton, 

x This department is edited by Prof. C. V. Rilf.y, Washington, D. C, to whom 

communications, hooks for notice, etc., should be sent. 
'The only partial success in this line is that mentioned in our Bulletin on the Cot- 

8 See Report on Cotton Insects, Department of Agriculture, 1879, p. 89. 



General Notes. [April, 

feed upon it, and finally 

We recently took occasion to carefully examine the Mal- 
vaceous plants in the herbarium of the Department of Agri- 
culture with some quite interesting results, although a her- 
barium is naturally the least favorable place one can choose 
for an entomological investigation of this character, as plants 
that are least injured by insects are most apt to be collected, 
and the mode of preserving the plants still further reduces the 
chances of fiiding traces of Aletia, because only one side of the 
leaf is available for examination. How small this chance is, may 
be illustrated by the fact that on the specimens of Gossypium in 
the herbarium, no Aletia eggs or egg-shells could be discovered, 
and that only one specimen showed any trace of being injured by 
any insect whatever. Nevertheless a number of eggs or frag- 
ments of such— some of them from their structure very closely 
related to Aletia were found on the following plants : — Malvas- 
trum spicatum from Florida and Nicaragua ; Urena ribesia (which 
is considered a form of U. lobataj, from Southern Florida ; Pa- 
haleoides from Cuba ; Sida glojnerata from Cuba. 

One object of this examination was to discover, if possible, the 
particular Malvaceous plant upon which Aletia feeds in the States 
north of the cotton belt, but this proved to be an almost complete 
failure, because the herbarium contained only six specimens of 
such plants from the more northern States, not counting six- 
teen specimens cultivated in the agricultural grounds at Wash- 
ington. However, on a specimen of Sida spinosa from York 
county, Penna., an egg was found which has every appearance of 
that of Aletia. 

We would earnestly call upon entomologists who may read 
these pages to aid us in obtaining evidence of the food-plant 
of the insect in the more northern States by an examination 
of the plants indicated by an asterisk in the following list, as it 
is upon such that the insect will probably be found at some 
future time, but only late in the season : 

LOCALITIES FOR MALVACEOUS PLANTS FROM GRAY'S FLORA. 

Althcza officinalis L— Salt marshes coast of New England and New York. (Nat. from 



, York Co., Kanaw 



i T. & G.— Sandy s 



ica Presl.— Marshes on 
f L. — Brackish marshes a 



Of these twenty-two species, eight of which are introduced, 
at least eleven are not likely to occur in Wisconsin, so that 
the number of plants upon which the insect will probably be 
found is very limited if, as is most probable, the plant really is 
one of the Malvaceae.— C. V. Riley. 

Arrangement of N. A. Cynipid^e by Dr. Mayr. — I pub- 
lished in the March Naturalist 1 a list of American Cynipidae 
as generically arranged by Dr. G. L. Mayr, of Vienna. The list 
contains less than half of our species, I think, and it does not in- 
clude all that I sent to him. Several species differ from estab- 
lished genera so far that they will probably form the types of 
new genera. 

I was surprised to find that he recognizes but one American 
species as belonging to the genus Cynips, for this genus contains 
eighteen European species. His new genera, Acraspis, Loxaulus, 
Holcaspis and Belenocnema arc, so far as known, exclusively 
American. The last named genus is founded on a Floridian 
species sent him by Mrs. Mary Treat. He describes it, and gives 
it the name of the' discoverer, B. Treata. Loxaulus contains only 
my C. q. mammilla, described in the Canadian Entomologist last 
summer. Of the twenty-nine genera recognized by Dr. Mayr, I 
have mentioned only those containing American species found in 
his collection. Probably other genera will be found represented 
here when our fauna shall have been thoroughly worked out. 
The three Californian and the four Arizonian species which I 
sent him, fall into European genera, while the seven species in- 
cluded in the four new American genera, are all from the region 
east of the base of the Rocky mountains. 

And ricu s palustris O. S. and D i,e placed by 

Mayr only provisionally in their genera.— H. F. Bassett, Water- 
bnrv, Conn. 

[The list is a valuable addition to the literature of our 
Cynipidae. Dr. Mayr has been for some time engaged upon his 



330 General Notes. [April, 

revision of this family, and its appearance has been anxiously 
awaited. It will, so far as it embraces our species, replace the 
list given by Baron Osten Sacken, in the Proceed. Entomolog. Soc. 
Phita., iv. pp. 379-80, published in 1865, since which time, many 
new species have been discovered, and generic rearrangements 
necessitated. The list given above numbers fifty-two species, and 
from the statement made by Mr. Bassett, that "it contains less 
than half of our species," it appears that a full list of our Cynipidae 
will consist of at least a hundred species. Such a list, Mr. Bassett 
hopes to publish ere long, when he shall have determined the 
generic position of such species as are not included above. — Ed. J 
Mode of Feeding of the Larva of Dytiscus. — Mr. Edward 
Burgess, in a paper on the mouth in the larva of Dytiscus 1 gives 
an interesting illustrated account of the mode of taking food 
through the sickle-like jaws, and shows conclusively that instead 
of being mouthless, as ordinarily assumed, this larva has a very 
wide mouth, though the lips are locked together by a dove-tailed 
groove joint. The food is sucked into an oval opening at tip of 
the jaws, and drawn along a canal on the inside to a basal outlet 
which, when the jaws are closed on a victim, is brought into the 
corner of the mouth, so that the larva sucks up its victim's 
fluids " as a man inhales the smoke of a pipe stuck in the side of 
hfe mouth." 

Entomological Notes. — Mr. Wm. H. Edwards argues in the 
December number of the Canadia that Ltmenitis 

arthemis is single-brooded, and not double-brooded, as Mr. Scud- 

der has maintained. Dr. J. A. Osborne has recently recorded 

further experiments proving the occurrence of parthenogenesis in 
Gastrophysa raphani,but believes that it has no place in the economy 
of the insect analogous to that of bees and wasps, but that it is con- 
comitant of a prevalent species supplied with abundant food of a 

stimulating character. Professor Fernald, in the December 

number of Papilio, gives reason to believe that the Tortricid 
genus Exartema is equivalent to Eccopsis Zeller, which has 

priority. We regret very much to learn that Mr. A. R. Grote 

has returned from Europe in quite poor health, and hope he may 
soon recover. While abroad he sold his collection of Noctuidai 
to the British Museum at a price variously stated from $3000 to 
£5000. It is greatly to be regretted that the collection should 

ever have left this country. The news of the death of Mr. 

Jules Putzeys, on January 2d, will be received with regret by col- 
eopterists. Putzeys is well known as the author of several care- 
ful monographs of some of the most difficult groups and genera 
of Carabid beetles. In accordance with the wishes of the de- 
ceased, his valuable collection has been donated to the Entomo- 
logical Society of Belgium. 

1 Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist, xxi, pp. 223-8. 



1 882.] Anthropology. 331 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 1 

The Maya-Kiche Gods.— After a few years of cessation from 
literary labor, Dr. Daniel G. Brinton takes up his polished pen to 
illuminate the thrilling history of the Maya-Kiche tribes of Cen- 
tral America, in a paper read before the American Philosophical 
Society, November 4, 1 88 1 , and entitled " The names of the Gods in 
the Kiche Myths, Central America." The communication is 
published in a separate pamphlet of 37 pages octavo by McCalla 
& Stavely, of Philadelphia. 

The Maya-Kiche stock is divided into sixteen dialects and 
spoken at present by half a million persons. These people for- 
merly used mnemonic signs approaching an alphabet to record 
and recall their mythology and history. Fragments of their tra- 
ditions have been preserved, the most notable being the Popol- 
Vuh, the national legend of the Kiches of Guatemala. This 
story was translated by Ximenez and by Abbe Brasseur (de 
Bourbourg), but so imperfectly as to throw suspicion upon the 
authenticity of the original. As contributing to substantiate the 
mythical portion, Dr. Brinton has undertaken, in the paper before 
us, to analyze the proper names of the divinities therein men- 
tioned, assisted by two manuscript vocabularies of the Cakchi- 
quel dialect presented to the library of the American Philosophical 
Society by the Governor of Guatemala, in 1836, and by original 
papers from the collection of the late Dr. C. H. Berendt. With 
much new light thrown upon the labors of his predecessors, Dr. 
Brinton then takes up the following names of Kiche deities : 

IIun-Ahpu Vuch- The One ni;^tei ol supernatural power, the Opossum. 



, White Great Hog < 



m: 



-The paternal and n 



Cakulha Hurakan 

} The storm and-earthquake gods. 
Iha S 
Qabauil— The Divinity. 
'"" ■ i-nanaua. , - ,irit of Knowledge, the Genius of Reason. 




1 Edited by Professor Otis T. 



332 General Notes. [April, 

The Western Reserve and Northern Ohio Historical So- 
ciety. — Tracts 54 and 55 contain the report of the thirteenth annual 
meeting, and the address of the venerable president, Col. Charles 
Whittlesey. The address, although seemingly without connection 
with ethnology, is after all a very interesting piece of work. Indeed, 
Col. Whittlesey makes the State of Ohio the arena for the drama of 
five distinct populations : 1. The Symmes purchase, with Cincin- 
nati as a center, settled by the Swedes and Dutch of New Jersey; 
2. The Virginia military district, with Cmlicothe as its metropolis, 
settled by Virginians ; 3. The Ohio Company, around Marietta, 
recruited from Massachusetts; 4. The seven ranges of townships 
next to Pennsylvania, populated from that State ; 5. The Western 
Reserve, about Cleveland, designed to be called New Connecticut, 
because settled from that State. Alluding to the five most promi- 
nent men at the inauguration of the late President (the Shermans, 
^Waite, Hayes and Garfield), the speaker said : " Was it not the 
result of a long train of agencies which by force of natural selec- 
tion brought them to the front on that occasion? " 

Antiquities of Anderson township, Hamilton county, 
Ohio. — The archaeologists of the American Association, who 
visited the Madisonville cemetery last summer, will not soon for- 
get the small, delicate, enthusiastic and modest gentleman who 
contributed so largely to their happiness. The editor of these 
notes spent one entire day with him, in company with Mr. C. F. 
Low, visiting the mounds and earthworks of Anderson township. 
We suspected at that time something was brewing, and was not 
surprised to receive a few days ago, " The Prehistoric Monuments 
of Anderson township, Hamilton county, Ohio," by Charles L. 
Metz, M.D. [From the Journal of the Cincinnati Society of 
Natural History, Vol. iv, December, 1881.] The description is 
a pamphlet of twelve pages, prefaced by a map, in which the 
Smithsonian symbols are used. For this and for all his self-deny- 
Linqualified praise of archaeolo- 

The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. — The 
August and the November numbers appear in the same binding, 
and contain the following papers : 

1. Foote, J.— Note on Carib chisels. 

2. Lewis, A. L.— Notes on two stone circles in Shropshire. 
"" -Surgery a lithic times. 



he north-east Irontiei of India. Parti. 

-, W. H.— On a collection of monumental heads and artificially de 



io. Flower, W. H.— Report on the bones found in a 
Brading, April, 1881. 

11. Lewis, A. L. — Remarks on some Archaic structur 

12. Atkinson, (.. M. — < >n i new instrument for determining the facial angle. 

13. Gooch, \V. D.— The stone age of South Africa. 

14. Flower, W. H.— Address to the Department of Anthropology of the British As- 

sociation, York, Sept. 1, 1881. 

1. Mr. Forte's brief note refers to the discovery of an ancient 
cave workshop for the manufacture of Carib shell chisels. 

2. The paper of Miss Buckland is a pleasant review of Dr. 
Broca's book on Prehistoric trepanning and cranial amulets. 

4. In a former communication Mr. Wake had held the Mala- 
gasy to be autochthonous. The object of the present writing is 
to correct this notion and to prove that the origin of this race 
was from the region inhabited by the Siamese and cognate 

5. The term Gouch-os, so often seen in books on S. America, 
is not a race name, but implies rather a certain mode of life, and 
at San Jorge is given to negroes, Brazilians, pure Spaniards, and 
even to northern Europeans. The paper of Mr. Christison is one 
of absorbing interest. 

6. Mr. Peal essays to connect the pile structures of India with 
the Swiss lake dwellings. 

7. The Naga hills are south-east of Assam, dividing that pro- 
vince from Burma, between 25 and 28 north, and 93 and 97 
east. The frequent conflicts of these people with the British 
army in the east, afforded the officers in Her Majesty's army the 
opportunity of studying their sociology. 

8. By " monumental heads " is meant artificial deformation 
practiced upon the heads of children at a very early age, by 
means of circular constriction. Professor Flower takes advantage 
of a recent collection by Mr. Boyd to bring together the history 
of this practice in the New Hebrides, a custom not met with in 
any other islands of the Pacific. 

12. The instrument of Mr. Atkinson was invented to measure 
the angle formed between the ophryo-alveolar line and the plane 
of the visual axis, so much insisted on by Broca. 

13- In a paper extending over sixty pages of the journal, 
Mr. Gooch, from a large personal experience and by the aid of 
local colaborers, minutely describes the types, distribution, geo- 
logical horizon and material of the stone implements of South 
Africa. American archaeologists cannot afford to miss this 
paper. 

14. The only noteworthy utterance for us in Professor Flower's 
address, is the much-to-be-regretted fact that the Anthropologi- 
cal Institute is far from flourishing. 

Necrology.— It is with profound sorrow that we record the 
death of Professor Carl Engelhardt, late secretary of the Society 



334 General Notes. [April, 

of Northern Antiquaries. He was profoundly versed in the an- 
tiquities of Scandinavia and Denmark, and was the author of 
many archaeological works. Among them we would mention 
" Denmark in the early Iron age, illustrated by recent discoveries 
in the peat mosses of Slesvig-Holstein," a splendid quarto pro- 
fusely illustrated and dedicated to the Princess of Wales. It was 
published in London in 1866. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

New characters of the Perissodactyla Condylarthra.— 



Besides the characters of this group given in the Naturalist for 
December, 1881 (page 1017), there are some further points of im- 
portance. The humerus in the two species of Pkenacodus, where 
it is known, is much like that of the Creodonta, having a supracon- 
dylar foramen, and a simple condyle, without intertrochlear ridge. 
This is the only group of Ungulata where the supracondylar fora- 

Numerous specimens of the species of Meniscotherimn show 
that that genus belongs to the Condylarthra, and must be referred 
to a new family characterized by its more complex molar teeth. 
It is also possible that the number of the digits is different. The 
astragalus and humerus have the characters of those of Phena- 
codits, that is of the Creodonta. The two families of Condylarthra 
will be contrasted as follows : 

Phenacodontidce, Dentition tubercular. Meniscotheriida, Denti- 
tion lophodont, with external and internal crescents and deep 
valleys. — E. D. Cope. 

Mesonyx and Oxy^na. — In Mesonyx ossifragus the ante- 
rior limbs are much shorter than the posterior ones. This is espec- 
ially marked in the humerus, which resembles in its form that of the 
otter. The ulna has a wide deep groove on its superior face, 
whose elevated external bounding ridge indicates a powerful 
extensor of the pollex, and supinator muscles. But the supina- 
tion of the hand was impossible since the head of the radius is 
transverse and firmly fixed to the ulna. The greater length of 
the posterior limbs would indicate that the animal frequently 
rested on those extremities alone, in a position intermediate be- 
tween those used by the bears and kangaroos. The species is 
as large as a bear, and has a very large head. 

In Oxycena the posterior foot has some characters like those of 
the seals. The cuboid bone is exactly like that of those animals, and 
it is evident that the external toes of the hind foot diverged ex- 
tensively and were probably constructed for swimming. — E. D. 
Cope. 

The Rhachitomous Stegocephali. — The segmented vertebrae 
characteristic of this order have been found in the genera Ery- 
ops, Zatrachys and Trimerorhachis in America, and Actmodon in 



1 882.] Geology and Paleontology. 335 

Europe. It was first pointed out by myself in Eryops ( Rhachito- 
vius) and Trimerorhachis, in the Naturalist, May and Sept., 1878 
(p. 633), and soon after by Gaudry in Actinodon. An examina- 
tion of the figures and descriptions given by Von Meyer (Palseon- 
tographica) of the rather imperfect specimens of Archegosaurus, 
led me to believe that the vertebrae of that genus possess the seg- 
mented character also. I therefore included Archegosaurus in the 
samenatural divisi< >n with Eryops, etc., and employed for it the name 
Ganocephala which had been created by Owen for its reception. 1 
It now appears from the descriptions of Dr. Fritsch that the verte- 
bras of Archegosaurus are not of the segmented type, but that they 
are discoidal, as in the Labynnthodontia. Under these circum- 
stances, the suborder Ganocephala must be given up, and a new 
name given to the suborder represented by Eryops, Actinodon, 
etc., and which I characterized in the Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society, for June, 1880. This suborder may be 
called the Rachitomi, and will include the following genera. 
Trimcrorhachis ; / J\irioxvs ; Eryops ; Actinodon; Zatrachys ; 
f Pantylus. There are two families, defined as follows : 



Occipital condyle divided into two lateral condyles Eryopida 

But one genus can yet be referred to the first family; to 
the second belong Actinodon and probably Zatrachys, besides 
Eryops.— E. D. Cope. 

Marsh on the Dinosauria. — Professor Marsh has published a 
more complete systematic arrangement of these reptiles than the 
one noticed in the March Naturalist. In this he includes many 
of the genera described by European and American authors, and 
gives them their appropriate positions. Genera whose characters 
cannot be ascertained are omitted, and some synonymes are in- 

Geological News.— The Geology of Frenchman's bay, Maine, 
is treated of by W. O. Crosby in the Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 
The rocks consist of a schistose silver-bearing group, and a slate of 
Cambrian or Primordial age. A few fossils have been found in the 

same slate at other localities. M. Daubree (Bull. Soc. Geol. de 

France) gives details of the two directions taken by joints or frac- 
tures in the cretaceous strata near Paris. These joints are usually 
parallel to the reliefs of the region, and the two systems are 
nearly at right angles to each other.-— The Geological Mag- 
azine for December, 1881, contains descriptions of some fos- 
sil Crustacea from the Stonesfield slate of Oxfordshire, Eng- 
land, by Hy. Woodward. Three species of Ervon and one of 
the 'curious larval-looking genus Pahcocaris, hitherto known 
only from the /'. typus of Meek and Worthen, are for the first time 

published. The same magazine includes articles on the Brid- 

1 Proceeds. Amer. Philosoph. Soc, 1S80, June. 



336 General Notes. [April, 

lington and Dimlington (East Yorkshire) shell-beds, by G. W. 
Lamplugh ; and on the "Parallelism of the Hanoverian and English 
Upper Jurassic," by C. Struckmann, translated by W. S, Dallas. 
One hundred and twenty-five fossil species are common to this 
formation in the two countries, nearly half of them bivalves. The 
North German Upper Jura is poor in Cephalopoda, and the small 
number of corals known to be common is most probably owing 
to the fact that the German corals are not yet worked out mon- 

ographically. A late issue of the Annates des Sci. Geologiques 

contains a malacological history of the Hill of Sansan, depart- 
ment of Gers, one of the richest deposits of fossils in France. 
The article includes a notice of the geology, with colored sections, 
and a dissertation upon the climate and topography of the region at 

the epoch of the deposit. In the Geological Magazine, January, 

1882, E. T. Newton, F. G. S., has some notes on the Birds, Rep- 
tiles and Amphibia of the Preglaciai Forest Bed series of the 
East of England. Most of the birds are indeterminable, but the 
genera Anser, and, doubtfully, Anas, are identified. Reptiles and 

amphibia have never previously been noted from those beds. 

In the same number H. H. Howorth, F. S. A., writes of the 
" Traces of a Great Post-glacial Flood," as shown by the loess, 
the shells of which are land shells, while the relics of man and 

animal remains tell the same tale. A. G. Nathrost (Kongl. 

Svenska Vetenskaps-Akad. Hand.) shows that it is not improba- 
ble that many markings referred to algse are really trails of ani- 
mals. He especially refers Eophyton to the trails of Medusae. 

In the Reports, British Association. Section C. York Meeting, J. 
Prestwich argues against the generally accepted theory of volcanic 
action, the first cause of which he believes to be the welling up 
of the lava in consequence of pressure due to slight contraction 
of a portion of the earth's crust ; this lava vaporizes the waters in the 
crevices of the volcano as well as those that afterwards flow into the 

cavities, and thus explosions are produced. The last issue of the 

American journal of Science contains an article by J. D. Dana, 
upon the " Flood of the Connecticut River valley from the melt- 
ing of the Quarternary Glacier." The author refers the " kames " 
in the Connecticut valley, and terrace formations in general, to 

conditions at variance with those of Mr. Upham. In the same 

journal Mr. A. O. Derby shows that, under the name of itacolu- 
mite, two very distinct geological series have been confounded, 
the newer of which is almost exclusively quartzite, but in places 
contains pebbles of all the rocks of the older series, including the 
diamond. Diamonds have also been taken from clay (barro). 
The original diamond formation of Brazil is stated to be probably 

Cambrian. The International Geological Congress of Bologna 

decided during the session of one week in September last that 
a chart of Europe should be published at Berlin on a scale of I : 
1,500,000. The terms employed are to be Group for the highest 



1 882.] Mineralogy. 337 

divison, System for the next, Series for the third, Stage for the 
fourth, for the fifth Assize or Couche. Formation was not 
adopted because it has other meanings. M. St. Meunier has suc- 
ceeded in artificially forming enstatite.a mineral which is common 
in meteorites, and in a section shows fan-shaped or star-shaped forms. 
It is out of those forms, producible (as M. St. Meunier remarks) 
in a porcelain tube heated to redness, that the fancy of Mr. Otto 
Hahn constructed the crinoids and sponges which form the sub- 
ject of his work. At a recent meeting of the New York 

Acad, of Sciences, Dr. Alexis A. Julien read an able paper upon 
the volcanic tuffs of Idaho and other western localities. 

MINERALOGY. 1 
Helvite from Amelia county, Virginia. — Among some min- 
erals recently obtained from the mica mine near Amelia Court- 
house, Virginia, already famous for its microlite, was a yellow, 
crystalline substance which upon examination has proved to be 
Helvite. The mineral occurs in crystals and friable crystalline 
masses imbedded in bluish-white orthoclase, and is generally 
associated with pale red topazolite. While no crystals were 
found sufficiently perfect to allow of measurement, the absence 
of any action upon polarized light proved their isometric char- 

The mineral has a hardness of about 6, a specific gravity of 
4.306 (Haines), a sulphur-yellow color, a somewhat resinous lus- 
tre, and is partially translucent. It fuses at about 4 with intu- 
mescence to a brown glass, gives no water in the closed tube, 
and with the fluxes gives the reactions for manganese. Fused on 
charcoal with soda, it gives a hepar. It is soluble in hydrochloric 
acid, evolving sulphuretted hydrogen and leaving a residue of 
gelatinous silica. 

My friend, Mr. Reuben Haines, has been kind enough to con- 
tribute the following analysis : 

Gangue (SiO a insoluble in NaC0 3 ) 9-22 



The mineral was dissolved in HCI, and the " gangue " found by 
repeatedly washing the total SiO* on the filter with a hot concen- 
trated solution of NaCO,, which removed all the soluble Si0 2 . By . 



regarding the sulphur as combined with the iron and part of the 
manganese, the total percentage would be reduced by 2.25 per 



A new Manganese Mineral. — Mr. M. W. lies has examined 
an efflorescence which occurs upon an ore vein in Park county, 
Colorado. The efflorescence is of a pure white color, is very 
soft, has a specific gravity of 2.16, and occurs in friable crystal- 



isses. It is soluble in wat 


er. and has a bitter, 


The aqueous solution has ; 


in acid reaction, ind 


:ure of free sulphuric acid. 


The following me 


vas obtained : 





The mineral appears to be a hydrous sulphate of manganese, 
containing perhaps admixtures of sulphatite, melanterite and 
goslarite. It should have further examination. 

Galena with Octahedral Cleavage. — About twenty years 
ago, Dr. John Torrey noticed at the Pequea mine, Lancaster 
county, Penna., a remarkable variety of galena, which had an 
eminent octahedral cleavage. The usual cubical cleavage was 
very indistinct, but was made more prominent after heating. He 
supposed the galena either to be pseudomorphous after fluorite or 
to be a dimorphous variety. Dr. Cooke, however, show'ed that 
by pressure, traces of an octahedral cleavage may be developed in 
galena from many localities, and Dr. Genth holds that such cleav- 
age may be a natural result of octahedral crystallization. 

A few months ago a similar variety of galena was found near 
Mont Blanc, Switzerland. A large crystal formed of two cubo- 
octahedrons united by an octahedral face was found to give per- 
fect and brilliant octahedral cleavage faces when struck by a 
hammer. The cleavage faces had a slightly undulating surface. 
The specific gravity of the crystal was 7.67. No alteration in 
cleavage was produced by heating. 

The Condition of Sulphur in Coal.— Dr. W. Wallace 1 
has made some analyses of coal, which lead him to the conclu- 
sion that the sulphur found in coal, usually regarded as due to 
pyrite, exists frequently as an organic compound. He finds the 
amount of sulphur in many coals to be greatly in excess of the 
amount necessary to form bisulphide with the iron which is 

At the recent meeting of the Amer. Inst, of Mining Engineers, 
Dr. fhos. M. Drown, probably not aware of these researches, con- 
tributed an interesting series of analyses of coals, which lead to 
x Proc. Phil. Soc. Glasgow, 1879-80, p. 223. 



1 882.] Mineralogy. 339 

the same conclusion. He shows, moreover, that the " organic 
sulphur" in coal is not affected by the process of coking. 

Spiral Figures in Crystals. — Students in optical mineralogy 
will be interested in an article by L. Wright, in a recent 
number of the Philosophical M<rg,v:iin\ entitled "Some Spiral 
Figures observable in Crystals, illustrating the relation of their 
Optic Axes." The author places a section of the mineral to 
be examined between a quarter-wave plate and a thick plate of 
quartz and examines this arrangement in a polariscope with con- 
verging rays. Beautiful spiral figures are produced, resembling 
the well known " Airy's spirals." A uniaxial crystal, as calcite, 
shows a system of double spirals, mutually enwrapping each 
other (Fig. 1.). A single axis of a biaxial crystal shows a 
simple spiral (Fig. 2), while if the section includes both axes of 
the biaxial- crystal, as muscovite, two series of single spirals are 
observed, which, while separated from each other, finally enwrap 
one another (Fig. 3). 




This a beautiful demonstration of the well known fact that the 
optic axis of a uniaxial crystal has a two-fold character. Fig. I, 
representing a uniaxial crystal is seen to be composed of the same 
two spirals seen in Fig. 3, a biaxial crystal. A uniaxial crystal 
must therefore be regarded as a case in which the two axes of a 
biaxial crystal coincide. 

Mineralogists will here perceive how slight a distinction exists 
between a uniaxial crystal and a biaxial crystal of small optic 
axial angle and will understand how, for example, a biotite hav- 
ing often no appreciable biaxial character may yet be regarded as 
monoclinic with an optic axial angle of nearly o°. 

Native Silver.— Several interesting occurrences of native 
silver have recently been described. 

The first of these is in the province of Almeria, Spain, where it 
has been found in iron ore. A bed of hematite of considerable 



34-0 General Notes. [April, 

thickness forms a hill, at the base of which is a deposit of miocene 
marl containing occasional beds of argentiferous galena. The 
galena has long been worked for silver, and it is said that the 
Phoenicians and Romans once mined in that locality. Recently- 
native silver has been found in the hematite itself, and in a bed of 
flint which overlies it. Veins of barite which traverse the hem- 
atite bed are also rich in native silver. The silver is said to 

Another interesting occurrence of silver has been described by 
Kcenig and Stockder. They found it at a Colorado locality as 
clusters of crystals surrounded by or implanted in coal. The 
association of native silver with coal is a good demonstration of 
the accepted theory that organic substances play an important 
role in the reduction of metals from their salts. 

According to a note in a recent number of the Engineering and 
Mining Journal, native silver has been discovered in small specks 
and scales at the copper mines near Somerville, N. J. 

Some Virginia Minerals. — The students in the laboratory of 
the University of Virginia, have contributed to the Chemical 
News several valuable notes upon Virginia minerals. 

S. Porcher describes a native alloy of gold and silver occurring 
in rounded grains in Montgomery county. The grains have the 
color of gold on the exterior, but are almost white within. The 
specific gravity is 15.46, less than that of gold. Allowing for the 
partial removal of silver from the surface, the composition is 
shown to be represented by single atoms of gold and silver, 
AgAu. 

T. P. Lippit has analyzed an epidote of clear pistachio green 
color, and finds that the iron is all in the ferric condition and that 
the mineral is about two-thirds aluminium epidote and one-third 

B. E. Sloan has examined the beautiful bluish- white felspar 
which accompanies the microlite, columbite and beryl of Amelia 
county. This felspar resembles oligoclase, but is now shown to 
be a true orthoclase. 

B. H. Heyward describes a zinc-bearing clay from Pulaski 
county ; and A. L. Baker found that iodine was present in the salt 
brines of West Virginia. 

New Minerals. — Nocerine is a double fluoride of magnesium 
and calcium, which occurs in white acicular crystals in the vol- 
canic rocks of Nocera. 

Neocyanite is an anhydrous silicate of copper, which occurs 
in small deep blue crystals upon the lava of Vesuvius. 

Tritochoritexs a vanadate of lead and zinc, of a dark brown color 
and yellow streak, occurring in columnar cleavable masses. 

Melanotekite is another massive, cleavable mineral of dark color. 
It is a silicate of lead and iron, occurring at Longban, Sweden. It 
has a metallic lustre, and is nearly as hard as quartz. 



1 882.] Geography and Travels. 341 

Mineralogical Notes. — A " crystalline bitumen " is found in 
trap at Port-a-Port bay, Newfoundland. It seems to have re- 
sulted from the heating action of the igneous dyke upon bitumi- 
nous shales and limestones. These latter yield petroleum. 

Artificial pseudomorphs of calcite after gypsum have been made 
by placing a crystal of gypsum in a cold, saturated solution of 
carbonate of ammonia. The change takes place gradually, and 
requires several days unless the gypsum is in fine powder, when 

a few hours suffice. The beautiful amianthus from Canada is 

found to be much finer than any asbestos for the manufacture of 
asbestos fabrics. It is said that the fabrics made from it are light, 
soft, and white. It is also felted into sheets, which are flexible, 
and unctuous to the touch. It is known in commerce as " Bos- 

tonite " or " Canadian fiber." An examination of a white slime 

which covered the bottom of a mine in Westphalia showed that 
it was composed of a mixture of Aluminite, Allophane and Hy- 

drargyllite. A recent analysis of the water of the Dead sea 

showed it to have a spec. grav. of 1.186, and to contain the follow- 
ing number of grams of solid matter in one litre : 

KCI NaCl NaBr MgCl, CaCl 2 CaSO, 

16.90 74.05 5.02 128.10 35-3 6 »•« 

Gold is reported as having been found in a ledge of quartzite 

near Amity, Orange county, New York. This is a locality 
already well known to mineralogists as having afforded many 

rare and beautiful species. In a specimen of Cerussite from 

Leadville, Col., analyzed by M. W. lies, a small percentage of 
Massicot and a trace of chlorine was detected. 

Mineralogists should beware of artificial moss-agates. They 
are being manufactured of great perfection at Oberstein, Germany. 
The coloring matter is introduced in chalcedony to form artificial 
dendrites. 

GEOGRAPHY AND TRAVELS. 1 

Explorations in Equatorial Africa. — Makua Land and the 
Interior of Mozambique. — Makua Land, the unexplored region 
lying between Masasi and Mozambique and south of the Rovuma 
river has recently been traversed in different directions by three 
Englishmen. The Rev. Chauncy Maples, of the Universities 
Mission, advanced as far as Meto, about S. lat. I3°25' E. long. 
37° 5 8 '- He was prevented by the cowardice of his native fol- 
lowers from continuing his journey to Mozambique. He heard re- 
ports of the existence of a snow-capped mountain called Irati, 
about 130 miles south -south-east of Meto and visible from that 
point in very clear weather. 

Mr. H. E. O'Neill, British Consul at Mozambique, has recently 
undertaken the exploration of a route to Lake Nyassa which starts 
from Kisanga, opposite the island of Ibo. He found the country 



342 General Notes. [April, 

for the first forty miles of his march from the coast at Mokambo 
Bay thinly timbered with thick undergrowth, including quantities of 
the India-rubber vine, fairly cultivated and populous. The country 
then becomes rocky and broken with hills and peaks of bold shapes 
and precipitous sides from 200 to 1000 feet in height. At the 
one hundred and forty-second mile of his march he speaks of 
coming into view of the exceedingly beautiful Shalawe plain, 
which, dotted with villages, stretches away for many miles to the 
west and south where the vista terminates in a range of splendid 
hills 2*000 to 4000 feet high. Mr. O'Neill made a successful 
journey of 600 miles, returning at the end of November last, and 
we hope shortly to give some details of his explorations. 

Mr. Joseph Thomson, who was sent by' the Sultan of Zan- 
zibar to examine some so-called coal beds on the Lujende river 
near its junction with the Rovuma, passed through the northern 
portion of this region and has sent an interesting account of his 
journey to the Royal Geographical Society. The " coal " turned 
out to be some irregular layers of bituminous shale of no practi- 
cal use. Mr. Thomson's report so much displeased the Sultan 
that he at once broke the engagement he had made for a period 
of two years with Mr. Thomson, who has returned to England. 

One of the members of the Universities Mission, the Rev. W. 
P. Johnson has also recently visited a lake ; the source of the 
Lujende branch of the Rovuma. On reaching the banks of the 
lake he could see it stretching away to the south-east, the lofty 
hill Mangoche, near Nyassa, east of Mponda, being visible at the 
same time to the north-west. He supposes the lake to be the Lake 
Shirwa of Livingstone, the northern part of which has never be- 
fore been visited. 

Mr. Schuver's Expedition to Central Africa.— -Pctcnnanris 
Mittkeilungen has received an account of the progress of Mr. J. 
M. Schuver on his journey from the Nile to Central Africa. He 
reached Fadassi on June 12, 1881. The source of the Termat 
affluent of the Blue Nile is in the Sori mountains west of Fasu- 
der. Another stream of the same name near Belletafa is an affluent 
of the Jaboos river. He left Fadassi, on July 30th, on atrip of thirty- 
eight days to the south, during which he reached the country of the 
Legha Gallas near the source of the Jaboos. He also explored the 
Amam country which is watered by two affluents of the Jaboos. The 
water- shed between the two Niles was defined as far as the eighth 
parallel. He saw far away to the south-west the great lake and 
river Baro flowing towards the west and situated a degree further 
south than as shown on Petermann's map. The Wallel moun- 
tain rises to the east to the height of 1 1, OOO feet. 

The Legha Gallas are a powerful tribe numbering 20,000 war- 
riors, and inhabit a country far to the westward of the Galla coun- 
try proper. Mr. Schuver proposed to leave Fadassi on January 
1st, to explore the unknown regions down to the equator. 



1 882.] Geography and Travels. 343 

Dr. Stecker in Abyssinia. — Dr. Stecker, the former companion of 
Dr. G. Rohlfs, has recently visited Lake Tana. He has explored 
all the lake, visited the mountains on its shores, and prepared a 
detailed map of this basin. Lake Tana has a superficial area of 
1 150 square miles, and is at an elevation of 6370 feet above the 
sea-level. The greatest depth ascertained is 38 fathoms. Dr. 
Stecker has made interesting collections of plants, insects, fishes 
and mollusks, and he discovered in the Gorgora mountains, situ- 
ated north of the lake, unmistakable proofs of volcanic activity ; 
eruptive cones, a crater and a mighty lava stream, all pr'obably 
recent, as in the volcanic rocks' he has found inclosed remains of a 
mollusk which still inhabits the waters of Lake Tana. Dr. 
Stecker, since he completed the survey of the lake in July last, 
visited Zobul, a province only recently conquered by King Jo- 
hannes, and never before visited by an European explorer. It lies 
to the east of Lake Ashangi and is inhabited by Azebu Galla. Dr. 
Stecker's last letter is written from that lake, the environs of 
which he had surveyed. If all goes well, he proposes to explore 
the countries to the west of Lake Tana as far as Fazokl, and then 
to visit Enarea and Kaffa. 

De Brazza on the Congo. — M. Savorgnan de Brazza, when last 
heard from, had arrived on the Alima river and was then prepar- 
ing to launch his small steamer to begin the exploration of the 
Congo. M. Mizon, who was sent out to assist him reached 
Franceville, the station on the Upper Ogowe, on September 22, 
1 88 1 . In his report to the French Committee of the International 
African Association he mentions among the products of the Upper 
Ogowe country caoutchouc and palm oil. There are forests of 
wild pine, the fiber of which is used by the natives for various 
purposes, including nets for catching game and fish. 

Pbgge and Wissiuann — Doctor P6gge and Lieut. Wissmann, 
owing to the disturbed condition of the country, have decided not 
to attempt a visit to Mossumba, the residence of the Muata 
Yanvo, but will endeavor to reach Tushilango-land. To do this 
they must follow the Kassai river to its junction with the Lulua, 
near to which they expect to find a great lake. They will thus 
advance, if successful, into an entirely unexplored portion of the 
Congo basin near the fifth degree of south latitude and several 
hundred miles north of Schutts's furthest point. 

Doctor Buchner.— The German traveler, Dr. Buchner, in an 
address made at St. Paulo de Loanda on his return from the in- 
terior of Africa, after giving a brief account of his journey to, and 
residence at Mossumba, the capital of the Muata Yanvo, stated 
that in his endeavors to push northwards after leaving Mossum- 
ba, he had crossed fifteen rivers, thirteen of them in canoes. 
With the exception of two, all these rivers have parallel and 
northerly courses. In this respect Dr. Buchner fully agrees with 
the views of his predecessor, Herr Schutts, as to the Kassai water 



344 General Notes. [April, 

system, but he does not think that, even after it has received all 
its tributaries, the Kassai can be in any way compared with the 
Lualaba. Where he passed it the last time, in 8° S. lat. in the 
dry season, the Kassai had only a breadth of 394 feet, and a 
depth of ten feet, with a current of rather less than two miles. 

Notes. — A relief map of the equatorial region of Africa on the 
horizontal scale of one inch to twenty-five miles, and the vertical 
scale of one inch to five thousand feet has recently been ex- 
hibited in London. The French Government has undertaken 

to make a railroad between the Upper Senegal and the Niger 
rivers. The surveying expeditions reached the starting point of 
the road on the Senegal at Khay, seven or eight miles below Me- 
dina on November 6th last. Commander V. L. Cameron, 

sailed from Liverpool on December 31, 1 881, for Axim to join 
Capt. R. F. Burton in his exploration of the country at the back 

of the western portion of the Gold Coast colony. A Russian 

expedition for the exploration of Western Equatorial Africa is to 
leave Europe in April. The Cameroons mountains are proposed 
as the base of operations, and the exploration of the reported lake 

region to the east of them is the chief aim of the expedition. 

Dr. Josef Chavanne estimates the mean altitude of the continent of 
Africa to be 2169.93 feet or double the mean altitude of the con- 
tinent of Europe, which is estimated at 971.41 feet. Since the 

return of the three native envoys from England, King Mtesa 
has been much better disposed to the English missionaries in 

MICROSCOPY. 1 
American Societv'of Microscopists. — The Proceedings of the 
fourth annual meeting of this Society, held at Columbus, Ohio, 
August 9th to nth, 1 88 1, have been issued in a pamphlet of 102 
pages and seven plates. Perhaps the most generally interesting 
of the ten papers published, is ' " A Study of Blood," by Les- 
ter Curtis, M.D., of Chicago. This paper describes a very careful 
study, with one-tenth and one-sixteenth objectives, of fine defini- 
tion and high resolving power, of pus corpuscles, and of white 
corpuscles, and bleached red corpuscles of human blood, with a 
view to determining the reality or otherwise, of the net work of 
fine fibers described as occurring in such structures, by Dr. Carl 
Heitzmann, of New York, in 1873, and subsequently by Dr. Louis 
Elsberg, of the same city, Dr. Klein, of London, in his Atlas oi 
Histology, and other writers. Although Dr. Curtis easily recog- 
nized (what, indeed, it is not difficult to see) a more or less dis- 
tinct appearance resembling a net-work, when the field was some- 
what blurred and the outlines of objects indistinct, he uniformly 
by such change of adjustment as would secure a fine definition 
and distinct outlines, found the appearance of net-work replaced 
1 This department is edited by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, X. Y. 



1 88 1.] Microscopy. 345 

by a quite distinct view of the surface of the corpuscle covered 
with small nodules of unequal size and placed at irregular inter- 
vals, clearly denned, and capable of casting shadows in various 
directions. No net-work could be seen between or below these 
nodules, though in some cases their shadows might seem to 
resemble one. Aside from the opinion of so competent a judge 
of appearance as Dr. Curtis, it may be added that the appearance 
of nodules in the absence of a net-work, as figured in the draw- 
ings representing his observations, indicates clearness of definition 
and reality of structure as distinguished from optical illusion. 
The only real question is whether a net-work of fibers, on another 
plane underlying this could have escaped detection by the same 
means which rendered the nodules so distinct. While the 
nay not be considered absolutely conclusive 
question, contested by so competent authority, 
still it is a valuable and interesting contribution to the subject, 
and it is quite sufficient to teach caution in adopting a theory 
which may yet be discarded along with the hexagonal markings 
of r/atrosig-jua angitlatum. 

An interesting paper by C. M. Vorce, of Cleveland, on " Forms 
observed in water of Lake Erie," discusses the various vegetable 
and animal organisms obtained by filtration, through a muslin 
bag tied over a faucet, from the water supply of the city of Cleve- 
land. Besides casual observations made at other times, regular 
weekly examinations were made for a year or more. Nearly 200 
forms are figured upon a folded plate. The following general 
conclusions are of special interest : " Surprising to the writer 
was the discovery that the winter season was the most prolific of 
the whole year in number and variety of forms observed. * * * 
The most noticeable peculiarity of the filterings taken at this 
season is the abundance of infusoria, rotatoria and Crustacea, 
which in small bodies of water are warm-weather forms ; and 
next in attracting attention is the remarkable activity of repro- 
duction in vegetable life. Indeed, it is soon apparent to the ob- 
server that while the advent of wintry frosts almost suspends the 
course of growth and reproduction in most allied forms in small 
and shallow waters, in these vast watery worlds the course of life 
with these minute organisms goes unceasingly on without a rest, and 
with, indeed, no perceptible check or stay. When the change in 
volume is imperceptible, ami the change in average temperature 
but a few degrees, there is for the forms in these great waters lit- 
tle or no need for nature to resort to ' winter eggs ' and ' resting 
spores,' although they are sometimes found, more, probably, from 
organic idiosyncracy than from climatic or local causes, such as 
chiefly contribute to cause such life changes in usual circum- 
stances. In the lake waters the advent of spring exhibits no 
other effect upon the organisms we are considering than to cause 
an acceleration of the processes of multiplication and reproduc- 



346 General Notes. [April,, 

tion in many of the forms, so that these accelerated forms eventu- 
ally become so much more numerous than the others that the 
latter are frequently looked upon as missing, although usually to 
be found if carefully searched for. In addition to this cause, the 
same effect is increased as spring advances and summer ap- 
proaches, by the shallow water forms being swept in from the 
streams and continuing their reproduction in the lake waters. 
And in the cases where examinations are made from water sup- 
plies passing through storage reservoirs, the influence of the still 
water in the reservoir, and of its bottom of sluicy mud, is also to 



be considered. As summer wanes an 


d cold weather again ap- 


proaches, the winter forms increase ii 


1 activity and abundance, 


while summer forms become more in 


active, and the preponder- 


ance is again reversed." 





Under the caption of "A Tumor of the left auricle," D. N. 
Kinsman, M. D., of Columbus, gives an excellent clinical re- 
port of a rare and interesting medical case. Though chiefly 
valuable to physicians, the microscopical portion is sufficiently 
prominent to justify its appearance in the proceedings. 

The nature of" muscular contractility " is treated at length by 
Jacob Redding, M. D., of Falmouth, Ind. The author's theory 
seems to rest partly upon plausible but not altogether safe rea- 
soning as to what would be likely to be found ; his description of 
the tissues studied is not likely to be fully accepted by histolo- 
gists, who will approve still less his free statements as to the su- 
perficial view of former authors, and of their having completely 
ignored, or, at least, remained silent upon the subject of the inte- 
rior of the muscular "cells." The article will repay a careful 
study. It is illustrated with a diagrammatic plate, which delin- 
eates with great distinctness the author's theory. 

Shorter articles occur upon the " Innervation of the lungs," by 
A. M. Bleile, M. D. ; " Gregarina in the American lobster," by 
Professor A. H. Tuttle, and " Destruction of Acari by a fungus," 
by C. M. Vorce. Also, a review of different kinds of " Binocular 
microscopes," by George E. Fell ; an argument in favor of mak- 
ing " Homogeneous-immersion obiectives adjustable," by George 
E. Blockhan, M. D., and a description, by E. L. Shurley, M. D ;; 
of "An improved slide for the examination of gaseous matter. 
This is a glass slide with an attached cell and cover-glass, the 
center of the bottom of the cell being raised by a glass disk, so 
that the bottom of the cell will be within reach of the focal capa- 
city of the objective used. The gas is introduced through an 
opening in the side of the cell by means of a fine metallic canula 
and a small flexible rubber tube, supplied from a compressible 
rubber bag or globe, such for instance, as in the instruments 
used in medical practice for the insufflation of powders, or in the 
chemical laboratory for operating wash-bottles and other appara- 
tus. The method is capable of further usefulness in microscopy. 



1 88 2.] Scientific News. 347 

Bausch's Homogeneous Immersion Objectives. — The Bausch 
& Lomb Optical Company, Rochester, which, under the able su- 
pervision of Mr. Edward Bausch, is making remarkable progress 
in the construction of lenses, has added to its list a series of hom- 
ogeneous immersion objectives, from -}th to ^Vth inch, claiming 
an angular aperture of 140 in medium equivalent to crown glass. 
They are made adjustable, and up to T Vth inch cost from $70 to 
$100. By a change of adjustment they are capable of use as 

genious construction is made for use with them. New J^th, dry, 
of 140 is also made, with long working focus, and so well cor- 
rected that it will resolve No. 18 or No. 19 of Moller's test-plate 
in balsam. 

Lehigh Valley Microscopical Society. — This new society 
held its February meeting in Easton, with a good attendance. 
Dr. Isaac Ott described and illustrated Dr. Stohrer's (of Leipsic) 
plan for registering the growth of plants, and confirmed that au- 
thor's hypothesis that during the day plants do not grow as rap- 
idly as at night. Mr. F. Wolle exhibited specimens of filamentous 
alga, illustrating a growth in some instances of from one-half to 
three-quarters of an inch per hour. Mr. E. A. Rau also exhibited 
botanical specimens illustrating the growth of the lower orders. 
Other objects were shown by E. P. Seip and Breinig, and Mr. G. 
W. Stout. 

Pigeon-post Films. — Having obtained a supply of the gelatine 
films used for transmission of news by pigeon-post during the 
siege of Paris (the expedient of posting desp itches in the form of 
microscopic photographs, by the way, having been suggested by 
Sir David Brewster nearly fifty years ago), the editor of this de- 
partment of the Naturalist will take pleasure in sending .an un- 
mounted specimen, sufficient for a microscopic object, to any per- 
son sending him a stamped and directed envelope for that pur- 
pose. Return exchange optional. 

Blood Stains on Steel.— Dr. M. C. White, of New Haven, 
has been able to recognize and measure, by means of the vertical 
illuminator and a eighth objective, blood-corpuscles upon a steel 
instrument that had been exposed during two winters in the 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

report of the Boston Society of Natural History 
•cording progress in the arrangement of the mu- 

>y the citizens at large in the popular work of tli£ 
fusion of science. Two ladies have generously 
penses of the Teachers' School of Science estab- 



348 Scientific News. [April, 

lished by the society, lectures having been delivered by Professors 
Cross, Hyatt, Goodale and Mr. W. O. Crosby. The average attend- 
ance on these lectures was at first 400. As the result of these lec- 
tures Mr. Augustus Lowell recently sent word that the society 
would receive an annual donation of $1500, to be expended in the 
Teachers' School of Science. The laboratory of the society has been 
used the past year by a Saturday morning class for teachers in 
zoology, a class in zoology for the Boston University, a class in 
zoology and palaeontology from the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, a special class in biology, and also in physiology, 
under the exclusive control of Mr. Van Vleck. Other donations 
for educational purposes under the auspices of the society are re- 
corded. 

— The reports of the Tenth Census are concerned much more 
with the material resources of the country, and has invited the 
cooperation of expert scientists to a far greater extent than here- 
tofore. This is good evidence that scientific ideas have as never 
before impressed themselves upon the people and government. 
This will lead to a truer economy and a wiser administration of 
all subjects relating to the natural resources of the country. Be- 
sides the admirable report on the fur seal, which is noticed else- 
where, we have received an elaborate report on the Oyster Indus- 
try, prepared by Mr. Ernest Ingersoll, under the direction of the 
Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. It consists of 250 quarto 
pages, with suitable illustrations. The account of the mode in 
which the starfish feeds upon the oyster is in some respects new to 
us. The excellent researches of Dr. Brooks upon the embryology 
of the oyster are given in full with his original drawings, and this 
illustrates how often what at first sight appears to be abstruse 
science and most remote from any practical issue, becomes avail- 
able and necessary in such a practical matter as the oyster 

— The eminent physiologist and anatomist, Professor Theodor 
Schwann, who in 1 839 published his famous " cell theory," which 
made such a revolution in biology, and has done so much to 
simplify our conceptions of the general structures of organized 
bodies, died at Liege in February. Although active as a teacher, 
in late years Professor Schwann did not publish much, but he 
held to biology very much the same position maintained by Far- 
aday in physics. He was born in 18 10, was an assistant of J. 
Muller, the great anatomist, and afterwards was appointed to a 
professorship in the University of Liege, which he held until the 
time of his death. In 1848, on the fortieth anniversary of 
Schwann's professoriate, deputations from all the important uni- 
versities in the world went to Liege and presented addresses, while 
all distinguished biologists contributed their cartes to an album 
which was presented to the Professor. 



1 882.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 349 

— The report of P. W. Norris, superintendent of the Yellow- 
stone National Park, describes the recent violent eruptions of a 
geyser which he calls the " Excelsior." During much of the sum- 
mer of 1 88 1 this geyser sent up to a height of from 100 to 300 
feet, sufficient water to render the rapid Fire Hole river, nearly 
100 yards wide, a foaming torrent of steaming hot water, and 
hurled rocks of from one to one hundred pounds' weight around 
the edges of the crater. When the geyser is not in motion the 
column of steam rising from the crater forms a conspicuous land- 
mark in the park. A new map of the park accompanies the 
report. 

— At the last meeting of the Quekett Microscopical Club, Mr. 
F. Enock explained a new method of protecting cells from damage 
by external pressure upon the cement, his device consisting of a 
small metallic ring of angular section, which at the same time 
fitted closely round the cell and overlapped the margin of the 
cover-glass. It was believed that when placed in position and 
properly cemented round it would effectually prevent the escape 
of glycerine. 

— Professor DuBois Raymond, in a recent address before the 
surgeons of the French army, adopts the dynamic theory of 
heredity originally proposed by Cope in 1871, and subsequently 
elaborated* by Haeckel under the name of perigenesis. He does 
not credit either of these naturalists. 

— The milk of the elephant, according to Dr. Charles Doremus 
(America), is the richest that he has ever examined, containing 
less water and more butter and sugar than any other. It has a 
very agreeable taste and odor. 

— Dr. William A. Hammond has recently read a paper on the 
mental constitution of Guiteau, in which he takes the ground 
advocated by the Naturalist in its August, 1881, number. 

— The Naturalist Brazilian Exploring Expedition, under Mr. 
Herbert Smith, left Rio for the interior, Tan. 1, 1882. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 
California Academy of Sciences. Dec. 5. — At this meet- 
ing Professor Davidson again presided after an absence of sev- 
eral months in the field in connection with the work of 
the U. S. Coast Survey. There was a large attendance. 
Among the donations to the museum was one from E. F. Gerald 
of a fine specimen of vanadinite, the first discover, d in the Pacific 
States or Territories. It was found fortv-five miles above Yuma. 
Dr. W. F. McAllister presented an aboriginal skull, taken many 
feet below the surface at Mount Goat, Tombstone District. Cap- 
tain C. L. Hooper of the Convin donated two specimens of Emperor 



350 Proceedings of Scientific Societies. [April, 

geese and a moosehead, with horns attached, from the Yukon 
river, in Alaska. John G. Lemmon described a new species of 
gentian, which he discovered in September last on the summit of 
the Chiricahua mountains, in Southeastern Arizona, and which 
on account of its small flower-cups, he named Gcntiana microcalyx. 
It was a valuable acquisition to the cultivated flora, besides having 
valuable medicinal properties as a tonic. Robert E. C. Stearns 
read a suggestive paper on the growth of certain California forest 
trees, and meterological data suggested thereby. The death of 
Henry Chapman, the taxidermist and curator of mammals and 
birds of the Academy, was announced, and resolutions of respect 
to his memory were adopted. 

The San Diego Society of Natural History held its eighth 
annual meeting in the new building recently erected by the So- 
ciety, on Sixth street, November 18, 1881, the President, Dr. G, 
W. Barnes, in the chair. There was a good attendance of mem- 
bers, and of visitors on invitation. 

Mr. C. J. Fox exhibited an Indian relic, probably a medicine 
tube, from Temecula canon. Mr. O. N. Sanford exhibited an 
enormous beetle from Africa. 

The president gave the substance of a communication from 
Mr. Henry Hemphill, of Oakland (now of San Diego), addressed 
to Mr. Tryon, and by him submitted to the Philadelphia Academy 
of Sciences, describing a species of Acmaea collected by him, 
which was also presented to the Academy of Sciences. Mr. Hemp- 
hill had discovered that the Acmaa pelta and Nacclla instaHlis 
were identical, apparent differences depending on stages of growth 
and effect of station. It is regarded as an interesting addition to 
our limpets. Annual reports of the librarian, treasurer and 
president were made. 

State Natural History Society of Illinois. — The annual 
meeting was held at Champaign, February 28 to March 2, 1882. 
About thirty members were present, with an unusually good local 
attendance. Twenty-two papers were presented, nineteen of which 
were read. Mr. VVm. McAdams gave an account of the religion 
of the mound builders, as indicated by idols and other relics of a 
religious character, and also described the "Great Cahokia 
Mound," opposite St. Louis, and other mounds of that vicinity, 
giving the results of a recent survey of the group. Mr. F. S. 
Earle described the mounds of a part of south-eastern Missouri, 
explored by him last autumn for the Smithsonian Institution. Mr. 
F. M. Webster gave an account of the appearance and movements ot 
the Army Worm in north-eastern Illinois, in 1881. Mr. S. A. Forbes 
described the lateral organs of blind fishes and reported the 
results of a series of observations and experiments on the first 
food of the white fish. Mr. J. A. Armstrong described the life his- 
tory of a jelly fish ; and Mr. C. W. Butler contributed a number 



1 882.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 351 

of notes on the habits of animals and described the effect of the 
poison of snakes upon red blood -corpuscles, as determined by his 
recent experiments. Mr. A. B. Seymour read a paper on methods 
of field work on parasitic fungi. Professor T. J. Burrill reported the 
normal occurrence of bacteria in the juices of plants, which act 
as ferment poisons on man, and also explained some recent im- 
provements made in microscope objectives, and Mr. C. W. Rolfe 
gave the results of some experiments made by him on the direc- 
tions taken by the roots of germinating seeds, and some 
observations on the number of rings exhibited by cross sections 
of the wood of trees of known age. The latter gentleman 
likewise read a paper on the improvement of methods of sci- 
ence teaching in the public schools. Dr. Edward Evans de- 
scribed the rock system of Northern Illinois, Wisconsin and 
Iowa, as indicated by records of deep borings, and gave a theory 
of the artesian water supply of this region ; and Professor D. C. 
Taft delivered a lecture on the fossil tracks of the Connecticut val- 
ley. Mr. James Forsythe read an abstract of the proceedings of 
the last meeting of the Industrial University Natural History So- 
ciety, and Professor N. C. Ricker described and illustrated the 
"blue process" of copying manuscript, drawings, plates, etc., by 
photography. The evening of Wednesday was devoted to a re- 
ception given to the society by the faculty and students of the 
university, an interesting feature of which was a fine microscope 
display, given jointly by the society and the university. The offi- 
cers selected for the ensuing year were: President, Dr. J. W. 
Taylor, Kankakee; Secretary. S. A. Forbes, Normal; Treasurer, 
Tyler McWhorter, Aledo ; Vice-Presidents, Professor T. J. Bur- 
rill, Champaign, and Hon. William McAdams, Otterville, and ad- 
ditional members of the Executive Committee, Dr. Edwin Evans, 
Streator, and Dr. E. R. Boardman, El mini. The reports of the 
Secretary and Treasurer showed that the society was in a flour- 
ishing condition as to funds and membership. 

Boston Society of Natural History, February 15. — Mr. S. 
Carr remarked on the Indians as mound-builders, and Mr. VV. M. 
Davis concluded his paper on the origin of lake-basins — the 
" obstruction type." 

March 1.— Dr. W. S. Bigelow spoke of some points in connec- 
tion with the theory of spontaneous generation and the life-his- 
tory of the lowest organism. 

New York Academy of Sciences, March 6.— Mr. W. E. Hid- 
den remarked on a phenomenal " pocket " of quartz crystals con- 
taining inclusions of water and carbon dioxide. Mr. N. II. Dar- 
ton read some notes on the Weehawken tunnel. 

Appalachian Mountai 



Selected Articles in Scientific Serials. [April, 1882. 



Middlesex Institute, January ir, 18S2. — Mr. Herbert Glea- 
son read a paper on Structural geology as illustrated by the 
formation of the American continent. E. H. Capen, president of 
Tufts College, Professor John P. Marshall and Dr. A. S. Packard, 
Jr., were elected honorary members. 

February 8. — President Dame read a paper on Schools of for- 
estry. A paper from Warren H. Manning, of Reading, on the 
cultivation of trees, was read by the secretary, and followed by a 
general discussion. The executive committee announced a course 
of instructive lectures in the different departments of botany for 
the remainder of the winter season. 

February 15. — Professor Edward S. Morse delivered a lecture 
on the Ancient glaciers of North America. 



SELECTED ARTICLES IN SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 

American Journal of Science, March. — Gold-bearing rocks 
of the province of Minas Geraes, Brazil, by O. A. Derby. The 
flood of the Connecticut River valley from the melting of the 
Quaternary glacier, by J. D. Dana. Geographical distribution of 
certain fresh-water mollusks of North America, and the probable 
causes of their variation, by A. G. Wetherby. Description of a 
new genus of the order Eurypterida from the Utica slate, by C. 
D. Walcott. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying 
the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, No. 4, 
by A. E. Verrill. Origin of jointed structure in undisturbed clay 
and marl deposits, by J. LeConte. 

Geological Magazine, February. — Cyrena fluminalis at Sum- 
mertown, near Oxford, by J. Prestwich. On Spermophilus be- 
neath the glacial till in Norfolk, by E. T. Newton. Supplement 
to a chapter in the history of meteorites, by W. Flight. Traces 
of a great post-glacial flood, by H. H. Howorth (concluded). 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. xvi. — MAY, 1882.— No. 5. 



BY ROBERT E. C. STEARNS. 

THE acorn-storing habit of the Californian woodpecker ( Mel- 
anerpes fonnicivorus ) , has long been known to the " country 
folk " and others who frequent the country and take notes by the 
way. Before the American occupation, the Spanish Californians 
had observed this curious habit, and gave the bird the appropriate 
and musical name " el carpintero" No doubt, still further back 
the aborigines had their name for the carpintero, and regarded the 
bird as invested with superior power, or possessed by some un- 
seen or hidden influence, which placed it above its feathered con- 
geners and proved it to be in some mysterious way a little closer 
to the heart of nature. 

It is highly probable that if we knew the traditions of the for- 
mer red men of California, we should find some quaint story or 
curious legend connected with this ingenious and interesting bird. 
I find no mention of this woodpecker in either Bancroft's 1 or 
Powers' 2 ethnological volumes, relating to the California tribes. 

During a recent visit to Napa county, I noticed near the house 
where I stayed, on Howell mountain, a fallen pine of the species 
known to botanists as Pinus ponderosa, the yellow pine of the 
woodsmen, the bark of which was full of acorn holes. 

The tree was a noble specimen, and its prostrate position gave 
me a chance to learn not only its dimensions, but also to ascer- 
tain very nearly the number of holes which the woodpeckers had 
made in its bark. 

In falling, the tip of the tree had broken off, and was so hidden 
in the general debris of fragments of branches, cones and under- 

1 Native Races of the Pacific States. 

* Contributions to Ethnology, U. S. Geog. and Geol. Survey, Powell, Vol. Ill, 4to. 



354 The Acorn-storing Habit of the California Woodpecker. [May, 

brush, as to escape detection. The length was not less than 175 
feet, the diameter of the butt just above the ground, five feet ten 
inches. At ninety feet the diameter was three feet eight inches. 
Above the ninety foot line the holes continued, but were so scat- 
tering that they are not included in the reckoning. Neither are 
those in the first ten feet of the trunk, as between the ten foot 
line and the ground they were comparatively few. 

Between the ten foot line and the ninety foot line the number 



: square 1 



ification, 



was from sixty to twelve. A piece of the bark, sawed from the 
tree by my own hands, which measures exactly twelve inches by 
twelve inches, contains sixty holes ; this is a much smaller num- 
ber than could be counted in the same sized piece in a great part 
of the section of eighty feet, while twelve is" a very low 

The two diameters as above given, when added make eight 
feet and eighteen inches, the average diameter being one-half of 
this, or about four feet nine inches ; this multiplied by three, to 
get the circumference, gives fourteen feet and three inches ; and 
this again multiplied by the length of the section, eighty feet, pro- 
duces 1 140 square feet. 

Now if we add the maximum and minimum of acorn holes to 
the square foot (sixty and twelve), we have seventy-two, which 
divided by two, gives an average of thirty-six to the square foot, 
and thirty-six times 1 140 gives a product of forty-one thousand 
and forty (41,040) acorn holes. 

The holes are of different sizes, varying with the size of the 
acorn, which each hole is made to receive, for these birds are 
good workmen, and each acorn is nicely fitted into its special 
cavity. Making a fair selection of acorns as to size, I find that, it 
takes on an average seven to make an ounce (that is, picked when 
green) ; and taking that number for a divisor, it shows the total 
weight of acorns required to fill the holes in the tree, is three 
hundred and sixty-six pounds seven ounces, avoirdupois. Whether 
any particular species of acorn is preferred, I am unable to say. 
The acorns in the tree above described, so far as it was possible 
to determine them without the cups, which the woodpeckers 
reject, appeared to belong to the nearest adjacent oaks, Quercus 
chrysolepis. This oak is very abundant all around the mountain 
and is itself peculiar in having two forms of leaf on the same twig- 



1 882.] The Acorn-storing Habit of the California Woodpecker. 355 

At the upper end of Pope valley, not far beyond /Etna springs, 
I noticed a standing pine of the same species as that described 
and of about the same dimensions as the foregoing, which was 
full of holes. In Knight's valley, in August, 1879, I observed 
woodpecker holes closely set in the bark of a large Douglass 
spruce (Tsuga douglassii); and I have been informed by various 
parties that these woodpeckers also bore and deposit acorns in 
the bark of various species of oaks. 

Sometimes the acorn holes are made in the wood, as I have 
been informed by a friend, Mr. C. H. Dwindle, of the University 
of California, who has seen such holes in a species of white oak 
in Alexander valley. He also related an instance of the " car- 
pintero " sticking acorns in a crack between the boards in the 
porch of a house in Redwood city, San Mateo county. 

Mr. J. W. Bice, of the University, has also observed acorns 
stored in the white oaks near Healdsburg, in Sonoma county, as 
well as in the cracks between the boards in and around the pro- 
jecting eaves of barns and houses. Where the projecting rafters 
are boxed in, sometimes they will find a hole, and at other times 
make one, and store acorns in large quantities in such places. 

In clearing land the trees are girdled, and in about two years 
the bark drops off, leaving the exposed wood of the trunk in a 
sappy state, particularly on the side which is usually in the shade, 
and this side is especially selected by the woodpeckers for their 
purposes. They not infrequently drop acorns down chimneys, 
where of course the result of their labor is without any advan- 
tage. 

Upon turning to the volume on Ornithology in the Geological 
Survey (of California) publications, in reference to this species of 
woodpecker, it says : " They are fond of playing together around 
the branches, uttering their rattling calls, and often darting off to 
take a short sail in the air, returning to the same spot. They have 
a habit, peculiar to them, of drilling small holes in the bark of 
trees, and fitting acorns tightly into them, each one being care- 
fully adapted and driven tight. The bark is often so full of these 
as to scarcely leave room to crowd in another without destroying 
the bark entirely. These are generally considered as laid up for a 
winter supply of food ; but while in this climate no such provision 
is necessary, it is also very improbable that birds of this family 
would feed on hard nuts or seeds of any kind. The more prob- 



356 The Acorn-storing Habit of the California Woodpecker. [May, 

able explanation is, that they are preserved for the sake of the 
grubs they contain so frequently, which, being very small when 
the acorn falls, grow until they eat the whole interior, when they 
are a welcome delicacy for the bird. Whether they select only 
those containing grubs, or put away all they meet with, is uncer- 
tain ; but as they leave great numbers in the tree untouched, it is 
probable that these are sound acorns, and often become a supply 
to the squirrels and the jays." 

Without questioning the foregoing as to the preference of the 
woodpecker for animal food, and especially for the larvae often 
contained in the acorns, it is undeniable that, in common with the 
jays, they are exceedingly fond of fruit, as many an orchardist 
can testify ; and their predilection for almonds before these tints are 
quite ripe, is well known to the cost of many almond growers ; 
that they eat other nuts and also acorns to some extent, I have 
no doubt. The jays and squirrels are quite likely benefited by 
the acorn-storing habit of this species of woodpecker; and I 
have been told that the jay sometimes assists the woodpecker by 
bringing acorns for the carpintero to deposit in the bark ; and 
further that sometimes the jays put pebbles in the acorn holes 
" to fool the woodpeckers ;" but these latter statements, though 
perhaps true, need confirmation. 

As several woodpeckers are engaged in the work at the same 
time on the same tree, their operations, as may be imagined, are 
carried on with a good deal of vivacity and noise, in which the 
jays become interested, and dart about, adding to the tumult in 
their own peculiar chattering way. 

The latter have related singularities in the matter of food- 
storing, as will be seen below. The friend, Mr. Dwindle, whom 
I have already quoted, states that the large thistle, which is abun- 
dant in certain places in Alameda county, owes its distribution in 
part to the jays who take the seeds, which are of good size, and 
plant them in the ground. He further states that a friend of his, 
who fed Indian corn to his chickens, had observed the jays fly 
down and pick up a kernel and then go off a short distance and 
plant it ; in this way he discovered how it was that stalks of maize 
came up and were growing where he had never planted. 

Mr. Dwindle has himself seen a jay plant an acorn in the 
ground of his (Mr. D.'s) house-yard or garden in Oakland. The 
bird deliberately made a hole, thrust in the acorn, covered it and 



1 882.] The Acorn-storing Habit of the California Woodpecker. 357 

then put a chip on the spot, perhaps the latter as a mulch ; then 
flew away, found another acorn, which it accidentally dropped in 
a growth of periwinkle (myrtle), and after searching for it with- 
out finding it, gave up and flew away. 

As it is hardly presumable that the jays plant either the 
corn or the thistle for the purpose of perpetuating those species 
of plants with the object of obtaining food from future crops, it is 
likely that being full fed at the time, with appetites satisfied, they 
simply buried the seed for future need, as a dog buries a bone, 
and forgot all about it, or not needing the same, the seeds 
remained where the birds planted them, until they germinated and 

The holes made by the woodpeckers in the bark of trees also 
serve as a lurking place for beetles, ants and other insects, so that 
both vegetable and animal food are brought together side by side 
to furnish a meal in time of need, in which perhaps the jays some- 
times participate. Judging by the tree herein described, it would 
seem as if there were enough for all. 

Mr. Bice is of the opinion that the acorns are stored simply for 
the larvae, which the carpintero eats after the maggot has attained 
a good size. He also relates the following, which is worthy of 
note : " On cutting down a hollow oak on his father's place, a 
woodpecker's nest was discovered after the tree had fallen, and a 
young bird of the carpintero species was found and caught, being 
unable to fly. It was carefully reared, and became a great pet 
with the family. After it had reached maturity and was perfectly 
able to fly, though no restraint was placed upon it, it would come 
at once in answer to call, leaving its fellows in the trees. Upon 
one occasion, when the family went several miles from home to 
visit a friend, the bird followed them, though at the time they 
were not aware of it, and only learned the fact from the friend 
whom they had visited, and who caught and kept the bird until 
an opportunity offered for returning it. Probably if it had not 
been caught it would have followed the family back." 

There is a larger species of woodpecker, with plumage much 
resembling that of M. formic ivonts, which sometimes appears in 
flocks and helps itself, or tries to do so, to the stores laid up by 
'I carpintero, who bravely fights the maurauder. I have been 
unable to learn to what species these depredators belong. 



[May, 



Chara coronata Ziz. (in ed. 1814), revised by A. Braun to include 
all known varieties, belongs to the second division of the genus 
Chara, namely Haplostephana (stipules composed of a simple 
series of cells) ; it has but one stipular cell at the base of each 
leaf, is not corticated, is monoecious and is described as follows in 
Braun's Characeae Africanae : " Plant annual, smooth and flexible. 
Leaves verticillate nine to eleven, with 4-6 articulations, 3-5 elon- 
gated segments and a short mucroniform ultimate segment. 
Bracts developed at every node ; at the terminal node forming 
with the terminal segment a 3-5 divided crownlet (coronula) ; 
the posterior bracts shorter, depauperate or wholly wanting ; the 
anterior about equaling the sporangium, rarely longer, often 
shorter. Stipules about the size of the leaves. Antheridia and 
Sporangia produced on the same node, rarely double or triple. 
Nucleus of the sporangium black, with a calcareous shell and 
with 7-12 conspicuous striae on a side." 

The European form of this species, known as var. Braunii, has 
been considered the normal form, occupying as it does an inter- 
mediate position in respect to size, development of bracts, size of 
nucleus and form of the coronula. The nucleus varies from 420 
to 550 //. (micro-millemeters, mille-millemeters) in length, is 
9-striate; coronula of the sporangium is short and obtuse ; the 
bracts anteriorly are equal to or shorter than the sporangium, 
posteriorly they are undeveloped. This form is found also in 
America, but the more distinctively American form has been 
known as var. Schweinitzii A. Br. This is usually characterized 
by a larger nucleus, 550 to 650 //., and by the great development 
of the bracts, which are often several times longer than the spo- 
rangium and are completely developed around the leaf, verticil- 
late, though the posterior are much shorter than the anterior. 
An African form, var. Perrottetii A. Br., has a large nucleus, 
600-650 ft., with unilateral bracts equaling in length the sporan- 
gium ; this form we find in America also. From India, var. 
( 'oromandclina A. Br., has been designated by a very large nu- 
cleus 600-750 //., with verticillate bracts, nucleus with seven 
strong angles ; some of our forms approach very closely to this, 



1 882.] On some American forms of Chara coronata. 359 

having verticillate bracts and an equally large nucleus. In the 
Sandwich islands is found a delicate form in which the cells of 
the coronula are much elongated, and approaching this form is 
one collected in New Mexico by Wright. Besides the more dis- 
tinct forms are many intermediate forms, difficult to place, pos- 
sessing characters belonging to two or more varieties ; indeed the 
forms of this species from different places are quite numerous. 
We find the plant everywhere from Canada to Mexico and from 
Massachusetts to California. 

One interesting fact is, that the plant in any given locality is 
constant in its peculiarities, and though thousands of plants be 
examined they will all be found to exhibit precisely the same 
character. This is true not only of this species but of most 
other species of Characeae ; thus in a pond filled with Chara 
foziida A. Br., with long bracts and long terminal naked nodes 
(Macroptila, Macroteles) all the plants will have the same pecu- 
liarity and will keep it unchanged year after year, while a neigh- 
boring pond perhaps only a few rods distant, may be inhabited by 
another distinct but persistent form. 

A. Braun relates that Chara gymnopus var. Humboldtii A. Br., 
collected by Gollmer in the same lake in which fifty-five years 
before Humboldt had gathered it, presented precisely the same 
characters. We have, however, noticed in one instance an appa- 
rent difference in a form of C. coronata collected in precisely the 
same locality in which it had been found twenty years before, 
but there might have been a difference in the maturity of the 
plants. This permanence of slight peculiarities may be owing to 
the disagreeable odor and taste of the plant, which has often a 
strong smell of sulphuretted hydrogen, rendering it offensive to 
animals who might otherwise feed upon it and carry the seeds to 
other localities ; and as the plants grow wholly under water, the 
seeds are not liable to be carried by the wind. Hybridization 
seems, therefore, to be infrequent and exceptional. These very 
qualities, which serve to limit the spread of the Characeae, may 
also have determined the persistence of very ancient forms and 
limited their multiplication. 

The characters relied upon for distinctions betweeen varieties, 
have been the development of the bracts, the size and striation of 
the nucleus, and the character of the coronula of the sporangium. 
The general aspect of the plant, size and length of stem, density 



360 On some American forms of Cham covonata. [May, 

or laxity of growth, seems to vary greatly from differences in the 
character of the water, exposure, et cetera. The plant has been 
thought to be free from incrustation, but one form from Canada 
(Pacific Railway survey) is so completely incrusted that it is ex- 
tremely brittle, and when dry has a gray color ; while another 
form has a most peculiar zonular incrustation, giving the plant a 
variegated appearance. 

The development of bracts seems to be most capricious ; though 
the comparative length of bracts and sporangia seems to be 
pretty constant in any one locality, the posterior development 
varies in a single plant, and at times on a single leaf, one node 
exhibiting verticillate bracts while the next node has absolutely 
no bracts on its dorsal aspect : this we often find to be the case 
in the longest bracted forms (var. Schweinitzii). 

In America we have every length of anterior bracts from two 
to three times the length of the sporangium, a little longer, of 
equal length, a little shorter, to very short bracts, one-half or 
even a third its length. Some of the shortest bracted forms are 
found with the largest sporangia and with verticillate bracts. 

Size of nucleus. — The smallest, mature nucleus we have yet 
met with occurs in the form collected by Wright in New Mexico, 
and determined by A. Braun as var. Braunii forma tenera ; it is 
420 ft. long and has seven striae ; next in order is the Silver-city 
form, recently found, 500 ft. with only five striae; one from Cali- 
fornia is 500 ft. long with seven striae ; from Saranac lake, Ver- 
mont, N. Carolina, etc., are forms 520 to 550 ft. long with longer 
or shorter bracts; then come the more common long-bracted 
forms (var. SckiveinitzU) with nucleus 550 to 650 ft. long with 
8 to 9 striae ; then some forms with larger nucleus and very short 
bracts, Penn. and Kansas, 660 to 780 (!) long with 9 to 10 striae. 
Both the smallest and largest nuclei now known to us have been 
associated with short bracts. 

The number of stria on the nucleus, representing the whorls ot 
enveloping cells, varies considerably ; while in a general way they 
are more numerous on the longest nuclei, yet a smaller nucleus 
may have more than one somewhat larger ; the delicate Saranac 
form has 9 striae, while the larger Vermont form has only 7 (the 
same as the delicate Braunii- tenera) though the nucleus is larger. 
The Silver-city form with a nucleus 500 ft. long has 5 striae, while 
Braunii-tenera nucleus 420 ft. has 7 striae. 



1 882.J On some American forms of Chara coronata. 361 

The cells of the coronula vary greatly from the closely-set short 
cells of the more common forms to the divergent and elongated 
cells of Brannii-tenera , which exhibits an approach to the Sand- 
wich island form (var. Oahiiensis A. Br.). 

These varying characters with their numerous combinations 
seem to us to render a division of the species into definite varie- 
ties well nigh impossible. As it has now become unadvisable to 
bestow distinctive names upon the numerous forms of that truly 
polymorphic species C. foetida A. Br., so in view of the now 
numerous and rapidly multiplying forms of C. coronata, it seems 
to us proper to describe them as forms peculiar in many cases to 

The variations of this plant may be tabulated as follows, 
giving prominence to the size of the nucleus and length of the 
bracts, allowing also for variations in the habit of growth, et 



A. Pachygyra, nucleus with thick piominen 
Mi. roptila, bracts shorter than the sporangium 



U. Macrocarpa, nucleus more than 600 {*. in length. 
1. Macroptila, microptila or meioptila. 
A. Pachygyra or Leiopyrena. 

III. Meiocarpa, nucleus of medium size, between 500 and 600 /i. long, 

The American forms may be arranged and designated as fol- 
lows, beginning with those having the smallest nucleus : 

1. Forma tenuior, microcarpa, microptila, unilateralia, laxior, 
ox ygyra (var. Braumi tenera A. Br.). This form was collected 



[May, 



by Wright in New Mexico (No. 908). It is a slender diffuse 
plant, with rather long leaves 




of 5-6 articulations, including 



The 



;t.p- 



ules and bracts are very slen- 
der ; the bracts are unilateral, 
shorter than the sporangium, 
the anterior rather longer than 
the lateral. The coronula of 
sporangium consists of 
cells with elongated diverg- 
fig. 1.— Variety Braunii tenera. i n g tips, intermediate in aspect 

between var. Braunii and var. Oahucnsis A. Br. The sporangia 
and antheridia are usually duplicated on each of the two lower 
nodes. The terminal segment consists of three slender elongated 
cells forming a tuft. The nucleus is oval with about seven sharp 
angles, 420 to 460 ,«• long and about 250 /*, broad. In the adjoin- 
ing cut 1 represents the anterior aspect of a node with two spo- 
rangia but with the antheridia removed, as at 3. 2 is a terminal 
node — all magnified' forty diameters. 

11. Forma microcarpa, microptila, unilateralia, laxior (var. 
Braunii geuuiua). This form has been collected near St. Louis by 
~ Dr. Engelmann (to whose kindness I 
w\ //;' J am indebted for specimens). Plants 

diffuse, leaves longer than the inter- 
nodes, 4-5 articulations, of which the 
V lowest or the two lowest are fertile ; 
V*~— ~^TWV\\ VVJ stipules rather stout but short ; bracts 
stout, unilateral, much shorter than 
Coronula of five 




v •< in ^ [{ 



cells 



broadly oval, 475 to 500 /*. long, with 

about six ribs, which are blunt and 

not prominent. The accompanying 

figure, magnified forty times, repre- 

aumigeHuina.stnXs the anterior aspect of a node of 

sporangia, one antheridium, in situ (outlined) and 

only the anterior bracts are shown, the lateral are 



one removed 

about the same length. 

in. Forma meiocarpa, microptila, verticillata, 



;longata. 



- 






Chara Coronata, Ziz. 
Var. gracilis, Allen. 



1882.] 



On , 



■ American /onus of Chara c 



V^l 



pachygyra (var. gracilis Allen ined.). Plant slender, elongated, 
15 to 20 cm in height. Verticils consisting of 9-10 leaves, distant. 
Leaves much shorter than the internodes, the lower spreading ; the 
upper fruiting ones connivent; articulations few, usually three, 
the two lower nodes bearing fruit, the upper sterile, the fertile 
nodes usually connivent while the subterminal internode is elon- 
gated and divergent. Stipules very slender and rather short ; 
bracts slender, usually verticillate, much shorter than the sporan- 
gium, the anterior longer than the lateral, the posterior very 
small, sometimes wanting, the terminal bracts form, with the 
short terminal segment of the leaf, a triple tuft. Sporangia and 
antheridia usually duplicated on the two lowest nodes of the leaf- 
Sporangia large in comparison with the size of the plant, with 
about eight whorls on one side ; coronula of short pointed some- 
what divergent cells; altitude of cells of coronula in mature 
sporangia about 100 //. Nucleus broadly oval, 480 to 520 ft. 
long, with five or six thick ribs. 

This form differs in habit of growth from all other known vari- 
eties. It was gathered near Silver City, New Mexico, by Mr. Rushy 
in 1880, being found in only one pool. It occupies an interme- 
diate position between var. Braunii tenera (Forma 1) and the large 
fruited forms from Pennsylvania and Kansas, which seem almost 
identical with the East Indian var. Coromandelina A. Br. Explana- 
tion of the plate; 1, a partial view of a verti- ^= — ~ 
cil, showing the relative size and position of 
the stipules ; 2, a front view of the first node 
of a leaf, showing at a the points of attach- 
ment of the antheridia which have been re- 
moved ; 3, a lateral view of a second 1 



ith . 



s,-g„ 



Of i 



ung sporangiu 



ripe , 



5, the 







carpa, meioptila, verticil- 
lata, tenuior. This form was collected in 
California, at "King's river," by Berggren 
in 1875, and sent me by Professor Nordstedt. FlG ^~_^, IU 
The plant is slender and diffuse, and is inter- ' ' var. 4. 
mediate between the extreme small-fruited unilateral forms and 
the medium-fruited verticillate ones. The bracts are verticillate, 



&A- 



On : 



• American forms of Char a c 



[May, 



the anterior shoria than t/u t'a teral, which about equal in length 
the sporangium; the coronula consists of short thick cells with a 
minute point, not at all developed as in Brannii tenera. Nucleus 
425-500 /'. long, with 6-7 angles. 

We now come to a group of forms representing in a general 
way the ordinary var. Schiveinitzii, though the transition from the 
short bracted and small fruited forms to the large bracts and large 
fruit, is gradual. The bracts subtending the sporangium vary in 
relative length, sometimes the anterior, sometimes the lateral 
bracts are longer. The form with long lateral bracts has been 
known as Chara foliolosa Schw., the one with shorter bracts but 
long leaves, as in Form in. as C. opaca Schw. 

v. Forma macrocarpa, meioptila, verticillata, tenuior, leiopy- 




rena. Plant small, diffuse, with elongated leaves of 4-5 articula- 
tions ; bracts usually verticillate, equal in length to or slightly 
longer than the sporangium, anterior bracts somewhat longer than 
the lateral, posterior often nearly as long as the lateral, rarely 
wanting. Sporangium with 9-1 1 whorls, coronula of divergent 
cells with rather long points, similar to Brannii tenera of New 
Mexico (Forma 1). Nucleus 640 //. long with 9-1 1 slightly 
prominent ribs. Saranac lake, N. Y., 1881. 

In previous years Professor C. H. Peck, of Albany, collected 
specimens from precisely the same locality, and in i860 I sent 
specimens to Professor A. Braun, who recognized it as a transi- 
tion form between var. Brannii and var. 



1 882.] On 
companying 



in forms of CJiara coronata. 365 

taken from Professor Peck's speci- 



The bracts are shorter and unilateral, the nuclei smaller, 550 p., 
ut the coronula seems less elongated; whether the plant 
till continues to vary, remains for farther investigation to es- 




vi. Forma macrocarpa, macroptila, verticillata, laxior, leiopy- 
rena. This very common northern form was collected in Canada 
by Professor Macoun ; it is slender, diffuse, with long leaves of 
4-5 articulations, verticillate bracts much longer than the sporan- 
gium, often two or three times its length, the anterior bracts 
longer than the lateral, the posterior large but much shorter. 
Nucleus precisely like the Saranac form (v), and about the same 
size, 620-650, ribs 9-10, scarcely prominent. 

One collection of this form from the far west of Canada is 
completely incrusted with lime, and when dry is gray and very 
brittle ; another from Eastern Canada has a peculiar zonular in- 
crustation but usually the plant is perfectly smooth even in water 
containing considerable lime. The habit of growth varies ex- 
ceedingly, some are delicate, diffuse and pellucid, others stout, 
thick, compact, and in deep water often attain a length of 4 to 5 
feet (Litchfield lake, Ct.). This is our most common form, though 
the cells of the coronula are usually connivent, as in the next 
form, and the bracts may be unilateral on some nodes of the same 
plant. 



366 On some American forms of Chara coronata. [May, 




meiocarpa, microp- 
tila, unilateralia, laxior. This form 
was collected at Brattleboro, Vt, 
by the late C. C. Frost, it pre- 
sents no differences from the last 
except the short unilateral bracts, 
smaller nucleus, 550-600, with 
fewer ribs, 7-8. 

eioptila, partim unilateralia, cellulis 
nniventibus, condensata. Plants compact. 



On , 



• . hncrican forms of Chara coronata. 



3<>7 



rather stout, verticils approximate ; stipules large, inflated, equal- 
ing the leaves in size. Bracts inflated, about equal in length to 
the sporangium or somewhat shorter, mostly unilateral, some- 
times verticillate ; leaves with 5-6 nodes, the three lower usually 
fertile ;sporangii 






th with 



by 



550-575 f*. long, 
lected in Veri 
Mr. Horsford. 

From Hillsborough, 
N. C, have been collect- 
ed specimens by Mr. 
Curtis (communicated 
by Dr. Engelmann) of 




identical with this one, except that the leaves have 
only three nodes, the lower of which is fertile, the upper much 
elongated, and the bracts commonly verticillate and somewhat 
narrower. 

ix. Forma macrocarpa, microptila, verticillata. The plants be- 
ionging to this form are remarkable for the large size of the fruit 



On , 



• American forms of Chara coronata. 



[May, 



and the small verticillate bracts. The specimens from Pennsylvania 
were collected " in a flume " by Mr. E. A. 
Rau. The plants are diffuse, thin and trans- 
parent; stems long ; verticils approximate at 
upper part; leaves long, spreading, with two 
fertile nodes and 2-3 sterile; the upper inter- 
nodes much elongated. Bracts much shorter 
than the sporangium, verticillate, the ante- 
rior longer than the lateral; coronula of the 
sporangium consisting of connivent blunt 
cells ; nucleus elliptical, about twice as long 
as broad, 650 it. long, with nine faint striae. 
Very similar to this, apparently, is a form 
9th var. ; a. ' from Kansas, collected by Fendler and com- 
municated to me by Dr. Engelmann, of St. Louis. The leaves are 
long, consisting of four nodes, of which the lowest is fertile ; the up- 
per considerably elongated. The bracts are less than half the length 
of the sporangium, verticillate, the anterior shorter than the lateral; 





coronula with blunt somewhat connivent cells, the sporangium 
large with about twelve whorls on one side. Nucleus gigantic in 
size, 760-780 11. long with 9-10 faint striae. This form is truly 
western in the enormous development of nucleus, but in no other 
respect does it seem to differ from eastern forms, b, a mature 
fruit ; c, very young, showing a large antheridium. The figures 
have all been drawn with the camera lucida from actual speci- 
mens, and are perfectly true to nature. 

To these forms we have been able to refer all the specimens 



1 882.] Vie Loess of North America. 369 

which have thus far been collected in America ; they seem to 
illustrate the futility of attempting to define satisfactorily varieties, 
and to warrant their abandonment and the substitution of 
"forms" varying with the locality, as has been suggested by 
Professor Nordstedt, of Sweden, and is the practice in the case 
of the polymorphous species, C. fvtida A. Br., C. intermedia A. 
Br., and many others. 

A few of the more remarkable forms may still retain a specific 
name, as var. Oahuensis A. Br., perhaps var. gracilis Allen, and a 
few others ; or it might even be admissible to bestow a specific 
name on each constant form as a convenient method of desig- 
nating its peculiarities. For the present, however, while our 
knowledge of the American forms is yet so incomplete, we prefer 
to classify them as above. 



THE LOESS OF NORTH AMERICA. 



THE term loess is a purely provincial one, having been origi- 
nally applied by the residents of the Rhine valley to a certain 
comparatively recent formation bordering that stream. It is the 
anglicized form of the German loss, itself a derivative of the verb 
Ibsen, to loose or to detach. It was evidently bestowed in allu- 
sion to the loose texture of that loam-like soil, and, in its present 
acceptation, is to be regarded as nearly the equivalent of the En- 
glish loam. 

Historical. — The earliest notice of the loess in America appears 
to have been in connection with various exploring expeditions sent 
out by the General Government. That of Lewis and Clark, made 
between the years 1803-1806, to the Rocky mountains, by way of 
the Missouri river, called attention to the remarkable character, 
both physical and lithological, of the bluffs along that stream, 
but for aught the report contains their true geological position 
and history were not recognized. Later, the celebrated artist, 
Catlin, in his letters to England from the Northwest, 1 gives a 
very accurate and graphic account of the Missouri river bluffs, in 
which he mentions certain of their remarkable physical pecu- 
liarities. 

The real geological character of this formation in the United 
l CatHn's N. A. Jndians, Vol. 1, p. 19, 1876. London, Chatto & Windns. 



370 The Loess of North America. [May; 

States seems to have been first surmised by Sir Charles Lyell, 
whose observations, however, were confined to the lower Missis- 
sippi, and notably to this deposit in the State of that name. He 
had traveled extensively in Europe, and in the progress of his 
journeyings had taken occasion to study somewhat carefully the 
Rhenish loess. In the first edition of his " Elements of Geology," 
published in 1838, he mentions at some length the loess deposits 
of the Rhine, and states that it is mineralogically and chemi- 
cally similar to the famous deposits in the delta of the Nile. He 
also offers a few considerations touching its origin, to which it is 
• not here necessary to make reference. Later, in 1846, while 
Lyell was in this country, Professor Wailes, of the Mississippi 
Geological Survey, drew his especial attention to the deposit as 
laid down in certain ravines in Adams county, in that State. In 
the subsequently published account of his travels, Mr. Lyell 
remarks that " the resemblance between this loam and the fluvia- 
tile silt of the valley of the Rhine, generally called loess, is most 
perfect." 1 Following him, most writers on the loess of the Mis- 
sissippi valley consider it the counterpart of the Rhenish forma- 
tion. About this period a large portion of the great hydrographic 
basin of the Mississippi was being for the first time geologi- 
cally explored under the general and various State governments, so 
that discoveries of this deposit over large areas appearing to border 
upon the principal streams only, were both numerous and important. 
In Iowa, the first study of the loess was made by Dr. D. D. Owen, 
and reported upon to the General Government in his " Geological 
Survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota," published in 1852. 
He crossed the state from Des Moines, then-a mere military post, 
to its western limit. Commenting on the rock structure as he 
advanced, he says :'- " On approaching the Missouri, the hills 
bordering the extensive bottoms, known as Council Bluffs, attract 
particular attention, not only from their contour, but from their 
geological formation. Where vegetation has been removed from 
their slopes, they are seen to be composed chiefly of a fine ash- 
colored, silicious marl, or loam, effervescing with acids. In fav- 
orable situations many species of terrestrial and fluviatile shells 
were discovered, of the same species as are found in similar 



1 882.] The Loess of North America. 371 

deposits in the Wabash valley, which are considered contempo- 
raneous with the loess of the Rhine." At about the same time 
loe v ss was found by Whittles}- 1 on the south shore of Lake Erie, 
and from the presence of fresh-water shells he likewise inferred 
that the formation belonged to the age of the Rhenish lacustrine 
deposits. In writing on the superficial geology of the Lake Supe- 
rior section, E. Desor concludes that " though the terraces of 
Mackinac differ widely in composition from the loam, or loess, of 
Lakes Erie and Huron, yet, the fact that both are posterior to the 
drift and occur at similar heights on the coast of the same lake, 
seems to warrant the conclusion that they may have been simul- 
taneous.'" Whether those deposits are to be considered true loess, 
we are not prepared to state. 

The field of discovery and study now again reverted to the 
south, for, in 1854, was published Wailes* account of this forma- 
tion as existing in Mississippi. One year later appeared Swallow's 
u First and Second Reports on the Geology of Missouri," in which 
is given, for the first time, a full account of the loess, to which 
Professor Swallow applies the name of " bluff formation." This 
work was followed in the succeeding year, 1856, by Owen's " Re- 
port on the Geology of Kentucky," in which occur numerous 
references to the loess of that State. In the same year was pub- 
lished Volume in of the Pacific Railroad Reports, in which W. 
P. Blake, in giving an account of the geology of the thirty-fifth 
parallel, extends the geographical distribution of the loess to 
twenty- six miles above Fort Washita on the Red river, and 
quotes the observations of Shumard, made in the same section 
during the explorations under charge of Captain Marcy, in 1852.- 
In i860, E. W. Hilgard, in his "Agriculture and Geology of 
Mississippi," gave the most complete account of the loess of the 
south yet published. In Nebraska, during the year 1867, it was 
studied by Dr. Hayden, and later by Prof. Aughey, who pub- 
lished an account of the surface geology of that State in Hay- 
den's Annual Report for 1874. Meanwhile, Safford in Tennessee 
had published, in 1869, his account of the geology of that sec- 
tion; and White's " Geology of Iowa," which appeared in 1870, 

'Report on the Geology of the Lake Superior Und District, l8 5 t, Foster & Whit- 






372 The Loess of North America. [May, 

contains the most finished treatment of the Iowa loess, and inci- 
dentally that of Missouri and Nebraska, which has come under 
notice. The last elaborate study, to which it is here necessary to 
make reference, is contained in the " Sketches of the Geology and 
Physical Geography of Nebraska," by Professor Samuel Aughey, 
which is, mainly, so far as the loess is concerned, an extension of 
his previously published paper in the report of the Hayden sur- 
vey above mentioned. 1 

From these facts it will have been gathered that the loess is of 
wide distribution in the great central basin of the United States, 
to which it seems wholly confined. It is found in the States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Illinois, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, 
and in the Indian Territory ; but in every instance is apparently 
confined to the higher lands along the larger streams. Its super- 
ficial extent is greatest in Nebraska, where, according to Aughey, 2 
its area is three-fourths that of the State, or 56,994 square miles. 3 
In Iowa its superficial area is estimated by White 4 at about 
5000 square miles, but his calculations included only those sec- 
tions along the Missouri, inasmuch as he was evidently unac- 
quainted with its existence in Central Iowa, and in the eastern 
portion of the State. Its area appears to be next greater in 
Missouri, which is, indeed, but the southern extension of the 
Iowa and Nebraska deposit. In most of the other States where 
it occurs its area is comparatively small. 

Physical characters, — Observers agree, in the main, with refer- 
ence to the physical features of this formation. Its material is 
exceedingly fine, very silicious as proven by numerous analyses, 
ashy color with slight yellowish tinge — normally ; and often 
highly calcareous. In all these respects it agrees entirely with 
published descriptions of foreign loess. In situ it presents a re- 
markably homogeneous structure, usually appearing in massive 
walls without, or with but faint, lamellation, the latter feature be- 



in- biblin-raphy 
'Sketches, &c. 
3 " I should ju 


X 


that ti 


lion." Professor 


It i 

II;- 


b large 


« Geology of I c 


,wa, 


, Vol. : 



1 882.] The Loess of North America. 373 

ing purely local. So perfect is the homogeneity that very careful 
examinations of specimens of soil from the Missouri valley, and 
the valleys of the Des Moines and Iowa rivers, failed to reveal 
even slightly marked physical differences. A peculiar feature of 
the loess — in all parts of the world— is the presence of numerous 
calcareous concretions— the locssmannclicn of the Rhenish deposits 
— which occur in zones, at varying distances throughout the mass. 
They assume allpossible shapes from the spherical (Plate v, Fig. 4) 
through the spheroidal to the oblong ; in all cases they are more 
or less numerously studded with roughened projections. No one 
shape seems to obtain more than another, and not unfrequently 
several are found cemented together/forming an eccentric single 
mass. They are certainly characteristic of the loess, for that forma- 
tion nowhere occurs without their presence. They are decidedly 
hydraulic as would be naturally inferred from their constitution. 
In no case have I ever observed fossils — either mollusks or vege- 
table matters— acting as a nucleus. On one occasion, 2803 of these 
bodies were crushed with that especial point in view. In nearly 
every instance, 2789, they were found to contain loose fragments 
broken by some means from their inner walls, but no foreign sub- 
stance whatever could be detected. 1 In the remaining fourteen 
specimens, while the concretions were hollow, they yet contained 
loose particles of no substance whatever. Not a single specimen 
was solid throughout. That they were 'originally solid, or of a 
pasty consistency, is not to be doubted, as a study of the inner 
surface reveals. They all present a deeply fissured interior (Plate 
v, Fig. 1),- consequent on the evaporation of water and subse- 
quent contraction. In the vast majority of cases the pyramidal 
masses of the interior showed distinct irregularly concentric lines 
of growth, or rather of accretion (Plate v, Fig. 2). The presence of 
these zones and the peculiarly granulated surfaces of the crushed 
masses, with entire absence of distinct crystallization when viewed 
under the microscope 3 complicates somewhat the problem of their 



374 The Loess of North America. [May. 

origin. Professor J. D. Whitney says of them 1 that they " have 
been formed in the loess by infiltration along the lines of cleavage 
and resultant chemical action on calcareous matter occurring in 
large quantity along certain planes." 

It should be noted, in framing any theory on these peculiar 
bodies, that zvithovt exception the fissures of the interior surface 
end with the outer calcareous envelope, as shown in Plate V (Fig. 
I and 2, c and a). So also should be considered the numerous 
rugosities or protuberances more or less thickly studded over 
their surfaces (Plate v, Fig. 3).- Further, there often occur, in 
the pyramidal masses of the interior, numerous small black masses, 
apparently carbonaceous, the true nature of which has not yet 
been satisfactorily determined. I am, however, disposed to con- 
sider these concretions as a result of chemical changes in the 
composition of the loess itself through the action of carbonic 
and various of the humus acids. These exert, as is well known, 
a marked action upon certain mineral substances contained in 
soils, as notably upon carbonate of lime. 3 Whether there may have 
been an original foreign nucleus about which accretion began I 
am unable to say, but the fact is, that in none of the above men- 
tioned 2803 specimens could any such nucleus be found. 

On one other point the writer's observations lead to negative 
results. In every case, even when from considerable depths, the 
concretions are of a stojiy hardness. One observer 4 states that 
" when first exposed, most of these concretions are soft enough 
to be rubbed fine between the fingers, but they gradually harden 
by being exposed to the atmosphere." Furthermore, the portion 
interior to the outer calcareous envelope is largely, more than 
one-half, carbonate of lime. A little more than one-third is silica, 
with a small per centage of alumina. We have here, then, the 
conditions which produce their hydraulic properties, a fact in it- 
self sufficient, almost, to lead to a belief in their universal 
hardness. 

Another feature of the loess remains to be noticed, which is in 
some particulars its most remarkable characteristic. Reference is 

' American Naturalist, Vol xi, p. 709. 



Viiie Darwin's 
, wonderful volt 
Aughey, Sketcl 



1882.] The Loess of North America. 375 

here made to the almost or quite vertical planes of cleavage. 
Wherever streams, both great and small, have eroded channels 
through the deposit, or when they undermine the resulting cliffs, 
the masses that become detached break off in planes parallel 
to the original cleavage planes. This is especially remarkable 
since the material of the loess is not cohesive, and not at all plas- 
tic, unless thoroughly saturated with water. The use to which 
this feature has been put is well illustrated by the great work of 
Richthofen on China. In our country it is most common to meet 
with bluffs that are more or less rounded, a condition due to the 
action of rains and frosts. 

Microscopical and Chemical Features.— The soil of the loess 
presents an unusually beautiful field when viewed with a good 
working microscope. A number of such examinations were 
made (1) of soil as taken in situ, in which were presented minute 
granules of pure silica of an average diameter of ^ to ^V* of 
an inch ; (2) of soil after treatment with strong nitric acid, when the 
same features were prominent, the silica granules merely appear- 
ing somewhat brighter. None of the olive-green crystalline par- 
ticles, found by Pumpelly in the Chinese loess, were to be found, 
while in our examinations, as in his, there were no remains of 

were devoid of the sharp angles which recently detached particles 
of silicious rocks give. This may, in part at least, be due to the 
action of the acids mentioned above, and in part to attrition 
against one another. They were all irregularly ovoid and some- 
what translucent bodies, but occasionally discolored by some one 
or another of the iron oxides. 

Numerous analyses made by several observers, rate the ap- 
proximate quantity of silica in the loess soil at from seventy- five 
to eighty per cent. Blow-pipe analysis, conducted solely with a 
view to qualitative ends, gave, as constituents of the soil from the 
Missouri river and Des Moines valley deposits, water, phosphorus 

and silica. To present more clearly the nature of the soil, its 
value agriculturally, and as anticipatory of its mode of origin, the 
following table will be found useful and instructive. I give, also, 



376 The Loess of North America. [May, 

amination of the Rhenish loess, to enable ready comparison : 



n if 

1 1 a i 



||1 1' I I 






III 

in 



ij 



1 882.] The Loess of North America. 

The composition of the concretions is essentially the sa 
that of the loess proper, though some of the elements d 
appear therein. After treatment of ioo grains of the ir 
with strong muriatic acid, there remained, after thorough 



ing and drying, thirty-one gra 


ins of insoluble re 


sidue, or nearly 


one-third, which was plainly sil 


ica. Dr. Litton's ; 


malyses of con- 


cretions from the loess of Mis 


souri, the only one 


;s, I believe, on 


record in America, gave him : 







Carbonate of lime 58.33 

Carbonate of magnesia 0.77 

The absence of a greater amount of carbonaceous material in 
the loess soil proper is matter of common remark. It may be 
accounted for, perhaps, by the fact that carbon in the soil tends 
generally to oxidize and disappear, save where there is an accu- 
mulation of water and a cool climate. 1 Its presence in the shape 
of " organic remains " seems to have been noticed, in chemical 
manipulations, only by Aughey and Emery, as noted in the 
table. 

Method of Deposition. — The older geologists, without excep- 
tion, seem to have agreed either upon the fluviatile or lacustrine 
origin of these famous deposits. Nor does this decision appear 
to have been questioned until the publication of Von Richtho- 
fen's China, in which that celebrated geologist elaborated his 
views, based upon extensive and painstaking study of the loess of 
that country. His views are radically distinct from those of his 
predecessors in the same field of investigation. They are based 
upon a study of the Chinese loess extending over a period of five 
or six years, while engaged in certain other investigations under 
the auspices of the Prussian Government. His observations were 
published at length in the work to which allusion has been 
made, in 1877, but not having access to the original containing 
them, I am obliged to formulate a resume of his theory from 
reviews which have appeared in the several scientific journals. 
This is deemed necessary for the reason that though based upon 
the Chinese loess, Richthofen expressly states that in his judg- 
ment the theory of that deposit is applicable to the loess where- 
ever on the globe it may be found. 



3/8 The Loess of North America. [May, 

Richthofen holds 1 that the loess is a subaerial accumulation, 
due to the drifting action of the winds ; to transportation by riv- 
ulets from the hills immediately adjacent to each loess basin ; and 
to the mineral material left over the basin by the growing grasses 
and other plants. The material for wind transportation is gath- 
ered from the circumjacent or even from remote rocks which 
were decomposed or disintegrated by alternate changes in tem- 
perature or humidity. The plants that covered the great plains 
served to stop the wind-drifted particles, and thus kept the accu- 
mulation ever in progress. Observing certain local differences in 
the appearance of the deposits which he studied, he invented the 
distinctions of land-loess and lake-loess. The last named was de- 
signed to account for certain indications of stratification or lamel- 
lation not to be adequately explained by the wind theory.- The 
present system of drainage he accounts for much as do most 
other geologists, the main difference consisting in the assumption 
of great changes of climate causing heavy rains which led to 
floods. The usual indication of changes of level are also 
noticed by him, but they seem to have led to novel inter- 
pretation. Von Richthofen states that he found no evidence 
of a fresh-water fauna in the formations he studied, but land 
forms of molluscous and other animals abounded. In this 
he is directly opposed by the earlier an 
of Pumpelly 3 who distinctly states tha 






large rivers which must have 




and independently of the fac 




On p. 43 he derives the fo 


all the information we posses 






were penned eleven years l,e 



1 882.] The Loess of North America. 379 

forms in the loess regions on the borders of Mongolia. The 
points, however, which are mainly relied on by the Baron, appear 
to be (1) the presence of root-marks occurring throughout the 
formation ; (2) absence of fresh-water or other aquatic life-forms ; 
and (3) absence of stratification. Both the second and third of 
these propositions are met by the repeated statements of numer- 
ous careful observers, who have found aquatic and semi-aquatic 
forms in many localities. The presence of the semi-aquatic 
forms alone — such as Succinea — which are indicative of a moist 
station, effectually negatives the assumption of a " dry, elevated 
area swept by fierce winds." The first proposition has been met 
by the studies of Professor J. E. Todd, 1 who has shown that from 
the law which evidently obtains, that root-marks vary in fre- 
quency inversely as their distance below the present surface, " un- 
usual care is necessary to interpret observations correctly." The 
conclusion reached by that observer is, that when correctly inter- 
preted the distribution of root-marks opposes the sub-aerial hy- 
pothesis. • 

It will have been observed that the original statements and in- 
ferences of Pumpelly and those of Richthofen were distinct and 
opposed. The former recognized the agency of water alone as 
sufficient to explain the phenomena he studied, while the latter 
called to the aid of the winds a lake-basin, which in turn neces- 
sitated his artificial distinctions of lake-loess and land-loess. 
That such a distinction is wholly inapplicable to American de- 
posits — unquestionably true loess — is patent, for the reasons that 
it presents a perfect homogeneity of structure, entire absence of 

structures — and does present at several localities a faintly strati- 
fied appearance. Besides, the climatic conditions required by this 
theory of the Chinese loess, seem to have had no counterpart in 
climatic changes over the areas covered by our loess. 

The argument for the lacustrine origin of the American deposits 
has been in part anticipated in the foregoing. But there should 
be added the facts that here the formation is confined to river 



380 The Loess of North America. [May, 

valleys, and the high lands immediately adjacent ; that of the 
fineness of its material, its composition, its rounded or tritu- 
rated form, the fossils imbedded in it, and the unmistakable action 
of water in assorting ; that of general continental depression syn- 
chronous with its formation ; that of the vast quantity of the ma- 
terial and its deposition alike on hill and in valley. These sev- 
erally and together are fatal to the hypothesis of Von Richtho- 
(cn. 1 It is nevertheless beyond question that the loess, after de- 
position, has been somewhat modified by the action of strong 
winds, but the evidences of such action are purely local. The 
great dust-storms of Western Iowa, extending far beyond the 
central portions of the State, which occurred in the spring of 
1880, will long be remembered in the annals of Iowa. For days 
the air was filled with fine dust, coming from the south-west, the 
locality of the greatest areas of loess and the prevailing quarter 
of the winds. That much of this fine material was carried miles 
further away I have no doubt. The main effect however, of such 
wind storms, would be the denudation of the windward, and the 
deeper covering of the leeward bases and sides of hills. 

Fossils. — The mollusks of the loess belong, with perhaps a 
single exception, to genera which now flourish in regions adjacent 
to the formation. They are Lirnncm, Physa, Planorbis, Segmcntina, 
Pomatiopsis, Valvata, Amnicola, Splncrium, Anodonta, among 
fresh-water forms, and Hyalina, Sienotrema, Heticodiscus, Conidus, 
Strobila, Helicina, Patida, Mcsodon, Vallonia, Macrocyclu, Pupa, 
Succinea, Vertigo, and Cwnella, among the land forms. Unto is 



Th<: 



-tenth the wh 

; ' Report on the Mississippi I< 



loess deposition, the amount of sedime 
is a fact beyond question, the material 
ing of glaciers. These consideration^ 



1 882] Ichthyological Papers. 381 

quoted by Drs. Hayden and Aughey from the loess of Nebraska. 
There are thus, of mollusks, eleven genera attributed to fresh- 
water, against thirteen genera to land forms. The single excep- 
tion to varieties now living, as above noted, is Helicina, the 
species meant, H. occulta Say, being now extinct. 1 It may be 
properly considered the only species characteristic of the loess. 
From the loess of cast Central Iowa, at Iowa City, the chela of a 
Canibarus is reported,'- under circumstances which leave no doubt 
that it is from true loess. 

Of higher animals there have been found, especially in the 
Southern States, remains of Mastodon, Megatherium, Mylodou. 
Megalonyx, Castor, and Fiber, among others. Their remains and the 
relation of the loess to the drift, which, when both are present, it 
always covers, places its epoch at the close of the glacial period. 
(To be continued.) 

ICHTHYOLOGICAL PAPERS BY GEORGE POWERS 
DUNBAR, WITH A SKETCH OF HIS LIFE. 



A STUDY of the fishes of the Southern States is one replete with 
**• many points of interest for the naturalist, and had it not been 
for a series of misfortunes, the credit for the earliest research into 
this field would probably be due to an American student now 
unknown. It is the object of the present article, to give some 
information relating to the life and labors of this meritorious 
naturalist, which are of especial interest, since he was one of the 
first native-born Americans who made an extended study of the 
ichthyology of this region. The absence during his time of any 
periodical devoted to the natural sciences in this country, con- 
tributed much to his disadvantage, and as a consequence the 
technical descriptions were withheld in anticipation of an oppor- 
tunity to publish. This unfortunate circumstance is one of the 
causes of his obscurity, and is in part answerable for the loss of 
his many excellent observations in this branch. 

George Powers Dunbar was born in Baltimore, February nth, 

1812. Nothing of unusual interest was noticeable in his early 
childhood, except an innate love for a study of natural history, on 



382 Ichthyological Papers. [May, 

account of which his parents were doubtful of his future success 
in life. He entered St. Mary's .College, Maryland, at an early 
age, and graduated from it with high honors in his eighteenth 
year. The unfavorable outlook that science then presented for a 
livelihood, induced him to look elsewhere for means of support. 
Civil engineering was the profession that he chose, and the one 
that he practiced until his death. Having completed his studies 
in this branch, he was engaged on a survey of the Baltimore and 
Ohio, and the Portsmouth and Roanoke railroads from 1829 to 
1835, a station on the former line still bears his name. In the 
early part of 1835, he removed to New Orleans, where he was 
employed on the Nashville railroad under Major Ranney. He 
was appointed Engineer of Public Works of the State in 1837, 
which office he held until 1842, when he was elected surveyor of 
the second municipality. This last office he retained with the ex- 
ception of a few months till the time of his death, which occurred 
on December 29, 1850, at the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos river, 
Mexico. Although in feeble health, Mr. Dunbar had accepted a 
position with a corps of engineers, to survey the route for the Te- 
hauntepec railroad, where his health gave way entirely, and he 
died on shipboard while en route to his home in New Orleans. 

At the early age of nine, he began collecting and arranging in 
systematic order entomological specimens. In the course of a few- 
years his collections on this subject amounted to several thousand 
specimens, which he afterwards presented to Dr. Luzenburg, of 
New Orleans. The collection was afterward destroyed for want 
of proper care. He was likewise familiar with the Flora of the 
South, and contributed something on the " Flora of the Dismal 
Swamp." Shortly after leaving college, he began a careful study 
of the classification, structure and habits of the fishes of the South- 
ern States, which he continued with great zeal up to the time of 
his death. All the time that could be spared from his professional 
duties was given to the pursuit of his favorite study, and he had 
prepared nearly all the plates and texts for an extensive volume 
which he was intending soon to publish. The volume was to con- 
tain descriptions of over one hundred fishes, and was to be pro- 
fusely illustrated by drawings from life made by himself. His 
last observations on some of the fishes of the Mexican coast, made 
a short time previous to his decease, are still in existence and were 
probably the last that he intended to make before publishing his 
work. In connection with his sad and untimely death we are 



1 882. j Ichthyological Papers. 383 

called upon to chronicle another most lamentable fact, the utter 
destruction of his manuscript by fire at Riesterstown, Maryland, 
a few years afterwards. His friends intended to publish his work, 
but deferred publication in the hope that his son would take up 
the subject and finish what his father had so nobly begun. The 
son, however, had no inclination for such study, and the publica- 
tion was too long delayed. The notes above referred to, a small 
field book containing drawings and descriptions of twenty species 
of fishes, together with some popular descriptions that were pub- 
lished in various newspapers, are all that remain of his labors in 
this field. These are the property of his eldest daughter, wife of 
Dr. W. H. Corbusier, Asst. Surg. U. S. A. Although the subject 
has been carefully developed by subsequent students, yet our re- 
spectful esteem is due to the merits of this pioneer naturalist, 
whom misfortune has cast into the shadow of obscurity. It is un- 
fortunate in the extreme that death should have cut short his 
career, and the result of his close and careful observations should 
have been swept away at a flash. That he possessed true merits 
is observable by a glance at his remaining notes, which likewise 
serve to indicate the excellence of his intended publication. 

I give some extracts from his MSS. which will prove interest- 
ing and novel even to ichthyologists. 

/. The Alligator Gar ( Lilholepis spatula Lac. /or.)— But kw of 
my readers except those who have resided in the South, have an 
idea of the alligator gar, and for their benefit I will describe this 
, river robber. The body is cylindrical and elongated, and complete- 
ly enveloped in a strong coat of mail, formed by strongly toothed 
quadrangular plates lapping over each other, and held by an ex- 
ceedingly thick- and tough skin. The head is elongated, with a 
flattened obtuse snout, something similar to that of a pike, and 
armed with several rows of strong pointed and trenchant teeth, 
the outer row being much larger than the inner ones. The bones 
< >f the head are naked, and form a series of stout plates. So hard 
is the armor with which this fish is enveloped, that no arm, how- 
ever strong, can penetrate his back with an axe, and it is only by 
cutting him in his throat or by a blow on the back of the head 
that he can be killed. They grow to an immense size, being 
often seen in the waters of the Mississippi twelve or fourteen feet 
long, and sometimes reaching a weight of several hundred pounds. 
He is possessed of prodigious strength, and sets at defiance the 



384 Ichthyolcgical Papers. [ M ay , 

efforts of the uninitiated angler, swallowing his hooks by the 
handful and parting his tackle as if it were pack thread. 

This remarkable fish is familiar to almost every resident in the 
South, and yet but little is known generally of its habits and his- 
tory. His terrific jaws, his flinty scales, and the extreme diffi- 
culty of hooking him, the ease with which he destroys the 
ordinary tackle used by the angler, added to his worthlessness 
for the table, render him an object of terror to the fisherman, 
which added to his fierce and repulsive appearance, is sure to ob- 
tain for him, should he by any means fall into his hands, such 
treatment as liis namesake, the alligator, might expect from the 
huntsman whose dog had been devoured by the monster. 

Possessed of an exceedingly ravenous appetite, he snaps at and 
devours every thing which comes in Ins reach, and yet there are 
times when the most dainty morsel will scarcely tempt him. 
Early in the morning the water is continually broken by him as 
he rises to seize the floating insects, or small fish swimming upon 
the surface ; but, as the sun ascends, if on the feed, he takes to the 
deeper water, slowing moving along in search of his prey, and 
occasionally rising and rolling on the surface in sport. Tired of 
the chase, he may be seen basking his huge and motionless form 
in some sunny nook, the shoals of mullet frisking and frollick- 
ing around him unheeded. Rapid, current or pool, the clear 
running spring stream, the sluggish bayou, the pond, or the salt 
creek, all are familiar to him, but he particularly affects the deep 

clear and dashing current. Stand on the little bar formed by the 
junction of the last mentioned, and you may see him pass and 
repass, plunging into the current after a small fish, diving under 
the rooty bank, and rolling in fun on the top of the dark bayou, 
and snapping his jaws together, as if the livelong day were only 
created for him to rollick in. The ringing steel launched from 
the sturdy arm of the fisherman glances harmlessly from his more 
than steel-clad body, the river robber rolls his huge form through 
the deep river, now rising like a porpoise, and now with noise- 
less movement of a cat swimming slowly to the shallows, 
stealing along through the bright green leaves of the beautiful 
nelumbium to surprise the sunny perch or sleeping pike, or 
suddenly attracted by a passing shoal of sardine or mullet, he 
dashes like light to their center, his capacious and horrid jaws 



1 8 8 2 .] Ichthyologir.al Papers. 385 

wide open and his sinewy tail dealing death on every side. The 
wary bass retires to his shady nook, and the little patasa dive 
deeper into their rooty recesses at his approach, and woe betide 
the unlucky wight who trails his well filled string of bass at the 
stern of his pirogue ; the river robber is sure to attempt a rescue, 
and well will it be for the angler, as seizure once made, if he have 
a single fish left, of his morning's sport. 

During the months of December and January the fish seek the 
heads of the still and almost stagnant bayous or the deep caves 
of the sluggish rivers to deposit their spawn. The eggs are held 
suspended in a thick gelatinous transparent substance, forming 
long ropes several inches in diameter, which are hung on old 
snags, roots or branches of trees that have fallen into the water. 
The spawn has much the appearance of that of the frog, with 
the exception of the circular form it assumes, and the size of the 
eggs, which are about as large as No. 4 shot, and of a dark pur- 
ple color. The young come forth during the spring, and tiny 
little rascals they are, but they grow with astonishing rapidity, 
and by the latter part of August are some fourteen inches in 
length and weigh several ounces ; in one year they reach a weight 
of from nine to twelve pounds, and go on increasing to several 
hundreds. Large numbers of these fry are destroyed by other 
fish, and well that it is so, otherwise no fish could live in any of 
the rivers for them, the ovaries of a large fish containing several 
hundred thousand eggs. 

Well skilled are ye, my piscatory brethren of the North, in the 
art of killing trout and salmon, rock and pickerel, and truly you 
have beautiful customers to deal with, but I would put you with 
your Conroy's and your plaited silk, at a sixty pound Poipon 
D'Armee, and in an hour you would be hookless, Iineless and 
rodless, and only have for satisfaction that you had seen the lazy 
hulk roll his huge form in sport over the surface. Few of you 
would come off victorious in your first day, but when you be- 
came acquainted with your customer, and learned the necessary 
f'Sg'ng, then would the armed monster repent of his appetite for 
mullet or sardine. 

Although I have taken many small gar, from twenty to thirty 
Pounds, with a light fly rod and a single gut, yet I never fish for 
them with such tackle, for where you succeed in striking one in 
a tender place and beyond the reach of his tremendous jaws, you 



386 Ichthyological Papers. [May, 

will break your gut a hundred times. No ! I go upon the safe, 
the sure principle of saving my fish, and I use tackle accordingly. 
My ash and hickory (I cannot yet boast a Conroy, but I will 
soon) are laid aside, and a three-joint cane, with a stout tip sub- 
stituted in their place ; instead of rings my line passes through 
small beckets on top #/"the rod and over a roller at the tip. My 
line is generally manilla or sea grass of fine size. I prefer it as 
such a large quantity can be placed upon the reel. But the main 
point is the arrangement of the hooks, which is as follows : A 
brass or copper wire about four inches long with an eye at one 
end holds the bait hook. The line is made fast to a double wire 
passing through this eye and bent outwards, with two stout sharp 
hooks to each end with their points inwards, so that the fish when 
he takes the bait must have his throat directly above them. 
When the bait is taken, a strong strike is made and the conse- 
quence is that the gentleman has the hooks driven deep into either 
side of his throat. 

The bait is overboard and every one waiting anxiously to see 
the " gar killer " strike his fish. The blue float slowly moves off 
and gradually sinks ; he's there. Quietly the line is paid from 
the reel until he has gone some thirty feet. The hooks are 
driven home, the cane bends to the pressure but the line does not 
move. " You're fast to a log," cries one who never saw a gar. 
The line is slacked— another strike ; another— he feels the steel 
and off he goes. Now for it! Full swell does the gar killer 
know the exact pressure which his tackle will bear, and as well 
does he know that he can conquer only by making his prey fight 
and struggle for every inch of line. He whips him to his work, 
and now the robber has thrown off all his lethargy and tries 
every art, lays out all his strength to rid himself of the toils- 
beware his rush, for salmon or rock never came near it. Whiz 
goes the reel; twenty yards are gone, and you have him. Now 
comes the struggle and the angler is victorious, his head is turned, 
and rapidly comes the line to the reel. Half an hour is gone and 
yet his form has not been seen. Do you see the line slowly as- 
cending? Watch him well, 'tis his last attempt— defeat him and 
he is safe. Slowly the white line leaves the water. Now faster 
the spray is thrown far and wide, and high in the air leaps the 
victim, hoping by his huge weight to break the tackle. Down 
goes the tip, the line is slack as he leaves the water, and his last 



i882.] Ichthyological Papers. 387 

attempt is abortive. Weaker and weaker are his struggles; he 
rolls and tumbles in the water as he is slowly drawn up; the gaff 
is in his gills; one haul, and he's beached. 

II. The Grande Ecaille ( Megalops thrissoidcs Bl).— In shape the 
head of the grand ecaille is similar to the shad, but his mouth is 
much larger in proportion to the size of the fish, and his body is cov- 
ered with large splendid silver scales, fitting like plated armor; those 
of a fish five feet long being about two inches in diameter, and show- 
ing at each intersection about a quarter moon. His tail is large, 
broad and stout, and he sometimes grows to a length of eight 
and a-half or nine feet, but generally runs from three to seven. 
I record the killing a grand ecaille with a rod and reel as the 
greatest piscatorial feat I ever performed, which is saying a good 
deal after successfully playing and killing two fish, each over 
twenty-five pounds, with two rods and reels at the same time. I 
could never have killed the grand ecaille, however, with the 
tackle I used, had I not been in a pirogue with a sure and steady 
arm at the paddle, which gave me the advantage of running on 

In point of beauty, activity and strength, the grand ecaille is 
excelled by none of the finny tribe which have come under my 
observation. He belongs to the same family with the shad, her- 
ring, etc., and is the king of his tribe. He scorns the seine, and 
generally puts at defiance the efforts of the angler. Calmly he 
swims around the netted prison, seeking quietly to escape from 
the toils, but finds no outlet, with a quiet turn of the tail he goes 
slowly back to the center of the net — swiftly flies the foam from 
his vigorous tail ; with one long sweeping, graceful bound, high 
above the floating corks he passes, and plunges with the grace 
and ease of an accomplished diver, head foremost into the green 
wave beyond ; or if by chance he becomes entangled in the bag. 
he gathers his immense strength together, and like the tiger 
springing on his prey, he rushes at the end of the bag, the corks 
quiver for a second, and the next instant sees the silvery meteor 
passing like a ray of light through the atmosphere, he quivers 
his broad forked tail in triumph, and laughing at the weak net, 
goes on his way rejoicing. See him struck by the hand line of 
the sturdy coastman ; every inch of line is given to him and the 
fisherman braces himself for the null : well for him that his hands 



388 Lhthyological Papers. [May, 

leaves the water and springs some ten feet into the air, shaking 
himself violently with the hope of casting off the hook, which 
he will do unless it is firmly fixed deep in his mouth, or tear off 
his jaw in the attempt. Another leap, another and another, with 
all the frenzy of the wild horse when he first feels the lasso, he 
springs through the air and dashes through the water; for a time 
there appears to be no diminution of his immense strength, but 
you may notice that after a while the long curve he at first de- 
scribed in the air becomes broken, shorter grow the graceful 
leaps, and finally change into a violent jerking summersault — 
then all is calm. The fisherman pulls on the line ; one last 
glorious effort of those splendid powers is made — right in a line 
with and towards the fisherman; the grande ecaille takes his last 
leap, and falls helpless into the sea. Now a child can take him 
without resistance— no struggling, a dead weight upon the line, he 
is hauled upon the beach. He flounces not, his fins are laid to 
his body, his gill covers do not move, he is dead ! And not 
until death came upon him did the mighty and beautiful creature 
surrender himself to the superior robber. 

I have often seen a school of red fish knocking the mullet into 
the air. I have seen troops of flying fish retreating from the 
lovely dolphin, I have heard for miles the roar of an immense 
company of mullet flying in short, regular leaps before a herd of 
porpoises, or a family of sharks, by whose giant forms I have 
seen the sea beaten into bubbles, as they lashed and struck among 
the frightened mullet, from my boyhood up. I have seen man 
prey upon his fellow-man, but never has it fallen to my lot to wit- 
ness so magnificent a sight of the strong preying upon the weak as 
that presented by the grand ecailles. The yellow rays of the set- 
ting sun would glance upon the silver armor of a thousand forms 
leaping in every possible direction, crossing and recrossing, yet 
never striking, the air was filled with the small sardine thrown from 
their native element to be devoured as they touched the water, 
the green gulf was lashed into a sea of foam, and the bright rain- 
bows were everywhere visible in the scene. We passed through 
them many times, hoping that one might leap into the boat, caught 
them by the tails as they swam slowly by, and cursed our lot 
that we had brought no harpoon. It was a brilliant sight— one 
which in all probability had not been seen on so grand a scale be- 



fore, as they rarely run more than thn 
which it may be my lot never to witn 



■ and one 



[882.] Problems for Zoologists. 389 

PROBLEMS FOR ZOOLOGISTS. 

BY J. S. KINGSLEY. 

1WTR. S. II. Scuclder in his address before the Entomological 
A" Section at the Boston meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, presented some of the problems 
which the entomologist has yet to solve, and acting upon the hint 
which his article affords, I would here state some of the questions 
in other departments of zoology which arc as yet unanswered. 
Throughout our land there are several hundred people who are 
greatly interested in zoology, but the greater portion of them 
through lack of guidance and through misdirected efforts, add 
nothing to the stock of scientific knowledge which the world pos- 
sesses. On the shoulders of a few falls all of the original investi- 
gation done in America to-day. It is to that larger class who are 
willing to work, but who do not know how to work, or what to 
work upon, that this article is addressed. Some of the problems 
are simple, needing only a slight amount of experience, and a 
moderate amount of skill, while others require for their elucida- 
tion the trained investigator. To state all the problems requiring 
solution, would take more space than is contained in a volume of 
this magazine ; a few only, therefore, are presented. 

Hermann Fol has recently described the effects produced upon 
the eggs of star-fishes when two or more spermatozoa enter it at 
the same time. An abnormal segmentation ensues, proceeding 
from two or more centers, and resulting in a compound gastrula. 
This would suggest a possible explanation of the cause of double 
monsters, and assign an answer for a much vexed question in tera- 
tology. A single fact is but a slender foundation for generaliza- 
tions of this character, and hence observations are needed to 
ascertain whether in other groups a multiple impregnation pro- 
duces a compound gastrula, and if so, what the gastrula in turn 
produces. 

The eggs of a few animals have been studied while becoming 
mature, and when the impregnation was taking place, and with 
wonderful results. Yet but a very few forms have thus been 
studied, and detailed accounts of the phenomena of the matura- 

The eggs of the larger proportion of the animal kingdom in be- 
coming mature form what are known as polar globules. With 
the possible exception noted by Grobben, these polar globules 



390 Problems /of Zcokgisis. [May, 

have not been found in the eggs of insects and Crustacea, but our 
information on this point is still of a negative character, and new 
and careful investigation may conclusively show that the Arthro- 
poda in this respect do not form an exception to the rule that the 
extrusion of polar globules is one of the features of the matura- 
tion of the eggs of all animals. 

Grobben when studying the development of a small fresh-water 
crustacean (Moina), found that certain cells, which eventually 
formed the genital organs, were differentiated at nearly the same 
time as the epiblast and hypoblast. Metchnikow has also found 
in an insect that the reproductive organs were very early de- 
veloped. When we consider that the chief end and purpose of 
every animal is the reproduction of its kind, this early appearance 
of the genital organs is what should be expected, but as yet, so 
far as I am aware, these two observations stand alone. Here is 
possibly a fruitful field for some ardent student. 

In the waters of the whole eastern United States (with the ex- 
ception of New England), and the Mississippi basin, are to be 
found representatives of a family of Mollusca peculiar to the 
American continent, the Strepomatidse (Melanians). Of this 
family numerous genera and many hundred nominal species have 
been described, but as yet we know nothing of their embryology 
and but little of their anatomy. With the exception of a paper on 
the structure of two genera by the late Dr. Stimpson, a few short 
notes is the sum total of our knowledge of true " soft parts." We 
cordially commend the investigation of the " Melanians " to the 
naturalists of the Mississippi basin. 

The fauna of the United States is exceedingly rich in Urodelous 
Batrachia, and a fine field is open for a comparative study of their 
visceral anatomy and their myology. Their osteology, however, 
has been pretty carefully studied, though the results are not yet 
published in full. European embryologists have confined their 
studies of the development of the Batrachia to the tailless forms, 
while Dr. Clark is the only American who has contributed any- 
thing of any extent to our knowledge of the life history of the 
salamander, 1 and his observations are principally on the external 

The calf fish ( Amia) of the Western rivers is a representative of 

i The observations of Scott and Osborn should not be overlooked, though pub- 
lished in England. 



1 8 8 2 .] Recent Literature. 3 9 1 

a group of fishes of whose development almost nothing is known, 
and a detailed account of its embryology would have an interest 
and importance only excelled among the vertebrates by that of 
Ceratodus. The gar pike's development has only been studied by 
Mr. Agassiz, and his observations are very incomplete, though 
very important. A study of the development of any of the Amiu- 
ridce (cat fish and horned pouts) would be very interesting and in- 
structive, and would amply repay the person who will undertake 
it, while the man who investigates the method of growth of Myx- 
itte, so common at Eastport, will have an entirely unexplored field 
to himself. 

The problems which we have stated are almost entirely em- 
bryological, and it is in this line of development that the most 
important results are to be reached. A future article will present 
more of the anatomical side. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

The Zoological Record for 1880. 1 — This volume, the seven- 
teenth of the series, has appeared with commendable promptness, 
and Mr. Rye, the editor, assures us that this rate of issue will 
henceforth be maintained. The recorders of the different depart- 
ments are nearly the same as in the preceding volume. 

It appears that the number of new genera and sub-genera con- 
tained in the present volume is 1008, as against 976 of Vol. XVI 
(which contained sixty new genera of Arachnida, properly be- 
longing to Vol. xv, from which that group had been omitted). 
These are divided as follows: Mammalia, 34; Aves, 16; Reptilia, 
216; Pisces, 31; Mollusca and Molluscoida, 79; Crustacea, 80; 
Arachnida, 78 ; Myriopoda, 2; Insecta, 438 ; Vermes, 28 ; Echin- 
odermata, 24; Coelenterata, 70 ; Spongida, 51 ; and Protozoa, 56. 

The number of pages is about the same as in the preceding 
volume. On p. 3, Myriopoda, we notice an important error. Mr. 
Ryder's order Symphyla is spelled Symp/w/a,the name not being 
repeated in the note under the heading thus misspelled. 

This record is of the greatest service to the systematic zoolo- 
gist, and to none more than those who are unfortunate enough not 
Hence the American zoolo- 
» other works. 
of Borneo. 2 — In Vol. xvi of the Annals of 
of Natural History, D. Vinciguerra com- 



392 Recent Literature. [May, 

mences the publication of the results of the examination of a rich 
collection of fishes made by the Marquis Giacomo Doria and Dr. 
Odoardo Beccari during their residence at Sarawak. 

Eighteen species of Siluroids, two of them new to science, and 
two others not before known to occur in Borneo are described ; 
raising, with six species enumerated by E. Von Martens in the 
Zoology of the Prussian Expedition to Eastern Asia, the total 
number of known Bornean siluroids to fifty-eight. 

The writer remarks that he finds many new species in this col- 
lection, and that this may be expected from the fact that, except 
Bleeker, few naturalists have collected the fishes of the island. 

H. Schlegel, S. Miiller, and J. Richardson had noted only ten 
Bornean species before the time of Bleeker, who, examining the 
collections made by Dutch government officials, raised the num- 
ber to three hundred and forty, all of which were from few locali- 

Since that date the only additions to our ichthyological knowl- 
edge of Borneo have been the description by Dr. A. Giinther of 
two species of Gobiidae, which formed part of the Doria collec- 
tion, and the chapter by Martens on ninety-four species of fresh- 
water fishes from the rivers Kapuas and Sambas. 

Mark's Maturation, Fecundation and Segmentation of 
Limax. 1 — This work is very timely, and is valuable, both from the 
original facts it contains regarding the intricate subject of the 
preparation of the egg of the slug for fertilization, as well as the 
latter process, and the mode of segmentation, which is of great 
value from the detailed exposition for the English- reading student 
of a department of embryology which has been mapped out 
mainly by German embryologists. 

The author first gives us his own original observations, illus- 
trated by five excellent double plates, and then presents us with a 
lengthy discussion* and review of all the papers and works which 
have been published on the earliest phases of embryonic develop- 
ment above enumerated. 

In the third part, Dr. Mark presents theoretical considerations 
and general conclusions regarding the promorphology of the 
ovum, polar phenomena, asters, spiral asters, the nuclear spindle, 
origin of nuclei, the germinative vesicle and polar globules. The 
appearance of such a profound, critical summary of what is known 
on these points, should give a stimulus to those studies in this 
country. The treatment of the subject by the author is clear, 
candid, and the matter well digested and elaborated. 

Gentry's Nests and Eggs. 2 — It is hard to say whether we look 
upon these beautiful colored lithographs, representing the nests 

1 Bulletin of the. Mu ■<: f Comhtrat ,/,. t \ v ,U ll.irvnrd Coll <y, Vol VI, N<>. 
E. L M\Rk. ( mil.-, L"', i i, ■ . isM."" ,Sv.., | 17; "-^ > ; '«-'-• 



and eggs of birds, or upon similar representations of the birds in 
other works of the kind, with the most pleasure. Illustrations of 
the nests and eggs, however, are more rare and proportionally 
more interesting. 

We have now in the twenty-one parts already issued, represen- 
tations of the nests and eggs of the cedar bird, the wood pewee, 
the cat bird, the orchard oriole, the kingbird, the red-wing black- 
bird, the humming-bird and towhee bunting, or chewink.alsoof the 
screech owl, the wild turkey, the tit, the auk, the killdeer plover, 
the chimney bird, the crow blackbird and many others. In the 
plate containing the humming-bird's nest and eggs, the male and 
female birds are also represented, forming a very beautiful pic- 
ture. The nest is made " of vegetable wool from the poplar and 
oak, and is lined with a few small white feathers. Externally there 
is a dense covering of bluish crustaceous lichens and brownish 
oak tassels, which are held in position by saliva and strands of 
spider's silk. It was placed upon a branch of the beech tree, at 
an elevation of twenty feet from the ground. In height it mea- 
sures one and three-fourth inches, in external diameter one and a 
half. The width of the cavity is three-fourths of an inch, and 
the depth about one-half." 

The nest of the towhee bunting, or chevvink, is described by 
Mr. Gentry as always placed upon the ground, usually half cov- 
ered and concealed by long grasses that surround it. The author 
says, " When placed within a thicket, or on the borders of it, the 
nest is either built in a depression of the ground, usually beneath 
a bunch of grass, in a pile of old brush or faggots, or on a slight 
prominence surrounded by tall, graceful ferns." 

The figures of the crow blackbird, Maryland yellow-throat, the 
killdeer and the red-throated loon, are especially good. This 
excellence is partly due to the skill of the able zoological artist 
Edwin Sheppard. 

We take this opportunity to recommend this elegant work 
for every library. 



394 General Notes. [May, 

The Domain of Physiology, or Nature in thought and language. By T. Sterry 
Hunt, LL.D. 8vo, pp. 27. Boston, 1882. From the author. 

A Revision of the Cis-Mississippi Tertiary Pectens of the United States, pp. 16. 
Remarks on the Moduscan . dia and Pecehiolia, pp. 12. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington, 1S82. 



!v lam D.Dana Ss , . S > x ,i m:1 , C u Extract from the American 

ournal of Science. New Haven, 1881. From the author. 

on E. v. Mojsisovics und M. Ncumavr. Vol.1, Part I and 11, 4 to, pp. 70, 13 
lates. Wien, Jan., 1882. From the publishers. 
Die Stegocephalen aus den Rothliegenden des Plauerschen Grundes bei Dresden. 



esden, 1882. Dresder 



dem Kalke des Rothliegenden von Niedei 
)resden. Dr. II. B. Geinitz und Dr. J. Deic 



rg. 8vo, pp, 16, plate. Hamburg, 1882. From the author. 

n- de I/IIistorie D'une Beleie ou La Catologie il y Cincpiante ans. 

tonce a la Seance publique de la Classe des Sciences. Par M.P.-J. 

8vo, pp. 34, plate. Brussels, 1882. From the author. 
< M :ml>. s de 1 1 S )C iete Geologique de France, an ire Fevrier, 1882. 

•.-<o. Transactions Xo. 1, 8vo, pp. 64.] 
Transactions No. 2. 8vo, pp. 44, plate, with the address of Pre. 



GENERAL NOTES. 

BOTANY. 1 

The Study of Lichens in North America.— The interesting 
plants which botanists term lichens, but which the non-botanical 
are wont to call " mosses " or " tree mosses," those greenish-gray 
or grayish-green, sometimes blackish or brownish, growths on 
bark, boards, rails and rocks are likely to acquire a new interest, 
and to be much more studied than they have been heretofore. 
•Edited by Prof. C. E. Bessey, Ames, Iowa. 



1882.] Botany. 395 

As microscopes become cheaper and less cumbersome, and as in- 
formation as to the general structure of lichens becomes more 
available, many students will turn their attention to these curious 
products of the vegetable kingdom. Indeed, few of the thallo- 
phytes recommend themselves in as many ways to the laboratory 
worker as do the lichens. Their curious dual structure, their 
colorless filaments (hyphas), contrasting strongly with the round- 
ish green cells (gonidia). will alone furnish material for much 
close observation, and if the student permits himself to inquire as 
to the theories of Schwendener, and Minks, he need have no fears 
of speedily exhausting the study. Then, too, the various forms 
of fruiting, the differences in the spores and spore-sacs (asci) with 
the development of the latter may well claim the prolonged at- 
tention of the student. 

As a most important aid to the study of the lichens we have 
now the first part of the long promised " Synopsis of the North 
American Lichens," 1 from the hand of Professor Edward Tucker- 
man, than whom no one is better able to write upon this subject. 
Long ago (in 1848), Professor Tuckerman gave us a little book, 
now rare, " A Synopsis of the Lichenes of New England, the 
other Northern States, and British America," and in 1872 his 
"Genera Lichenum; an Arrangement of the North American 
Lichens." We now have Part 1 of what will doubtless be for 
many years the standard manual of our lichens. The work being 
the result of the author's life-long studies, we may reasonably look 
for much of stability in the arrangement, and in the limits he has 
assigned to species, genera, and other groupings. Indeed, we 
notice but few changes in comparing this work with " Genera 
Lichenum," and these are all of minor importance. 

The method of the book leaves nothing to be desired, the spe- 
cific descriptions being full, and very carefully written. The separa- 
tion of the species into tribes or sub-genera is equally well done, 
and the student must be dull indeed who cannot readily follow 
the author. The key to the arrangement, which precedes the de- 
scriptive portion, includes all the genera of North American 
hchens, seventy-two in number, while this part of the work treats 
of but forty-three of these. 

It may be interesting to note what the author has to say upon 
several questions which have been under discussion in botany. 
As to their relationship we find (p. v), " The lowest divisions of 
vegetable life may still be recognized as Algae, Lichenes, and 
Fungi ; and conveniently associated together under the designa- 
tion of Thallophytes ; * * * * and there is no doubt, not- 
withstanding the' numerous and now startling discrepancies of 
these vast groups, that they stand in close natural relations to 

Oadooiei, ind ■ \ . author ol Genera Lich- 

enum. rj t>stlJ11 . s _ K _ Cassino, Publisher. 1 882. 



396 General Notes. [May, 

each other. Lichenes are reckoned as intermediate between the 
other two classes of Thallophytes ; but all the limits are uncer- 
tain." As to the now famous question regarding the autono- 
my of lichens, after describing hyphae and gonidia, we find (p. 
vi.) " But we are not quite at liberty to stop here. The marked 
contrast of hypha and gomdium was open to a hypothetical ex- 
planation, based on the apparent relations of these organs to what 
seemed the same in other classes of Thallophytes, which suggested 
and had its exemplification in the memorable labor of Schwen- 
dener. This was met, however, by lichenologists in a manner 
and tone often ill enough corresponding with the simply objective 
position of the other side ; and there was room for further inves- 
tigation. Ideally, from the point of view of those who look at 
lichens as autonomous, the primordial cell should be referable 
either to hypha or gonidium ; but, in fact, as well emphasized by 
Minks, it is its dualism which, from the beginning of our knowl- 
edge, and through all its extent, characterizes the lichen struc- 
ture, and determines its historv. Yet this is not all. The pene- 
trating glance of the cited vegetable anatomist has demonstrated 
the existence of a third element. Behind and before the manifes- 
tation of the hyphae, which are to play so great a part in the 
lichen world, is a dimly seen, primordial tissue, a web or net-work 
of exceedingly delicate filaments (Hyphema Minks), which grad- 
ually pass into the hyphae proper, as these accomplish their high- 
est result in generating the gonimous cells." 

On the terms Annual and Biennial. — There is certainly much 
ambiguity in the terms annual and biennial. Those plants which 
germinate in the spring and die in the autumn are not 
very different from those which vegetate in the summer or au- 
tumn, and flower and die in the succeeding spring or summer ; 
nor indeed can I see much between them and plants like Agave, 
which live in a barren state for many years, and then flower once 
and die. It seems to be only a question' of the time required to 
concentrate the requisite energy to produce flowers and fruit. 
True annual plants may be divided into winter annuals and sum- 
mer annuals. The former usually store up nutritive matter in the 
autumn to supply the flowering state in the spring; differing in 
this from summer annuals. But this is not constantly the case. 
The Agave is many years doing this. Although this plant flow- 
ers only once, we of course ought to have a term to distinguish 
it from the annuals. There are also the plants which produce 
stoles rooting at the end, such as the sympodes of Fragaria ; in 
that case the plants are truly perennial. But see such plants as 
Epilobium, where the buds at the end of stoles alone remain 
alive during the winter, and produce the plants of the succeeding 
year : what are we to call these ? We usually denominate them 
perennial. Then how separate them from those which are not 
aerial, but go through the same course ? Then come such plants 



1882.] Botany. 397 

as Orchis, where a new tuber is formed by the side of the old one 

at some considerable distance, as in Herminium; and the tuber 
which has flowered dies. The tuber is therefore a winter annual. 
Of course all these ought not to be confounded with the true 
perennials, where the same root lives and flowers at least several 
years in succession. DeCandolle's terms mono- and poly-carpic 
will not do, for they convey another idea. Mono- and poty-tecous, 
as suggested by A. Gray, are better, but here we do not distinguish 
between Agave and Brassica. And he has not attempted to dis- 
tinguish these from Orchis (except by calling the latter perennial, 
as we all do), or Orchis from Fragaria.— C. C. Babbington in 
Jour, of Botany. 

A Botanist's Trip to " The Aroostook." No. 2. — On June 
6th. '81, my Western friend and I left Orono (Penobscot county) 
for Northern Maine, by way of the railroad as far as Mattawam- 
keag, where we passed a day pleasantly in following the banks of 
the river for flowers. On the stream of the same name I saw 
for the first time Alnus viridis, which afterwards became a daily 
occurrence; also Cratagns coccinca, with three of its forms ; pyri- 
folia and mollis being quite abundant, as I found in September, 
when the fruit had matured. We traveled by stage to Patten 
(still Penobscot county), a distance of 38 miles through a most 
delightful country, but saw no new weeds by the roadside. At 
this place I procured seven of the plants, which were gathered on 
the Aroostook river the previous year in fruit. Perh.ips this 
locality may be called the boundary line of some of these plants, as 
they do not grow either at Orono or Mattawamkeag (in writing 
this article I shall only speak of what I saw), but at Patten they 
were abundant. One morning we came across a large number ot 
Cypripediums, among which was a purple acaulc with two perfect 
flowers growing back to back. The greater part of them were 
pure white with yellow-green sepals and petals. After a week 
spent there, taking with us 16 new sketches and a large package 
of pressed plants, we staged it to Ashland, a ride of 48 miles. 
The beauty of the country beggars description. For a distance 
of 12 miles we were in full view of Mounts Ktaadn, Double and 
Round Top. A good-natured driver told us the names of all the 
hills, streams and ponds. It may seem strange to the reader that 
we discovered no new plants in this long ride, but the only nov- 
elty spied was a rose-pink / / ',• / //// <u lantanoid, s. - Inn 'am hu r C an- 
adensis vars. rotundifolia and oligocarpa were abundant but not 
new, neither were any of the shrubs. Taxus baccata var. ( 'amraSnsts 
is quite common, but straggling and partially dead. Acer Bcnnsyl- 
vanicum and spicatum is the prevailing underbrush in many of the 
forests. But for our own voices the stillness would have been 
oppressive; for a distance of many miles that day we did not find 
an opening. The mail agent said that between us and Canada on 



393 General Notes. [May, 

one side there was probably no house to be found. In one planta- 
tion through which we passed there were but two families living. 
There were but few houses along the road, yet one might almost 
believe that a village would spring up some time in this untrodden 
wilderness, whose tangled undergrowth makes it almost impene- 
trable. The forests often look black with the Abies nigra (" Black 
growth ") and the dead trees are oftentimes covered with long 
green moss. We passed several cabins which are occupied by 
the lumbermen during the winter months. Ashland is a small, 
" finished " village, situated on the Aroostook river. The people 
whom we met there are hospitable and refined. I added Arabis 
perfoliata, A' to my list; also learned 

through Mrs. G. D. thai rows on their farm, but 

I was too late to procure it. This immediate region is said to be 
rich in minerals. After another week profitably spent, we took 
passage for Fort Kent, 48 miles due north, by a corduroy road. 
The first day we passed at Portage Lake, a famous resort of fish- 
ermen. We gathered some Potamogetons of great size, but they 
were not in flower, and the day was productive of pleasure alone. 
For miles the forests were burned and still smouldering, the work 
of careless gunners, it is supposed. A dismal swamp, indeed ! 
The two fire- weeds, Eree hthitt ;> hierarifolia and Epilobium angusti- 
folinm, are found here as elsewhere on burnt ground, although I 
have been told that the first named had never been found in the 
county ; but it is quite abundant on the line of the railroad. The 
country is decidedly mountainous ; the one, two and three mile 
hills would have been decidedly monotonous but for the lovely 
foliage and the frolicking brooks. In many places the road was 
" repaired," and the ditches at the sides were frightful for hyper- 
sensitive nerves to contemplate. Eagle lake was the great fea- 
ture of the ride, it lays along the route for a distance of 5 % 
miles. No part of the journey furnished excitement until the 
driver took his pistol out to load it, saying that he should have 
done so before starting ; that he had been fired upon twice in two 
years, and might need to use it before reaching Fort Kent. He 
also stated that a peddler who had left this place by that road was 
never heard from and that his bones were probably bleaching in 
the woods somewhere. Although we were on the qui vive all the 
afternoon, we only saw the enemy, for whom he had prepared, 
quietly standing in their doorways looking as demure as possible. 
At 9.30 Saturday night we found ourselves in Major D.'s hospit- 
able home, 200 miles due north of Bangor. Fort Kent may be 
called properly a French town. It is situated on the Fish river 
(its original name), which empties into the St. John river at this 
place. Nature has done much for this section of the State. The 
scenery is fine, the air is cool, and the people seem as happy twenty- 
two miles removed from a railroad (Edmundston, on the Canada 
side, being the nearest point), telegraph, doctor or drug store as 



1 882.] Botany. 399 

those do who have all the advantages of hourly intercourse with 
the world. It is a healthy place also, and the people welcome stran- 
gers to their midst with the characteristic hospitality of the 
county. Space will not admit of the list of plants made here, 
but the more rare ones were Pyrola rotundijolia and secanda, with 
their lovely varieties; also P. minor. Vaccinia m cccspitosum, V. 
uUginosum, ( (Mr. Niles), and Pyrus sambuci- 

folia. The swamps at this place afford several orchids ; these dark, 
damp places are favorable to this family of plants. Habenaria trrbi- 
culata often grows two feet high, with leaves seven by nine 
inches ; H. viridis also very large. H. obtasata arid Listera con- 
vallarioides abound here. It is hard work to procure them, re- 
quiring many a tumble and scratch, and the thought must often 
come to the mind of the most practical, Does it pay ? Why all 
this toil for "weeds" which haw: little beauty save to the eye of 
the botanist? Yes, it does pay; our natures evermore grow 
young among the primitive pines. The scenery is wild and the 
silence oppressive. Some of the swamps seem like ponds filled 
with trees ; the fallen ones often form pens, and how to get along, 
though armed to the teeth with waterproof and rubber boots, one 
does not know always. Suffice it to say that people who care to 
visit such places find their way out of them feeling well paid for 
the trouble. It is interesting to trace the outlines of large trees 
in the primitive woods. Some have a little bark left, while in 
other cases there is merely an outline of green or brownish dust. 
"How old are you?" I asked, half frightened at the sound of 
my own voice. I did not see a snake either year, and the squir- 
rels and birds did not seem startled, as they do elsewhere. There 
are but few flowers in the pathless woods ; many a' hard day's 
work was lost in search of plants in the primitive forests, but in 
the " clearings " they are more abundant. The banks of the 
rivers and ponds furnish more still. St. Francis, 18 miles further 
up the St. John river, afforded me a white form of Pranas Penn- 
sylvania, Rh 1 helioscopia, Pokntilla 
jrigida, Gcntiana Andrc:csa,' Juncns Vascyi, Grafhcphorum mcii- 
coidis, and Triticum repens. The small islands in this neighbor- 
hood are rich in interesting work. On the way " out" in Septem- 
ber I gathered Goodycra Menziesii and Botnchinm ianccolatnm ; 
at another place B. simplex was abundant, and at Houlton Lappa 
officinalis vars. major and tomentosa. The former grows five feet 
liigh and the lowest leaves often measure more than 18 inches 
across. These are but few of the many interesting plants which 
grow in this fascinating county. Go and sec— Kate Furbish. 
. Botanical Notes.— J. C. Arthur in Vol. m of the Proceed- 
ings of the Davenport Academv of Sciences, publishes " Con- 
tributions to the Flora of Iowa, No. iv," in which he adds 
[orty-three native and six introduced species to his previous 
lists. Descriptions are given of such as are not found in Gray's 



400 General Notes. [May, 

Manual, viz: Artemisia serrata Nutt, Scnceio lugens, Rich., 
var. Hookeri Eaton, Plantago Rugelii Decaisne, Gerardia ten- 
uifolia Vahl., var. macrophylta Benth., Cuscuta Gronovii Wild.. 
var. latifolia Engelm., Polygonum Muhlenbergii Watson, Am- 

tida purpurea Nutt. F. A. Mansfield has compiled a list of 

plants (137 species and varieties) "discovered in Maine, chiefly 
since the publication in 1868 of the ' Portland Catalogue of Maine 

Plants."' N. L. Britton has issued a circular of "Notes" 

for the guidance of those who have the " Preliminary Catalogue 
of the Vlora of New Jersey." Attention is directed to many 
doubtful natives, and difficult species, and also to the common 

names of plants. " The Index to the genus Carex of Gray's 

Manual," by Jos. F. James, issued as an extra in the Bo- 
tanical Gazette, will prove very useful to all students of that 
large genus. The list of New Mexico and Arizona plants col- 
lected by H. H. Rusby, contains many interesting species. Sets 
of these are offered for sale by the collector at Franklin, N. J. 

The February numbers of our botanical journals are full of 

interest. N. L. Britton in the Torrey Bulletin describes and fig- 
ures (three fine colored plates) a new hybrid oak, between Quercut 
Phellos and Q. nigra, and which he names Q. Rudkini. E. L. 
Greene describes six new Compositae, mostly Californian ; J. B. 
Ellis describes sixteen new species of fungi mostly from New 
Jersey ; and G. E. Davenport contributes interesting " Fern 
Notes," in which he gives reasons' for suspecting Asplenium 
ebenoides to be a hybrid between Camptosorus rJiizophyllus and 

Asplenium ebencum. Dr. Engleman's " Notes on Yucca," in 

the Botanical Gazette include the description of a new species, 
Y. elata, from the deserts of Arizona. L. M. Underwood brings 
together in an alphabetically arranged catalogue the genera and 
species of North American Hepaticae. It includes forty-nine 

genera, 219 species and seventeen varieties. In Jos. F.James's 

paper on " The Variability of the Acorns of Quercus macrocarpa, 
in the Jour. Cinn. Soc. Nat. Hist, the author brings out to 
a remarkable degree the variable character of the acorn of our 
common bur-oak. "There are all gradations from no fringe at 
all on the cup, to one which has a fringe half an inch long. The 
cups are shallow to deep, thick to thin, extending half way up the 
acorn, reaching to its apex, or almost entirely concealing it. 
Eight figures accompany the paper. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Note ox the Geographical Distribution of certain Mol- 
lusks.— The occasion for this note arises from a brief review of 
Professor A. G. Wetherby's paper " On the Geographical Distri- 
bution of certain Fresh-water Mollusks of North America, and 
the probable causes of their variation," in this journal, March, 
1882, page 231. The entire paragraph reads, " The Strepoma- 



F882.J Zoology. 401 

tidoe first appear in New York, and are almost confined to the 
district occupied by the Unionidae just mentioned. They do not 
cross the Mississippi, and are chiefly found in mountain streams." 
Now, this last statement, " they do not cross the Mississippi," 
does injustice to what Professor Wetherby really states in the 
paper reviewed, and does violence to the facts in the case. The 
statement made by the author reviewed is " This fauna [Fauna CJ 
has a very limited distribution of genera and species west of the 
Mississippi * * ." (See Am. Jour, of Sciences, March, 1882, 
page 207.) Mr. Tryon, in his generally excellent monograph of 
the Strepomatidas published as No. 253 of the Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections (1873), made the same statement the writer 
in the Naturalist made, but with reference solely to the Trypa- 
nostomoid division of that family; he recognizes the occurrence 
of Goniobasis in various streams west of the Mississippi and trib- 
utary to it, and also the few forms of doubtful generic relationship 
from California and Oregon (Op. Cit.,pp. xxxviii, xl, xli, xlvii, 
and xlviii). Of the genus Goniobasis there are seven forms 
from west of the Mississippi exclusive of those found on 
the Pacific slope. They are Gon. cubicoides Gon. potosiensis, 
Gon. sordida, Gon. lirescens, Gon. ovoidea, Gon. haleiana, and 
Gon. alexandrensis. I am not aware that Gon. cubicoides Anth. 
has been hitherto reported from any other habitat than Indiana; 
but the specimens to which reference is here made can be referred 
only to that species, with any degree of certainty. I obtained 
them from the Middle Raccoon river, Dallas county, Iowa, and 
have distributed them among some of my correspondents with 
labels as above. Of Trypanosoma, one species at least occurs 
west of the Mississippi — the Try.subulara Lea — which I desire to 
place on record here. Several hundred specimens were taken 
from the Des Moines river, at Fort Dodge, Webster county, 
Iowa, by the writer, many of which have likewise been distributed. 
They occur further to the westward, since five species of this 
family are accredited to Nebraska by Professor Aughey (Sketches 
of the Physical Geography and Geology of Nebraska, page 144), 
but specific names are not given ; these latter, however, may be 
found in Bulletin U. S. Geological Survey, Vol. in, No. 3, to 
which I have not access at this writing. The streams of the 
western slope of the great basin of the Mississippi have not yet been 
examined with sufficient care to justify any statement as to their 
wealth in Strepotnatida, but such evidence as is now accessible 
Points to the conclusions reached by Professor Wetherby. 

In the paper by Professor Wetherby (Am. Jour of Science, 
March, 1882, p. 208), occurs a most singular error in a matter of 
fact, which would seem to have an important bearing on the par- 
ticular theme in connection with which the statement is made. 
Referring to the somewhat anomalous distribution of Matgaritana 
nargaritifera Linne, he states that the species is found " in Maine 



402 General Notes. - [May, 

and Oregon, but not between these stations so far as now known." 
s that remarkable species too narrow a limit 



by many thousands ot ujuavt aides. In 1843 appeared Vol. v of 
Part 1 (Zoology of New York), by James E. DeKay, in which, p. 
197 (Plate xiv, Fig. 214), is given a description of this shell with 
the name Alasmodon arcuata ; De Kay quotes it as " one of the 
largest and most commonest of our Unios," and states his speci- 
mens were from Rockland countv, Champlain, Oneida and many 
other localities. Dr. Lewis (Bull. Buf. Soc. Nat. Sci., August, 
1874, page 141) lists it among the shells of New York, as "re- 
ported orally, localities not known." I have five examples from 
a brook at Haydensville, Mass., and over ioofrom a branch of the 
Connecticut river, near Hartland, Vermont, where it abounds. 
Beyond Maine the species is reported from various points in New 
Brunswick, and even from Newfoundland. Of its distribution in 
the western portions of America the following facts are known : 
" It is the most abundant of the fresh-water bivalves, and the only 
one I have been able to find in the Chehalis, the streams empty- 
ing into Puget sound, and most branches of the Columbia" 
(Cooper, Pacific R. R. Reports, Vol. xn, Pt. 11, page 311). It is 
also quoted from the Shasta river, Oregon, having been collected 
in that stream by Dr. Trask, and from the Klamath and Yuba. It 
is known to the eastward among the Rocky mountains, specimens 
having been taken from the Missouri river above the Falls ; also 
from the Spokan river, below Lake Cceur d'Alene (Carpenter, 
Mollusks of west coast of North America, page 116). Concern- 
ing the conclusions drawn from this species, I am not prepared at 
this time to say anything. But to fix as a fact the important de- 
duction that this form and the others mentioned in connection 
therewith are " remnants " of another fauna which has suffered 
such remarkable changes as incidental to glaciation is a matter 
which will yet require a vast amount of labor and research. The 

pend on it, should be determined. It is believed that in this note 
all the known points of its occurrence in America have been, for 
the first time, brought together. — R. Ellsworth Call. 

The European House Sparrow. — Passer domesticus has its 
place in nature, possibly monarchical Europe, and monarchical in- 
dividuals in other places can overestimate their worth, but in 
America they are out of place, and their introduction was a 
grievous mistake. Its disposition is very far from being republi- 
can, and its treatment of some of our native birds, which are of 
much more value than themselves, is tyrannical and despotic. 
Quarrelsome with and pugnacious towards the swallows, martins, 
wrens and bluebirds they take by force the houses put up 
especially for their use. Thanks for the love of liberty, right and 
justice, the swallow, martin, wren or bluebird having possession 
of the house can, and usually does succeed in keeping it against 



1 88 2.] Zoology. 403 

the attack of a single pair of sparrows, but often, this pair, unsuc- 
cessful in their house-breaking attempt, go off and solicit the aid 
of their fellows, and return with a dozen or twenty of their kind, 
lay siege to the place, and by united effort lake it, after the rightful 
occupants have made a desperate defence against enormous odds. 

It may be only a coincidence — it is a fact, however, that as the 
sparrows have increased in numbers, the purple martins, Prognt 
purpurea, have decreased in this locality. 

The sparrows are essentially gramnivorous and frugivorous, and 
are not insectivorous in the legitimate use of the term. They are 
very destructive to garden and flower seeds, the small grains, and 
no species of fruit is free from their depredations. They are more 
dirty around the house than any of our native, social birds, drop- 
ping en masse their excrements about the door. I presume they 
have their good qualities. I cannot agree with Mr. Minot when 
he says of the purple grackles that he " would not hesitate to 
sign the death warrant of the whole race." but I would not hesi- 
tate to sign a warrant to banish the house sparrow from the 
United States to the place from which they came, and furnish a 
liberal supply of good food and clean water for the voyage. — 
Elisha Slade, Somerset, Mass. 

The Opossum at Elmira, N. Y. — Some five years since Mr. 
H. C. Hill, of Norristown, Pa., where opossums are plenty, sent a 
female with eleven young, to Dr. Wilder at Ithaca. 

Not altogether liking the Doctor's methods, and perhaps 
having doubts as to his intentions, they all made their escape and 
disappeared. 

This may perhaps account for the one captured near Elmira, 
mentioned in the Naturalist.— Franklin C. Hill. 

A Large Octopus on the Florida Coast.— I have in my 
possession an Octopus, caught in the Halifax river one mile inland 
from the sea, which weighed when caught two and a half pounds, 
measured from tip to tip of extended arms diagonally across the 
head twenty eight inches, longest arc 
hundred and ninety-eight su< " 
eighty-seven suckers, other a._„ 
and fifteen inches in length ; one arm was broken in its capture. 
—Mrs. A, Hasty, X w Swy/ 'ia, Florida. 

Japanese Aquatic Animals Living on Land.— Among the 
conditions favorable to the transition from aquatic to terrestrial 
life, says Professor C. O. Whitman in his " Zoology in the Uni- 
versity of Tokio," is a saturated atmosphere. This condition is 
found in Japan, and it is here that we find some very interesting 
cases of true aquatic animals living on land. Every one knows 
that the medicinal leech is a fresh-water animal. This leech has 
the habit of crawling partly or wholly out of water, when the air 
1S so saturate at it can do so without exposing 



404 General Notes. L^ay, 

its skin to dcssication. The question naturally arises, could such 
a creature ever become habituated to living on land ? When we 
remember that the skin of the leech performs the function of lungs, 
and that, provided it is kept wet, it is capable of drawing its sup- 
ply of oxygen from moist air, there is no difficulty in understand- 
ing how such a change might be induced. Experiment has 
already shown that some water-breathing animals can without 
difficulty become air-breathers. The Mexican axolotl is a well 
known instance, and the Lymnseidae which belong to the deep 
water fauna of the Lake of Geneva form another. Nature herself 
supplies us with numerous examples in which such a change is a 
normal occurrence in the animal's cycle of life. No one has un- 
dertaken to test the matter in the case of the leech ; but there is 
every reason to believe that nature has made this experiment, and 
that the land-leech found on the mountains of this island, and in 
some other parts of the world, is a living demonstration of her 
success. In this country the land-leech is found near the tops of 
mountains, in dense thickets, where the ground is carpeted with 
moss and other low plants. During the dryest months of sum- 
mer, these localities are kept moist by mists and showers. The 
structure of the leech has been modified to some extent in accom- 
modation to its pre.sent mode of life, but this modification is in 
every particular one of adaptation. Not an organ has been lost or 
acquired, certain organs have been compelled to do more work in 
the land-leech than they do in the common leech, and the natural 
result has been multiplication and enlargement. The skin-glands 
have become larger and more numerous, and the urinary vesicles 
have expanded into bladder-like reservoirs. The liquid secretions 
of these organs supply any deficiency of water in the air, enabling 
the leech to keep its dermal respiratory organ constantly moist. 

The land planarian forms also are interesting examples of the 
kind here considered. This worm, which creeps about in damp 
weather, somewhat like a slug, is abundant in this island, and in 
many of the islands to the south. It has a wider distribution than 
the land-leech, being found in nearly all temperate and tropical 
zones, not only on islands, but also on the continents, where the 
moisture of island atmosphere prevails. 

There is another very remarkable case, allied in some respects 
to those just mentioned. What could seem more out of place 
than a fish on land! It would seem that fishes are especially 
adapted to live exclusively in water. In providing the fish with 
fins, and with a respiratory organ in the form of gills, nature 
seems to have decreed that one class of animals should have a 
place and keep it. But all her devices to keep certain members 
of the finny tribe within the prescribed medium have failed. 
Among those remarkable fishes 'which have succeeded in over- 
coming every obstacle to living out of water, at least one very in- 
teresting species occurs on the coasts of Japan. This is the 



1 832.] Zoology. 405 

jumping- fish ( Pcriophthalmus modtstus Siebold), or the " Tobi- 
haze" as the Japanese call it. This fish is more truly amphibious 
than the frog, for it is able to change the mode of its respiration 
at pleasure, breathing water and air alternately. It is accustomed 
to spend a great part of the time out of water, and actually ap- 
pears to prefer the air to water. If one attempts to capture it, it 
rarely, if ever, plunges into the water, but skips along the surface. 
It can climb up the steep sides of rocks or plants, and jumps along 
the shore in quest of insects and other small animals, with the 
agility of a frog. When out of water, it puffs up the cheeks with 
air, which is held for a short time and then renewed. 

Zones of Life in the Ocean.— Mr. A. Agassiz, in the third 
volume of the report of the scientific results of the voyage of the 
Chaili nger, recognizes three beltsor zones of life from shore to the 
greatest ocean depths. The following extract is taken from the 
Harvard University Bulletin No. 21. '" The discovery by Count 
Pourtales, in his first dredgings off the Florida reefs, of ancient 
forms closely resembling types and genera characteristic of the 
chalk, first suggested the probability of the theories which looked 
upon the oceanic basins as of very ancient origin, and of their 
having retained practically unchanged the limits they now occupy 
from the time of the later Jurassic period. This ancient fades of 
many of the deep-sea Echini has also been traced in other groups 
of the animal kingdom. Professor Alph. Milne Edwards, in some 
of his preliminary reports on the Crustacea of the Blake calls 
special attention to the resemblance of some of the deep-sea types 
to the Jurassic and Cretaceous forms. 

"In making a comparison of the bathymetrical belts, Mr. 
Agassiz has found it convenient to recognize three such belts 
which are mainly dependent for their characteristics on their tem- 
perature; pressure, representing great depth, apparently being a 
very unimportant element in the distribution of the species. 

"The first belt, the littoral, extending from low- water mark to 
a depth of about 100-150 this., represents what is usually known 
as the continental line (the J 00 fm. line). It is the plateau which 
is found to represent the extension of the coast line to a depth at 
which the influence of the direct action of the sun's heat is limited. 
The next or " continental belt," extends from this continental line 
to a depth of 450-500 fms., and represents the steep slope which 
has been subject to greater or less disturbance during the forma- 
tion of the shore deposits and of the continental plateaus while 
they were ass their presenl outlines; it repre- 

sents also the bathymetricai belt, in which the diminution of tem- 
perature is very rapid, the third belt, the abvssal region, extends 
from the continental limit to the greatest depths which have thus 
far been obtained. This re-ion embraces the great oceanic floors 
Where life is somewhat less" abundant than along the continental 
belt, where the detritus earned to it- slope supplies abundant food to 



406 General Notes. [May, 

the animals living within its limits. It is also a region in which the 
temperature is very low, where it varies but little from the freezing 
point, and where the conditions under which the animals now living 
there have probably remained undisturbed for a considerable 
period of time, geologically speaking. It is in this abyssal region 
that we find the greatest number of forms having an ancient 
fades. In the continental belt they are less numerous, and their 
resemblance is more with the types of the later geological 

Steller's Manatee.— In his "Voyage of the Vega," Baron Nor- 
denskjold has collected all information attainable on Steller's sea- 
cow (Rhythm Stelieri), which on Steller's visit to Bering island 
in 1 74 1, was found pasturing in large herds on the abundant sea- 
weeds on the shores of the island. Twenty-seven years after, not 
a specimen was to be found, and it was believed to be then ex- 
tinct. But Baron Nordenskjold adduces evidence to prove that a 
specimen was seen twenty-seven years ago, though there can be 
little doubt that it has really gone the way of the mammoth. The 
Baron does not believe that its extinction is due to the destruc- 
tion by hunters, but that it was a survival from a past age doomed 
to extinction, which oveitook it when driven from its pastures on 
the shores of Bering island. 

Steller's sea-cow (Rhytina Stelieri Cuvier) in a way took the 
place of the cloven-footed animals among the marine mammalia. 
The sea-cow was of a dark-brown color, sometime varied with 
white spots or streaks. The thick leathery skin was covered with 
hair which grew together so as to form an exterior skin, which 
was full of vermin and resembled the bark of an old oak. The 
full-grown animal was from twenty-five to thirty-eight English 
feet in length and weighed about sixty-seven cwt. The head was 
small in proportion to the large thick body, the neck short, the 
body diminishing rapidly behind. The short foreleg terminated 
abruptly without fingers or nails, but was overgrown with a num- 
ber of short thickly placed brush-hairs; the hind-leg w,as replaced 
by a tail-fin resembling a whale's. The animals wanted teeth, but 
was instead provided with two masticating plates, one in the gum, 
the other in the under jaw. The udders of the female, which 
abounded in milk, were placed between the fore-limbs. The flesh 
and milk resembled those of horned cattle, indeed in Steller's 
opinion surpassed them. The sea-cows were almost constantly 
employed in pasturing on the sea- weed which grew luxuriantly 
on the coast, moving the head and neck while so doing much in 
the same way as an ox. While they pastured they showed great 
voracity, and did not allow themselves to be disturbed in the least 
by the presence of man. One might even touch them without 
their being frightened or disturbed. They entertained great 
attachment to each other, and when one was harpooned the others 
made incredible attempts to rescue it. 



ions for 
the rapid prepara 
copy his abstract: i. Maceration'in alum during dissection ; 2. Wash 
with pure water; 3. Tint with carmine; 4. Fix the carmine with 
alum; 5. Maceration in phenicized glycerine; 6. Suppression of 
the excess of glycerine by compression between absorbent paper. ■ 
The article is published in full in the Proceedings of the French 

Association for the Advancement of Science, 1880. Professor 

B. G. Wilder has published in the Proceedings of the American 
Philosophical Society the anatomy of the brain of the cat, accom- 
panied by numerous figures. Professor Owen lately read a 

paper before the Linnean Society on the homology of the conario- 
hypophysial tract, or the so-called pineal and pituitary glands. 
He propounds the view that it is the modified homologue of the 
mouth and gullet of invertebrates; that the subcesophageal ganglia 
and succeeding nervous cord constitute the centers whence are 
derived and caudally continued the homologues of the verte- 
brate myelon. Mr. W. A. Forbes exhibited at a late meet- 
ing of the London Zoological Society horns of the prong- 
horned antelope ( Antilocapra americaua) lately shed by the speci- 
men living in the society's garden. This was, it is believed, the 
first instance on record of the same individual having shed its 
horns in captivity in two consecutive years. He also read a paper 
on the existence of a gall bladder in barbets and toucans. From 
the peculiar form of\he gall bladder in these birds, as well as 
other features of their myology which he describes, the rela- 
tionship of these birds to the woodpeckers becomes still more 
evident than previously stated by Nitzsch, Kessler, Garrod and 

others. -The last number of the Memoirs of the Boston Society 

of Natural History contains descriptions, with excellent figures on 
three plates, of new Hyc* roids from Chesapeake bay, by Professor 
S. F. Clarke. A new genus ( Calyptospadix cerulca, n. sp.), is de- 
scribed. The most interesting of the 'six forms is Stylactis argc, 
"which has the remarkable habit of dividing its hydranths by a 
transverse partition, leaving the distal half free, which latter, with 
>ts two or three hydrorhizal processes that are developed before 
the division takes place, floats away free, being carried about 
by currents; finally it settles down, becomes attached, and 
oy growth and budding gives rise to a new colony. It is 
another method in which the Hydroids are already so rich, by 
virtue of which they increase their numbers and their geographi- 
cal distribution." The Peabody Academy of Sciences has 

resumed the issue of its Memoirs. Vol. I. No. 5. is devoted to 
Contributions to the Anatomy of Holothurians, by Mr. J. S. 
Kingsley; and No. 6 to Mr. J. W. Fevvkes' development of the 
gluteus of Arbacia, which differs in certain details from that of 

Echinocidaris as worked out by J. Muller. At a recent meet- 

,n g of the Linnean Society of London, Professor Cobbold exhib- 



408 General Notes. [May, 

ited a large Guinea worm taken from a pony, in Madras. Only 
one previous instance of the occurrence of this parasite in the 
horse has been mentioned, and its authenticity has been doubted. 

Kossman in Zoologischer Anseiger states that the Entoniscus, 

a parasite Isopod, is an endoparasite ; these Isopods are usually 

external parasites. C. P. Sluiter in the same journal describes the 

segmental organs in certain Sipunculidae from Malaysia Far- 
ther additions to our knowledge of the fishes of Lower California 
and the Gulf of California are recorded in the Proceedings of the 

U. S. National Museum by Messrs. Jordan and Gilberts 

Another paper of value in the same serial is that of Mr. Dall on 
the genera of Chitons, especially the fossil forms. An elabor- 
ate account of the structure and development of the gar pike by 
Messrs. Balfour and Parker, read before the Royal Society, is re- 
ported in Nature. As regards the skull the authors say that its 
morphology cannot be understood " unless it be seen in the light 
derived from that of the Elasmobranchs, the sturgeon, and the anur- 
ous larva on one hand, and that of Amia calva and the Teleostei 
on the other. P. Geddes gives in Nature an abstract of an im- 
portant paper on animals containing chlorophyll, such as Spon- 
gilla, Hydra, and certain Planarians, while others as Actinia, &c, 
contain chlorophyll originating from minute algae which he calls 
rhilo:,oo)i, which inhabit these animals. The same discovery was 
recently published by Dr. Brandt, so that both observers inde- 
pendently arrive at nearly the same conclusions, M. Geddes, how- 
ever, differing in some important particulars. 
ENTOMOLOGY. 1 

Carnivorous Habits of Microcentrus retinervis. — I noted 
a circumstance on Sunday, October 23, which to me was very in- 
teresting. On what is called Mill island, in the Mississippi, two 
miles above Burlington, there are a number of burr oaks clus- 
tered on the extreme point of the island. The trunks were cov- 
ered with thousands of Mi gilt 'a metadata Deg. A large number 
of Locustidae, I think Mieroceutrus retinervis (as near as I can 
determine them), were apparently feeding upon the beetles. It 
was so much aside from the habits of the Locustidae, as I 
thought them to be strictly herbivorous, that I watched them 
very closely. They seized the beetles with their front legs, 
holding them in the same manner as a squirrel its food, and kept 
biting until the wing covers were broken through, then masticated 
the abdomen. I took a number of fragments of the beetles as 
they were cast off, so I could not be deceived.—//. G. Griffith, 
>/, Ioiua. 

Note on the First Insect from Wrangell Island.— Dr. I 
C. Rosse, of the Convin, has given me a small spider and a dried 



1 8 3 2 .] Entomology. 409 

larva, which he picked up during a short visit of the Corwin to 
Wrangell island. .As the officers of the Corwin were the first per- 
sons ever known to have landed upon this island, it is probable 
that these are the first insects from that locality, and it may there- 
fore be interesting to note that the spider has been identified by 
Mr. Geo. Marx, of the Department of Agriculture, as " an- un- 
described species of Brig-one," the larva being probably lepidop- 
terous.but in too poor condition for determination. — J. II. Kidder, 
Washington, February 6th, 1882. 

Lichtenstein's Theory as to Dimorphic, asexual Females.— 
The translation into French by our friend, M. Jules Lichten- 
stein, of Dr. Adler's renowned paper on Dimorphism in Cyni- 
pidae will be very welcome to all those who do not understand 
the German language, especially as the original and admirable 
plates are reproduced. We have already noticed Adler's dis- 
coveries. In the preface to the translation which Lichtenstein 
gives, is a very amusing illustration of the insufficient and 
misleading nature of his theory regarding the evolution of the 
Aphididae, where he insists on calling the winged females larva, 
and their eggs pupa, since he carries the analogy into the Cyni- 
pidae, and would call the asexual females larvae. Ke draws what 
he conceives to be proof of the correctness of his theory from the 
hypermetamorphoses of the Meloidae, designating the coarctate 
larva as a pupa and implying that it shows the eyes, legs and 
jaws of the perfect insect, and yet produces instead of a perfect in- 
sect a larva like that from which it was formed. The error in 
this comparison lies in calling the fourth larval stage the pupa, 
when it has nothing to do with the pupa, but is simply a qui- 
escent larva indicating none of the members of the perfect insect. 
It is in fact, as we have called it. a coarctate larva, and the eyes, 
legs and jaws represent those of the larva and have simply be- 
come rigid, whereas those of the perfect insect, as subsequently 
foreshadowed in the true pupa, have a quiet different aspect, and 
we fail to see how this coarctate larva form can be compared with 
an asexual female Cynips any more than with a female of the bi- 
sexual generation. The translator's work is admirably done and 
he adds an instructive catalogue of the known species of Cynipi- 
dae at the end.— C. V. Riley. 

Naphthaline Cones for the protection of Insect Collec- 
tions.— Mr. C. A. Blake, of Philadelphia, has been preparing 
cones of naphthaline run around a pin so that they may be stuck 
into a box with insects and that the naphthaline may permeate 
the box and last for a considerable time. They are made after a 
formula recommended by Drs. LeConte and Horn, and are very 
convenient to handle. They gave such promise of usefulness 
that we obtained quite a lot of them and went to the trouble of 
supplying all our insect Luxes with the same. We have speeddy 



General Notes. [May, 

ind give this note of warning, especially 
rly objection- 

able, as our experience of a few weeks suffices to show that they 
very quickly encourage greasing, and soon produce a relaxed 
sordid or greasy appearance of the insects. Another objection is, 
that by deliquescence the pale chocolate color of the cones com- 
municates to, and discolors the lining of the boxes wherever it 
comes in contact therewith. They may not be so objectionable 
for Coleoptera and Hemiptera, though in many families they 
would certainly prove injurious. We much prefer the old method 
of protection, viz: the pouring in the box of a little pure benzine, ' 
or what is better, according to LeConte's formula, a mixture of l 
oz. nitro-benzole, I pint alcohol, )/ 2 oz. carbolic acid and I pint 

Injurious Insects in California. — Our California friends are 
very active in their warfare with the increasing number of their 
insect pests, and Mr. Matthew Cooke, chief executive horticultural 
and health officer, has recently sent us a neatly bound little trea- 
tise on the insects injurious to fruits and fruit trees of California, 
giving a good deal of valuable practical information which must 
be productive of great good. Mr. Cooke lays no special claim 
to entomological knowledge, and several determinations are erro- 
neous. It is doubtful, e. g, whether Cluiocawpa americana or 
Orgyia leucostigma occur on the Pacific coast, and other species 
of these genera must be intended; while the determination, as 
Ncmatus siiuHaris, of a saw-fly larva injuring pear trees is made 
without any warrant, so far as we can find, the insect which we 
have bred from cocoons sent us by Mr. Cooke, proving to be 
something quite different. These technical shortcomings do not, 
however, impair the practical value of the manual. 

danelles. — From communications by Mr. Frank Calvert to mem- 
bers of the London Entomological Society, and a report of a 
committee appointed by said society to inquire into the matter, it 
appears that Uidipoda cruaata Charp., which is the destructive 
species there, is preyed upon by parasites closely related to those 
which attack our Caloptenus sprctus, and very much in the same 
way. Two Dipterous species are worthy of note, viz., a flesh-fly, 
(Sarcophaoa lineata Fall.) and a bee-fly ( Colostoma fascipenms 
Macq.). Of the Sarcophaga, Mr. Calvert remarks : 

" I beg leave to call your particular attention